VVER

Last updated
VVER reactor class
BalakovoNPP1.jpg
View of the Balakovo Nuclear Power Plant site, with four operational VVER-1000 reactors.
Generation Generation I reactor
Generation II reactor
Generation III reactor
Generation III+ reactor
Reactor concept Pressurized water reactor
Reactor line VVER (Voda Voda Energo Reactor)
Reactor typesVVER-210
VVER-365
VVER-440
VVER-1000
VVER-1200
VVER-TOI
Main parameters of the reactor core
Fuel (fissile material) 235U (LEU)
Fuel stateSolid
Neutron energy spectrum Thermal
Primary control methodControl rods
Primary moderator Water
Primary coolantLiquid (light water)
Reactor usage
Primary useGeneration of electricity
Power (thermal)VVER-210: 760 MWth
VVER-365: 1,325 MWth
VVER-440: 1,375 MWth
VVER-1000: 3,000 MWth
VVER-1200: 3,212 MWth
VVER-TOI: 3,300 MWth
Power (electric)VVER-210: 210 MWel
VVER-365: 365 MWel
VVER-440: 440 MWel
VVER-1000: 1,000 MWel
VVER-1200: 1,200 MWel
VVER-TOI: 1,300 MWel

The water-water energetic reactor (WWER), [1] or VVER (from Russian : водо-водяной энергетический реактор; transliterates as vodo-vodyanoi energetichesky reaktor; water-water power reactor) is a series of pressurized water reactor designs originally developed in the Soviet Union, and now Russia, by OKB Gidropress. [2] The idea of such a reactor was proposed at the Kurchatov Institute by Savely Moiseevich Feinberg. VVER were originally developed before the 1970s, and have been continually updated. As a result, the name VVER is associated with a wide variety of reactor designs spanning from generation I reactors to modern generation III+ reactor designs. Power output ranges from 70 to 1300 MWe, with designs of up to 1700 MWe in development. [3] [4] The first prototype VVER-210 was built at the Novovoronezh Nuclear Power Plant.

Contents

VVER power stations have been mostly installed in Russia and the former Soviet Union, but also in China, Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Slovakia, Bulgaria, India, and Iran. Countries that are planning to introduce VVER reactors include Bangladesh, Egypt, Jordan, and Turkey.

History

The earliest VVERs were built before 1970. The VVER-440 Model V230 was the most common design, delivering 440 MW of electrical power. The V230 employs six primary coolant loops each with a horizontal steam generator. A modified version of VVER-440, Model V213, was a product of the first nuclear safety standards adopted by Soviet designers. This model includes added emergency core cooling and auxiliary feedwater systems as well as upgraded accident localization systems. [5]

The larger VVER-1000 was developed after 1975 and is a four-loop system housed in a containment-type structure with a spray steam suppression system (Emergency Core Cooling System). VVER reactor designs have been elaborated to incorporate automatic control, passive safety and containment systems associated with Western generation III reactors.

The VVER-1200 is the version currently offered for construction, being an evolution of the VVER-1000 with increased power output to about 1200 MWe (gross) and providing additional passive safety features. [6]

In 2012, Rosatom stated that in the future it intended to certify the VVER with the British and U.S. regulatory authorities, though was unlikely to apply for a British licence before 2015. [7] [8]

The construction of the first VVER-1300 (VVER-TOI) 1300 MWE unit was started in 2018. [4]

Design

A WWER-1000 (or VVER-1000 as a direct transliteration of Russian VVER-1000), a 1000 MWe Russian nuclear power reactor of PWR type.
1: control rod drives
2: reactor cover or vessel head
3: Reactor pressure vessel
4: inlet and outlet nozzles
5: reactor core barrel or core shroud
6: reactor core
7: fuel rods Wwer-1000-scheme.png
A WWER-1000 (or VVER-1000 as a direct transliteration of Russian ВВЭР-1000), a 1000 MWe Russian nuclear power reactor of PWR type.
1: control rod drives
2: reactor cover or vessel head
3: Reactor pressure vessel
4: inlet and outlet nozzles
5: reactor core barrel or core shroud
6: reactor core
7: fuel rods
The arrangement of hexahedral fuel assemblies compared to a Westinghouse PWR design. Note that there are 163 assemblies on this hexahedral arrangement and 193 on the Westinghouse arrangement. Sravnenie aktivnykh zon reaktorov.svg
The arrangement of hexahedral fuel assemblies compared to a Westinghouse PWR design. Note that there are 163 assemblies on this hexahedral arrangement and 193 on the Westinghouse arrangement.

