Location of Van Province in Turkey
|Region||Central East Anatolia|
|• Electoral district||Van|
|• Governor||Mehmet Emin Bilmez|
|• Total||19,069 km2 (7,363 sq mi)|
|• Density||60/km2 (160/sq mi)|
Van Province (Turkish : Van ili, Kurdish : Parezgêha Wanê, Armenian: Վանի մարզ) is a province in eastern Turkey, between Lake Van and the Iranian border. It is 19,069 km2 in area and had a population of 1,035,418 at the end of 2010. Its adjacent provinces are Bitlis to the west, Siirt to the southwest, Şırnak and Hakkâri to the south, and Ağrı to the north. The capital of the province is the city of Van. The province is considered part of Western Armenia by Armenians and was part of ancient province of Vaspurakan, the region is considered to be the cradle of Armenian civilization. Before Armenian genocide, Van Province was part of six Armenian vilayets. Modern day majority of the province's population is Kurdish. The current Governor is Mehmet Emin Bilmez.
The province is mainly populated by Kurds and considered part of Turkish Kurdistan.The province had a significant Armenian population until the genocide in 1915.
In the 1881-1882 Ottoman census, Van Sanjak had a population of 113,964 of which 52.1% was Armenian and 47.9% Muslim. In the 1914 census, the sanjak had a population of 172,171 of which 63.6% was Muslim and 35.7% Armenian. The remaining population was Nestorian Assyrians at 0.5% and Chaldean Assyrians at 0.2%. In the first Turkish census in 1927, Kurdish was the most-spoken first language in Van Province (which included Hakkari Province until 1945) at 76.6% while Turkish remained the second most-spoken first language at 23.1%. Other languages enumerated included Hebrew at 0.2% and Arabic at 0.1%. In the same census, Muslims comprised 99.8% of the population and the remaining 0.2% being Jews. In the subsequent census in 1935, Kurdish stood at 72.4% and Turkish at 27.2%. Other smaller languages included Circassian at 0.2%, Hebrew at 0.1%, Arabic at 0.1%. In regards to religion, Muslims remained the largest denomination at 99.8%, Jews stood at 0.1% and Christians at 0.1%. In 1945, Kurdish stood at 59.9% and Turkish at 39.6%, while 99.9% of the population was Muslim. In 1955, Kurdish and Turkish remained the two most spoken languages at 66.4% and 33.1%, respectively.
This area was the heartland of Armenians, who lived in these areas from the time of Hayk in the 3rd millennium BCE right up to the late 19th century when the Ottoman Empire seized all the land from the natives.In the 9th century BC the Van area was the center of the Urartian kingdom. The area was a major Armenian population center. The region came under the control of the Armenian Orontids in the 7th century BC and later Persians in the mid-6th century BC. By the early 2nd century BC it was part of the Kingdom of Armenia. It became an important center during the reign of the Armenian king, Tigranes II, who founded the city of Tigranakert in the 1st century BC. With the Seljuq victory at the Battle of Malazgirt in 1071, just north of Lake Van, it became a part of the Seljuq Empire and later the Ottoman Empire during their century long wars with their neighboring Iranian Safavid arch rivals, in which Selim I managed to conquer the area over the latter. The area continued to be contested and was passed on between the Ottoman Empire and the Safavids (and their subsequent successors, the Afsharids and Qajars) for many centuries afterwards, all the way up to during the 19th century when it became the Van Vilayet.
In 1927 the office of the Inspector General was created, which governed with martial law.The province was included in the first Inspectorate General (Umumi Müfettişlik, UM) over which the Inspector General ruled. The UM span over the provinces of Hakkâri, Siirt, Van, Mardin, Bitlis, Sanlıurfa, Elaziğ and Diyarbakır. The Inspectorate General were dissolved in 1952 during the Government of the Democrat Party.
Between July 1987 and July 2000 Van Province was within the OHAL region, which was ruled by a Governor within a state of emergency.
According to the 2012 Metropolitan Municipalities Law (Law No. 6360), all Turkish provinces with a population more than 750 000, will have a metropolitan municipality and the districts within the metropolitan municipalities will be second level municipalities. The law also creates new districts within the provinces in addition to present districts.
In Van province occurred several earthquakes. In 1881 an earthquake occurred and caused the death of 95 people.In 1941, Van suffered a destructive 5.9 Mw earthquake. Two more earthquakes occurred in 2011 in which 644 people died and 2608 people were injured. In a 7.2 Mw earthquake on 23 October 2011, more than 500 people were killed. On 9 November 2011, a 5.6 Mw magnitude earthquake killed also several people and caused buildings to collapse.
Van Province is divided into 14 districts.
