Van Province

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Van Province

Van ili
Van in Turkey.svg
Location of Van Province in Turkey
Country Turkey
Region Central East Anatolia
Subregion Van
Government
   Electoral district Van
  GovernorMehmet Emin Bilmez
Area
  Total19,069 km2 (7,363 sq mi)
Population
 (2020) [1]
  Total1,149,342
  Density60/km2 (160/sq mi)
Area code(s) 0432 [2]
Vehicle registration 65

Van Province (Turkish : Van ili, Kurdish : Parezgêha Wanê, [3] Armenian: Վանի մարզ) is a province in eastern Turkey, between Lake Van and the Iranian border. It is 19,069 km2 in area and had a population of 1,035,418 at the end of 2010. Its adjacent provinces are Bitlis to the west, Siirt to the southwest, Şırnak and Hakkâri to the south, and Ağrı to the north. The capital of the province is the city of Van. The province is considered part of Western Armenia by Armenians [4] and was part of ancient province of Vaspurakan, [5] the region is considered to be the cradle of Armenian civilization. Before Armenian genocide, Van Province was part of six Armenian vilayets. [6] [7] Modern day majority of the province's population is Kurdish. [8] The current Governor is Mehmet Emin Bilmez. [9]

Contents

Demographics

The province is mainly populated by Kurds and considered part of Turkish Kurdistan. [10] The province had a significant Armenian population until the genocide in 1915. [11]

In the 1881-1882 Ottoman census, Van Sanjak had a population of 113,964 of which

History

This area was the heartland of Armenians, who lived in these areas from the time of Hayk in the 3rd millennium BCE right up to the late 19th century when the Ottoman Empire seized all the land from the natives. [18] In the 9th century BC the Van area was the center of the Urartian kingdom. [19] The area was a major Armenian population center. The region came under the control of the Armenian Orontids in the 7th century BC and later Persians in the mid-6th century BC. By the early 2nd century BC it was part of the Kingdom of Armenia. It became an important center during the reign of the Armenian king, Tigranes II, who founded the city of Tigranakert in the 1st century BC. [20] With the Seljuq victory at the Battle of Malazgirt in 1071, just north of Lake Van, [21] it became a part of the Seljuq Empire and later the Ottoman Empire during their century long wars with their neighboring Iranian Safavid arch rivals, in which Selim I managed to conquer the area over the latter. The area continued to be contested and was passed on between the Ottoman Empire and the Safavids (and their subsequent successors, the Afsharids and Qajars) for many centuries afterwards, all the way up to during the 19th century when it became the Van Vilayet.

In Turkey

In 1927 the office of the Inspector General was created, which governed with martial law. [22] The province was included in the first Inspectorate General (Umumi Müfettişlik, UM) over which the Inspector General ruled. The UM span over the provinces of Hakkâri, Siirt, Van, Mardin, Bitlis, Sanlıurfa, Elaziğ and Diyarbakır. [23] The Inspectorate General were dissolved in 1952 during the Government of the Democrat Party. [24]

Between July 1987 and July 2000 Van Province was within the OHAL region, which was ruled by a Governor within a state of emergency. [25]

Modern history

According to the 2012 Metropolitan Municipalities Law (Law No. 6360), all Turkish provinces with a population more than 750 000, will have a metropolitan municipality and the districts within the metropolitan municipalities will be second level municipalities. The law also creates new districts within the provinces in addition to present districts. [26]

Earthquakes

In Van province occurred several earthquakes. In 1881 an earthquake occurred and caused the death of 95 people. [27] In 1941, Van suffered a destructive 5.9 Mw earthquake. Two more earthquakes occurred in 2011 in which 644 people died and 2608 people were injured. [27] In a 7.2 Mw earthquake on 23 October 2011, more than 500 people were killed. [28] On 9 November 2011, a 5.6 Mw magnitude earthquake killed also several people and caused buildings to collapse. [27]

Districts

Van Province is divided into 14 districts. [29]

See also

Bibliography

Dündar, Fuat (2000), Türkiye nüfus sayımlarında azınlıklar (in Turkish), ISBN   9789758086771

Related Research Articles

Van, Turkey City in Turkey

Van is a mostly Kurdish-populated city in eastern Turkey's Van Province, located on the eastern shore of Lake Van. The city has a long history as a major urban area. It has been a large city since the first millennium BC, initially as Tushpa, the capital of the kingdom of Urartu from the 9th century BC to the 6th century BC, and later as the center of the Armenian kingdom of Vaspurakan.