The Russian abbreviation VVER stands for 'water-water energy reactor' (i.e. water-cooled water-moderated energy reactor). The design is a type of pressurised water reactor (PWR). The main distinguishing features of the VVER [3] compared to other PWRs are:

VVER-440 reactor hall at Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant Mochovce 2005-01-19 1.jpg
VVER-440 reactor hall at Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant

Reactor fuel rods are fully immersed in water kept at (12,5 / 15,7 / 16,2 ) MPa pressure respectively so that it does not boil at the normal (220 to over 320 °C) operating temperatures. Water in the reactor serves both as a coolant and a moderator which is an important safety feature. Should coolant circulation fail, the neutron moderation effect of the water diminishes due to increased heat which creates steam bubbles which do not moderate neutrons, thus reducing reaction intensity and compensating for loss of cooling, a condition known as negative void coefficient. Later versions of the reactors are encased in massive steel reactor pressure vessels. Fuel is low enriched (ca. 2.4–4.4% 235U) uranium dioxide (UO2) or equivalent pressed into pellets and assembled into fuel rods.

Reactivity is controlled by control rods that can be inserted into the reactor from above. These rods are made from a neutron absorbing material and, depending on depth of insertion, hinder the chain reaction. If there is an emergency, a reactor shutdown can be performed by full insertion of the control rods into the core.

Primary cooling circuits

Layout of the four primary cooling circuits and the pressurizer of a VVER-1000 VVER-1000-Stereometric.svg
Layout of the four primary cooling circuits and the pressurizer of a VVER-1000
Construction of a VVER-1000 reactor vessel at Atommash. RIAN archive 450312 Treatment of interior part of reactor frame.jpg
Construction of a VVER-1000 reactor vessel at Atommash.

As stated above, the water in the primary circuits is kept under a constant elevated pressure to avoid its boiling. Since the water transfers all the heat from the core and is irradiated, the integrity of this circuit is crucial. Four main components can be distinguished:

  1. Reactor vessel: water flows through the fuel assemblies which are heated by the nuclear chain reaction.
  2. Volume compensator (pressurizer): to keep the water under constant but controlled pressure, the volume compensator regulates the pressure by controlling the equilibrium between saturated steam and water using electrical heating and relief valves.
  3. Steam generator: in the steam generator, the heat from the primary coolant water is used to boil the water in the secondary circuit.
  4. Pump: the pump ensures the proper circulation of the water through the circuit.

To provide for the continued cooling of the reactor core in emergency situations the primary cooling is designed with redundancy.

Secondary circuit and electrical output

The secondary circuit also consists of different subsystems:

  1. Steam generator: secondary water is boiled taking heat from the primary circuit. Before entering the turbine remaining water is separated from the steam so that the steam is dry.
  2. Turbine: the expanding steam drives a turbine, which connects to an electrical generator. The turbine is split into high and low pressure sections. To boost efficiency, steam is reheated between these sections. Reactors of the VVER-1000 type deliver 1 GW of electrical power.
  3. Condenser: the steam is cooled and allowed to condense, shedding waste heat into a cooling circuit.
  4. Deaerator: removes gases from the coolant.
  5. Pump: the circulation pumps are each driven by their own small steam turbine.

To increase efficiency of the process, steam from the turbine is taken to reheat coolant before the deaerator and the steam generator. Water in this circuit is not supposed to be radioactive.

Tertiary cooling circuit and district heating

The tertiary cooling circuit is an open circuit diverting water from an outside reservoir such as a lake or river. Evaporative cooling towers, cooling basins or ponds transfer the waste heat from the generation circuit into the environment.

In most VVERs this heat can also be further used for residential and industrial heating. Operational examples of such systems are Bohunice NPP (Slovakia) supplying heat to the towns of Trnava [11] (12 km away), Leopoldov (9.5 km away), and Hlohovec (13 km away), and Temelín NPP (Czech Republic) supplying heat to Týn nad Vltavou 5 km away. Plans are made to supply heat from the Dukovany NPP to Brno (the second-largest city in the Czech Republic), covering two-thirds of its heat needs. [12]

Safety barriers

The two VVER-440 units in Loviisa, Finland have containment buildings that fulfil Western safety standards. Loviisan voimalaitos ilmasta.png
The two VVER-440 units in Loviisa, Finland have containment buildings that fulfil Western safety standards.