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Dündar, Fuat (2000), Türkiye nüfus sayımlarında azınlıklar (in Turkish), ISBN 9789758086771
Van is a mostly Kurdish-populated city in eastern Turkey's Van Province, located on the eastern shore of Lake Van. The city has a long history as a major urban area. It has been a large city since the first millennium BC, initially as Tushpa, the capital of the kingdom of Urartu from the 9th century BC to the 6th century BC, and later as the center of the Armenian kingdom of Vaspurakan.
Adıyaman Province is a province in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. The capital is Adıyaman. The province is considered part of Turkish Kurdistan and has a Kurdish majority.
Bedir Khan Beg was the last Kurdish Mîr and mütesellim of the Emirate of Botan.
The Ağrı Province is a province in eastern Turkey, bordering Iran to the east, Kars to the north, Erzurum to the northwest, Muş and Bitlis to the southwest, Van to the south, and Iğdır to the northeast. It has an area of 11,376 km² and a population of 542,022. The province is considered part of Western Armenia by Armenians and mostly was part of ancient province of Ayrarat of Kingdom of Armenia. Before the Armenian genocide, modern Ağri Province was part of the six Armenian vilayets. The province is considered part of Turkish Kurdistan and has a Kurdish majority.
Hakkâri Province, is a province in the southeast of Turkey. The administrative centre is the city of Hakkâri. The province covers an area of 7,121 km² and had a population of 286,470 in 2018. The province was created in 1936 out of Van Province and borders Şırnak Province to the west, Van Province to the north, Iran to the east, and Iraq to the south. The current Governor is İdris Akbıyık. The province is a stronghold for Kurdish nationalism and a hotspot in the Kurdish–Turkish conflict.
Mardin Province, is a province of Turkey with a population of 809,719 in 2017, slightly down from the population of 835,173 in 2000. Kurds form the majority of the population followed closely by Arabs who represent 40% of the province's population.
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Başkale is a town and district located in south-eastern Turkey in Van Province. There is one municipality in the Başkale district, the town centre, which was established 1937. The neighbourhoods of the town of Başkale are: Tepebaşı, Yeni mahalle, Camii-Kebir, Samandöken, Cevkan, Kale, Hafiziye, Tarım and Yakınyol. In the local elections of March 2019 Erkan Acar from the Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP) was elected mayor.
Hakkâri is a city and the capital of the Hakkâri Province of Turkey. It is located a few kilometres away from the Iraq–Turkey border. The population of the city at the 2010 census was 57,844.
The Vilayet of Van was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire. At the beginning of the 20th century, it reportedly had a population of about 400,000 and an area of 15,000 square miles (39,000 km2). Van Vilayet was one of the Kurdish Viyalets and held, prior to World War I, majority Kurds, as well as Armenians, Assyrian and Azeri minorities.
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Turkish Kurdistan or Northern Kurdistan refers to the southeastern part of Turkey, where Kurds form the predominant ethnic group. The Kurdish Institute of Paris estimates that there are 20 million Kurds living in Turkey, the majority of them in the southeast.
Bahçesaray is town and district in Van Province in Turkey. It was a bucak in Pervari district of Siirt Province until 1964 and Gevaş district of Van Province between 1964 and 1987. It is at a distance of 110 kilometres (68 mi) from Van. The town is built at the Bahçesaray rivers' shores.
The Eastern Anatolia Region is a geographical region of Turkey.
Hakkari, was a historical mountainous region lying to the south of Lake Van, encompassing parts of the modern provinces of Hakkâri, Şırnak, Van in Turkey and Dohuk in Iraq. During the late Ottoman Empire it was a sanjak within the old Vilayet of Van.
The Six vilayets or Six provinces or the Six Armenian vilayets were the Armenian-populated vilayets (provinces) of the Ottoman Empire:
The Hamidiye regiments were well-armed, irregular, mainly Sunni Kurdish, but also Turkish, Circassian, Turkmen, Yörük and Arab cavalry formations that operated in the south eastern provinces of the Ottoman Empire. Established by and named after Sultan Abdul Hamid II in 1891, they were intended to be modeled after the Cossacks and were supposedly tasked to patrol the Russo-Ottoman frontier. However, the Hamidiye were more often used by the Ottoman authorities to harass and assault Armenians living in Eastern Provinces of the Ottoman Empire.
During World War I, several Kurdish rebellions took place within the Ottoman Empire. These revolts were encouraged by the western allies, particularly Britain, who promised the Kurds an independent state. The first Kurdish rebellion was launched in August 1914, before the Ottoman entry into World War I. From 1915 to 1916, further Kurdish rebellions took place in Botan, Dersim, and south of Kiğı. 1917 saw 2 additional rebellions, the latter of which received Russian military support. Shortly before the Armistice of Mudros in October 1918, Mahmud Barzanji broke away from the Ottoman Empire and established a quasi-independent Kurdish state under British supervision.