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Bahçesaray (district) District of Van Province, Turkey

Bahçesaray is town and district in Van Province in Turkey. It was a bucak in Pervari district of Siirt Province until 1964 and Gevaş district of Van Province between 1964 and 1987. It is at a distance of 110 kilometres (68 mi) from Van. The town is built at the Bahçesaray rivers' shores.

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Hakkari Historical region of West Asia

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Six vilayets

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Kurdish rebellions during World War I

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References

  1. "Population of provinces by years - 2000-2018". Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  2. Area codes page of Turkish Telecom website Archived 2011-08-22 at the Wayback Machine (in Turkish)
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  5. Hovannisian, Richard G. (1999). Armenian Van/Vaspurakan. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers. ISBN 1-56859-130-6. Retrieved 2011-01-22.
  6. İsmail Soysal, Türkiye'nin Siyasal Andlaşmaları, I. Cilt (1920-1945), Türk Tarih Kurumu, 1983, p. 14.
  7. Verheij, Jelle (2012). Jongerden, Joost; Verheij, Jelle (eds.). Social Relations in Ottoman Diyarbekir, 1870–1915. Brill. p. 88. ISBN 9789004225183.
  8. Watts, Nicole F. (2010). Activists in Office: Kurdish Politics and Protest in Turkey (Studies in Modernity and National Identity). Seattle: University of Washington Press. p.  167. ISBN   978-0-295-99050-7.
  9. "T.C. Van Valiliği Resmi Web Sitesi". www.van.gov.tr. Retrieved 2020-03-26.
  10. "Kurds, Kurdistān". Encyclopaedia of Islam (2 ed.). BRILL. 2002. ISBN   9789004161214.
  11. Anna Grabolle, Celiker (2015). Kurdish Life in Contemporary Turkey: Migration, Gender and Ethnic Identity. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 41. ISBN   9780857725974.
  12. Karpat, Kemal (October 1978). "Ottoman Population Records and the Census of 1881/82-1893". International Journal of Middle East Studies . 9 (3): 272. doi:10.1017/S0020743800000088. JSTOR   162764 via JSTOR.
  13. Karpat, Kemal (1985). Ottoman population 1830-1914. The University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 182–183. ISBN   9780299091606.
  14. Dündar (2000), pp. 157 & 159.
  15. Dündar (2000), pp. 163-164 & 168.
  16. Dündar (2000), pp. 175 & 179-180.
  17. Dündar (2000), p. 188.
  18. Hofmann, Tessa, ed. (2004). Verfolgung, Vertreibung und Vernichtung der Christen im Osmanischen Reich 1912-1922[Persecution, Expulsion and Annihilation of the Christian Population in the Ottoman Empire 1912-1922]. Münster: LIT. ISBN   3-8258-7823-6.
  19. European History in a World Perspective - p. 68 by Shepard Bancroft Clough
  20. The Journal of Roman Studies – p. 124 by Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies
  21. Melissa Snell. "Alp Arslan: Article from the 1911 Encyclopedia". About Education.
  22. Jongerden, Joost (2007-01-01). The Settlement Issue in Turkey and the Kurds: An Analysis of Spatical Policies, Modernity and War. BRILL. p. 53. ISBN   978-90-04-15557-2.CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  23. Bayir, Derya (2016-04-22). Minorities and Nationalism in Turkish Law. Routledge. p. 139. ISBN   978-1-317-09579-8.
  24. Fleet, Kate; Kunt, I. Metin; Kasaba, Reşat; Faroqhi, Suraiya (2008-04-17). The Cambridge History of Turkey. Cambridge University Press. p. 343. ISBN   978-0-521-62096-3.
  25. "Case of Dogan and others v. Turkey" (PDF). p. 21. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
  26. Official gazette (in Turkish)
  27. 1 2 3 Güney, D. "Van earthquakes (23 October 2011 and 9 November 2011) and performance of masonry and adobe structures" (PDF). Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  28. Staff, By the CNN Wire. "At least 5 dead in quake in eastern Turkey". CNN. Retrieved 2020-03-01.
  29. Şafak, Yeni (2019-11-14). "Van Seçim Sonuçları – 31 Mart 2019 Van Yerel Seçim sonuçları". Yeni Şafak (in Turkish). Retrieved 2019-11-14.

Coordinates: 38°29′57″N43°40′13″E / 38.49917°N 43.67028°E / 38.49917; 43.67028