A typical design feature of nuclear reactors is layered safety barriers preventing escape of radioactive material. VVER reactors have three layers:

  1. Fuel rods: the hermetic Zirconium alloy (Zircaloy) cladding around the uranium oxide sintered ceramic fuel pellets provides a barrier resistant to heat and high pressure.
  2. Reactor pressure vessel wall: a massive steel shell encases the whole fuel assembly and primary coolant hermetically.
  3. Reactor building: a concrete containment building that encases the whole first circuit is strong enough to resist the pressure surge a breach in the first circuit would cause.

Compared to the RBMK reactors the type involved in the Chernobyl disaster the VVER uses an inherently safer design. It does not have the graphite-moderated RBMK's risk of a power surge transient or criticality accident. Also the RBMK power stations were constructed without containment structures on grounds of cost. [13] (Fuel elements in an RBMK can be replaced while the reactor is running at its nominal output, allowing the continuous operation and plutonium extraction compared to most pressurized water reactors like the VVER which need to be shut down to exchange fuel rod assemblies.)

Versions

VVER-440

One of the earliest versions of the VVER-type, that manifested certain problems with its Containment building-design. As it was at the beginning with the models V-230 and older not constructed to resist the design basis large pipe break, the manufacturer added with the newer model V-213 a so called Bubble condenser tower, that - with its additional volume and a number of water layers - has the aim to suppress the forces of the rapidly escaping steam without the onset of a containment-leak. As a consequence, all member-countries with plants of design VVER-440 V-230 and older were forced by the politicians of the European Union to shut them down permanently. Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant and Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant had to close with this two respectively four of their units. Whereas in the case of the Greifswald Nuclear Power Plant, the German regulatory body had already taken the same decision in the wake of the fall of the Berlin wall.

VVER-1000

Control room of a VVER-1000 in 2009, Kozloduy Unit 5 Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant - Control Room of Unit 5.jpg
Control room of a VVER-1000 in 2009, Kozloduy Unit 5

When first built the VVER design was intended to be operational for 35 years. A mid-life major overhaul including a complete replacement of critical parts such as fuel and control rod channels was thought necessary after that. [14] Since RBMK reactors specified a major replacement programme at 35 years designers originally decided this needed to happen in the VVER type as well, although they are of more robust design than the RBMK type. Most of Russia's VVER plants are now reaching and passing the 35 year mark. More recent design studies have allowed for an extension of lifetime up to 50 years with replacement of equipment. New VVERs will be nameplated with the extended lifetime.

In 2010 the oldest VVER-1000, at Novovoronezh, was shut down for modernization to extend its operating life for an additional 20 years; the first to undergo such an operating life extension. The work includes the modernization of management, protection and emergency systems, and improvement of security and radiation safety systems. [15]

In 2018 Rosatom announced it had developed a thermal annealing technique for reactor pressure vessels which ameliorates radiation damage and extends service life by between 15 and 30 years. This had been demonstrated on unit 1 of the Balakovo Nuclear Power Plant. [16]

VVER-1200

The VVER-1200 (or NPP-2006 or AES-2006) [6] is an evolution of the VVER-1000 being offered for domestic and export use. [17] [18] The reactor design has been refined to optimize fuel efficiency. Specifications include a $1,200 per kW overnight construction cost, 54 month planned construction time, a 60 year design lifetime at 90% capacity factor, and requiring about 35% fewer operational personnel than the VVER-1000. The VVER-1200 has a gross and net thermal efficiency of 37.5% and 34.8%. The VVER 1200 will produce 1,198 MWe of power. [19] [20]

The first two units have been built at Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant II and Novovoronezh Nuclear Power Plant II. More reactors with a VVER-1200/491 [21] like the Leningrad-II-design are planned (Kaliningrad and Nizhny Novgorod NPP) and under construction. The type VVER-1200/392M [22] as installed at the Novovoronezh NPP-II has also been selected for the Seversk, Zentral and South-Urals NPP. A standard version was developed as VVER-1200/513 and based on the VVER-TOI (VVER-1300/510) design.

In July 2012 a contract was agreed to build two AES-2006 in Belarus at Ostrovets and for Russia to provide a $10 billion loan to cover the project costs. [23] An AES-2006 is being bid for the Hanhikivi Nuclear Power Plant in Finland. [24]

From 2015 to 2017 Egypt and Russia came to an agreement for the construction of four VVER-1200 units at El Dabaa Nuclear Power Plant. [25]

On 30 November 2017, concrete was poured for the nuclear island basemat for first of two VVER-1200/523 units at Rooppur in Bangladesh.The Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant will be a 2.4 GWe nuclear power plant in Bangladesh.The two units generating 2.4 GWe are planned to be operational in 2023 and 2024. [26]

On 7 March 2019 China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) and Atomstroyexport signed the detailed contract for the construction of four VVER-1200s, two each at the Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant and the Xudabao Nuclear Power Plant. Construction will start in May 2021 and commercial operation of all the units is expected between 2026 and 2028. [27]

From 2020 an 18-month refuelling cycle will be piloted, resulting in an improved capacity utilisation factor compared to the previous 12-month cycle. [28]

Safety features

The nuclear part of the plant is housed in a single building acting as containment and missile shield. Besides the reactor and steam generators this includes an improved refueling machine, and the computerized reactor control systems. Likewise protected in the same building are the emergency systems, including an emergency core cooling system, emergency backup diesel power supply, and backup feed water supply,

A passive heat removal system had been added to the existing active systems in the AES-92 version of the VVER-1000 used for the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant in India. This has been retained for the newer VVER-1200 and future designs. The system is based on a cooling system and water tanks built on top of the containment dome. [29] The passive systems handle all safety functions for 24 hours, and core safety for 72 hours. [6]

Other new safety systems include aircraft crash protection, hydrogen recombiners, and a core catcher to contain the molten reactor core in the event of a severe accident. [18] [23] [30] The core catcher will be deployed in the Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant and El Dabaa Nuclear Power Plant. [31] [32]

VVER-TOI

The VVER-TOI is developed from the VVER-1200. It is aimed at development of typical optimized informative-advanced project of a new generation III+ Power Unit based on VVER technology, which meets a number of target-oriented parameters using modern information and management technologies. [33]

The main improvements from the VVER-1200 are: [4]

The construction of the first two VVER-TOI units was started in 2018 and 2019 at the Kursk II Nuclear Power Plant. [34] [4]

In June 2019 the VVER-TOI was certified as compliant with European Utility Requirements (with certain reservations) for nuclear power plants. [4]

An upgraded version of AES-2006 with TOI standards, the VVER-1200/513, is being built in Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant in Turkey. [35]

Future versions

A number of designs for future versions of the VVER have been made: [36]

Power plants

See the Wikipedia pages for each facility for sources.

Russia recently[ when? ] installed two nuclear reactors in China at the Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant, and an extension consisting of a further two reactors was just approved. This is the first time the two countries have co-operated on a nuclear power project. The reactors are the VVER 1000 type, which Russia has improved incrementally while retaining the basic design. These VVER 1000 reactors are housed in a confinement shell capable of being hit by an aircraft weighing 20 tonnes and suffering no expected damage. Other important safety features include an emergency core cooling system and core confinement system. Russia delivered initial fuel loads for the Tianwan reactors. China planned to begin indigenous fuel fabrication for the Tianwan plant in 2010, using technology transferred from Russian nuclear fuel producer TVEL. [42]

The Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant uses many third party parts. While the reactor and turbo-generators are of Russian design, the control room was designed and built by an international consortium. In this way the plant was brought to meet widely recognised safety standards; safety systems were already mostly in place but the previous monitoring of these systems did not meet international safety standards. The new VVER 1000 plant built in China has 94% of its systems automated, meaning the plant can control itself under most situations. Refueling procedures require little human intervention. Five operators are still needed in the control room.

In May 2010 Russia secured an agreement with the Turkish government to build a power plant with four VVER-1200 reactors at Akkuyu, Turkey. [43] [44] However, due to the accident experienced in Fukushima, anti-nuclear environmentalist groups heavily protested the proposed reactor at Akkuyu.[ citation needed ]

On 11 October 2011 an agreement was signed to build Belarus’ first nuclear power plant at Astravyets, using two VVER-1200/491 (AES-2006) reactors with active and passive safety systems. In July 2016, the reactor vessel for unit 1 has hit the ground during transportation, and though no damage was sustained it was decided to be replaced to allay public fears, delaying the project by a year. Unit 1 is, as of April 2020, planned to commence operation in 2020. [45]

In October 2013 the VVER-1000 (AES-92) design was selected by the Jordan Atomic Energy Commission in a competitive tender for Jordan's first twin reactor nuclear power station. [46]

In November 2015 and March 2017 Egypt signed preliminary agreements with Russian nuclear company Rosatom for a first VVER-1200 unit at El Dabaa to start operations in 2024. Discussions continue for final approval. [47] [48] [49]

2.4 GWe Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant of Bangladesh is under construction.The two units of VVER- 1200/523 generating 2.4 GWe are planned to be operational in 2023 and 2024. [50]

List of operational, planned and VVER installations under construction
Power plantCountryReactorsNotes
Akkuyu Turkey(4 × VVER-1200/513)
(AES-2006 with TOI-Standard)
Under construction.
Balakovo Russia4 × VVER-1000/320
(2 × VVER-1000/320)
Units 5 and 6 construction suspended.
Belene Bulgaria(2 × VVER-1000/466B)Suspended. [51]
Belarusian Belarus(2 × VVER-1200/491)Two VVER-1200 units operational since 2020.
Bohunice Slovakia2 × VVER-440/230
2 × VVER-440/213
Split in two plants, V-1 and V-2 with two reactors each. VVER-440/230 units at V-1 plant closed in 2006 and 2008.
Bushehr Iran1 × VVER-1000/446
(3 × VVER-1000/528)
A version of the V-320 adapted to the Bushehr site. [52] Unit 2 and 3 planned, unit 4 cancelled.
Dukovany Czech Republic4 × VVER 440/213Upgraded to 502 MW in 2009-2012.
Greifswald Germany4 × VVER-440/230
1 × VVER-440/213
(3 × VVER-440/213)
Decommissioned. Unit 6 finished, but never operated. Unit 7 and 8 construction suspended.
Kalinin Russia2 × VVER-1000/338
2 × VVER-1000/320
Hanhikivi Finland1 × VVER-1200/491Construction start expected for 2019. [53]
Khmelnytskyi Ukraine2 × VVER-1000/320
(2 × VVER-1000/392B)
Units 3 and 4 construction resume planned.
Kola Russia2 × VVER-440/230
2 × VVER-440/213
Kudankulam India2 × VVER-1000/412 (AES-92)
(4 × VVER-1000/412) (AES-92)
Unit 1 operational since 13 July 2013; Unit 2 operational since 10 July 2016. [54] Units 3,4,5 and 6 under construction.
Kozloduy Bulgaria4 × VVER-440/230
2 × VVER-1000
Older VVER-440/230 units closed 2004-2007.
Kursk II Russia1 × VVER-TOI First VVER-TOI. [34]
Leningrad II Russia(2 × VVER-1200/491) (AES-2006)The units are the prototypes of the VVER-1200/491 (AES-2006) and under construction.
Loviisa Finland2 × VVER-440/213Western control systems, clearly different containment structures. Later modified for a 496 MW output.
Metsamor Armenia2 × VVER-440/270One reactor was shut down in 1989.
Mochovce Slovakia2 × VVER-440/213
(2 × VVER-440/213)
Units 3 and 4 under construction, planned to be operational between 2020 and 2021.
Novovoronezh Russia1 x VVER-210 (V-1)
1 x VVER-365 (V-3M)
2 × VVER-440/179
1 × VVER-1000/187
All units are prototypes. Unit 1 and 2 shutdown. Unit 3 modernised in 2002. [55]
Novovoronezh II Russia1 × VVER-1200/392M (AES-2006)
(1 × VVER-1200/392M) (AES-2006)
The units are the prototypes of the VVER-1200/392M (AES-2006). Unit 2 is under construction.
Paks Hungary4 × VVER-440/213
(2 × VVER-1200/517)
Two VVER-1200 units planned.
Rheinsberg Germany1 × VVER-70 (V-2)Unit Decommisioned.
Rivne Ukraine2 × VVER-440/213
2 × VVER-1000/320
(2 × VVER-1000/320)
Units 5 and 6 planning suspended.
Rooppur Bangladesh2 × VVER- 1200/523Units 1 and 2 under construction
Rostov Russia4 × VVER-1000/320
South Ukraine Ukraine1 × VVER-1000/302
1 × VVER-1000/338
1 × VVER-1000/320
(1 × VVER-1000/320)
Unit 4 construction suspended.
Stendal Germany(4 × VVER-1000/320)All 4 units construction cancelled after Germany reunification.
Temelin Czech Republic2 × VVER-1000/320Both units upgraded to 1086 MWe, units 3 and 4 (VVER 1000) cancelled in 1989 due to change of political regime.
Tianwan China2 × VVER-1000/428 (AES-91)
2 × VVER-1000/428M (AES-91)
(2 × VVER-1200)
VVER-1200 construction starts May 2021 and March 2022
Xudabao China(2 × VVER-1200)Construction starts October 2021
Zaporizhzhia Ukraine6 × VVER-1000/320Largest nuclear power plant in Europe.

Technical specifications

SpecificationsVVER-210 [56] VVER-365VVER-440VVER-1000VVER-1200
(V-392M) [57] [58] [59]
VVER-1300 [60] [61] [62]
Thermal output, MW76013251375300032123300
Efficiency, net %25.525.729.731.735.7 [nb 1] 37.9
Vapor pressure, in 100 kPa
   in front of the turbine29.029.044.060.070.0
   in the first circuit100105125160.0165.1165.2
Water temperature, °C: 
   core coolant inlet250250269289298.2 [63] 297.2
   core coolant outlet269275300319328.6328.8
Equivalent core diameter, m2.882.882.883.12
Active core height, m2.502.502.503.503.73 [64]
Outer diameter of fuel rods, mm10.29.19.19.19.19.1
Number of fuel rods in assembly90126126312312313
Number of fuel assemblies [56] [65] 349

(312+ARK (SUZ) 37)

349

(276+ARK 73)

349 (276+ARK 73),
(312+ARK 37)  Kola
151 (109+SUZ 42),

163

163163
Uranium loading, tons3840426676-85.587.3
Average uranium enrichment, %2.03.03.54.264.69
Average fuel burnup, MW · day / kg13.027.028.648.455.5

Classification

VVER models and installations [66]
GenerationNameModelCountryPower plants
I VVERV-210 (V-1) [67] RussiaNovovoronezh 1 (decommissioned)
V-70 (V-2) [68] East Germany Rheinsberg (KKR) (decommissioned)[ citation needed ]
V-365 (V-3M)RussiaNovovoronezh 2 (decommissioned)
II VVER-440V-179RussiaNovovoronezh 3-4
V-230RussiaKola 1-2
East Germany Greifswald 1-4 (decommissioned)
BulgariaKozloduy 1-4 (decommissioned)
SlovakiaBohunice I 1-2 (decommissioned)
V-213RussiaKola 3-4
East Germany Greifswald 5 (decommissioned)
UkraineRovno 1-2
HungaryPaks 1-4
Czech RepublicDukovany 1-4
FinlandLoviisa 1-2
SlovakiaBohunice II 1-2
Mochovce 1-2
V-213+SlovakiaMochovce 3-4 (under construction)
V-270ArmeniaArmenian-1 (decommissioned)
Armenian-2
III VVER-1000V-187RussiaNovovoronezh 5
V-302UkraineSouth Ukraine 1
V-338UkraineSouth Ukraine 2
RussiaKalinin 1-2
V-320RussiaBalakovo 1-4
Kalinin 3-4
Rostov 1-4
UkraineRovno 3-4
Zaporozhe 1-6
Khmelnitski 1-2
South Ukraine 3
BulgariaKozloduy 5-6
Czech RepublicTemelin 1-2
V-428ChinaTianwan 1-2
V-428MChinaTianwan 3-4
V-412IndiaKudankulam 1-2
Kudankulam 3-4 (under construction)
V-446IranBushehr 1
III+ VVER-1000V-528IranBushehr 2 (under construction)
VVER-1200V-392MRussiaNovovoronezh II 1-2
V-491RussiaBaltic 1-2 (construction frozen)
Leningrad II 1
Leningrad II 2
BelarusBelarus 1-2 (under construction)
V-509TurkeyAkkuyu 1-2 (under construction)
V-523BangladeshRuppur 1-2 (under construction)
VVER-1300 V-510KRussiaKursk II 1-2 (under construction)

See also

Notes

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Russia is one of the world's largest producers of nuclear energy. In 2020 total electricity generated in nuclear power plants in Russia was 215.746 TWh, 20.28% of all power generation. The installed gross capacity of Russian nuclear reactors is 29.4 GW in December 2020.

Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant RBMK and VVER nuclear power plant in Sosnovy Bor, Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant is a nuclear power plant located in the town of Sosnovy Bor in Russia's Leningrad Oblast, on the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland, some 70 kilometres (43 mi) to the west of the city centre of Saint Petersburg.

Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant

The Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant is a nuclear power plant located between the towns of Nitra and Levice, on the site of the former village of Mochovce, Slovakia. Two up-rated 470 MW reactors are presently in operation, with two further reactors of the same type under construction. Generating almost 7,000 GWh of electricity a year, the power plant currently serves approximately 20% of Slovakia's electricity needs.

Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant

Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant is a nuclear power plant (NPP) in the city of Lianyungang in Jiangsu Province, China. It is located on the coast of the Yellow Sea approximately 30 kilometers east of Lianyungang proper. It is co-owned by Jiangsu Nuclear Power Corporation, a joint venture partially owned by the China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC), and Atomstroyexport (ASE), the nuclear equipment exporter branch of the Russian nuclear corporation Rosatom.

Novovoronezh Nuclear Power Plant II Nuclear power plant in Russia

Novovoronezh Nuclear Power Plant II is a Russian nuclear power plant with two 1200 MW pressurized water reactors (VVER) located in Voronezh Oblast. The power plant is built on the same site as the present Novovoronezh Nuclear Power Plant.

The Kaliningrad Nuclear Power Plant is a nuclear power plant under construction 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) south-east of Neman, in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia. It is seen as a counter-project to the plan to build the Visaginas nuclear power plant in Lithuania and is considered not only as an energy, but also as a geopolitical project. In June 2013 the construction was temporarily stopped for the project to be redesigned.

Core catcher

A core catcher is a device provided to catch the molten core material (corium) of a nuclear reactor in case of a nuclear meltdown and prevent it from escaping the containment building.

VVER-TOI Russian nuclear reactor design

The VVER-TOI or WWER-TOI is a generation III+ nuclear power reactor based on VVER technology developed by Rosatom. The VVER-TOI design is intended to improve the competitiveness of Russian VVER technology in international markets. It would use VVER-1300/510 water pressurized reactors constructed to meet modern nuclear and radiation safety requirements.

The BN-800 reactor is a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor, built at the Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Station, in Zarechny, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia. The reactor is designed to generate 880 MW of electrical power. The plant was considered part of the weapons-grade Plutonium Management and Disposition Agreement signed between the United States and Russia, with the reactor being part of the final step for a plutonium-burner core. The plant reached its full power production in August, 2016. According to Russian business journal Kommersant, the BN-800 project cost 140.6 billion rubles.

BN-1200 reactor Fast breeder nuclear reactor under development in Russia

The BN-1200 reactor is a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor project, under development by OKBM Afrikantov in Zarechny, Russia. The BN-1200 is based on the earlier BN-600 and especially BN-800, with which it shares a number of features. The reactor's name comes from its electrical output, nominally 1220 MWe.

The Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant will be a 2.4 GWe nuclear power plant in Bangladesh. The nuclear power plant is being constructed at Rooppur (Ruppur), adjoining Paksey, in the Ishwardi Upazila of Pabna District, on the bank of the river Padma, 87 miles (140 km) west of Dhaka, in the northwest of the country. It will be the country's first nuclear power plant, and the first of two units are expected to go into operation in 2023. The VVER-1200/523 Nuclear reactor and critical infrastructure are being built by the Russian Rosatom State Atomic Energy Corporation. "Non-critical" infrastructure is being built by Bangladeshi and Indian construction companies such as the MAX Group of Bangladesh and the Hindustan Construction Company of India.

The Nuclear Power Plants Authority is an Egyptian public economic authority of a special nature affiliated to the Ministry of Electricity and Renewable Energy

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