|Place of origin||Eastern Europe|
|Main ingredients||Dough, quark|
|Variations||with raisins or dried fruits|
Vatrushka (Belarusian, Russian and Ukrainian: ватрушка) is an Eastern European pastry (pirog) formed as a ring of dough with quark in the middle, sometimes with the addition of raisins or bits of fruit. The most common size is about 5–10 cm (2–4 in) in diameter, but larger versions also exist. Vatrushkas are typically baked using a sweet yeast bread dough. Savoury varieties are made using unsweetened dough, with onion added to the filling.
The etymology of the word is uncertain. A widespread hypothesis derives the name from the word vatra meaning "fire" in some Slavic languages. Alternative hypotheses trace it back either to the verb teret (тереть, "to rub" or "to grate") or to the term tvorog (творог, "quark").
Krajina is a Slavic toponym, meaning 'frontier' or 'march'. The term is related with kraj or krai, originally meaning "edge" and today denoting a region or province, usually distant from the metropole.
The Russian alphabet uses letters from the Cyrillic script to write the Russian language. The modern Russian alphabet consists of 33 letters. It has twenty consonants, ten vowels, a semivowel (⟨й⟩), and two modifier letters that alter a preceding consonant.
Pączki are filled doughnuts found in Polish cuisine.
Mat is the term for vulgar, obscene, or profane language in Russian and some other Slavic language communities. The term mat derives from the Russian word for mother, a component of the key phrase "Ёб твою мать", "yob tvoyu mat'".
A latke is a type of potato pancake in Ashkenazi Jewish cuisine that is traditionally prepared to celebrate Hanukkah.
Grivna (гривна) was a currency as well as a measure of weight used in Kievan Rus' and other East Slavic countries since the 11th century.
Mech-kladenets is a fabulous magic sword in Russian fairy tales and byliny, rendered "sword of steel", "hidden sword", or "magic sword" in English translations.
Pogost is a historical term with several meanings in the Russian language. It has also been borrowed into Latgalian (pogosts), Finnish (pogosta) and Latvian (pagasts), with specific meanings.
Oleg Nikolayevich Trubachyov was a Russian doctor in philology. He was an academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences and served as the editor-in-chief of the Etimologiya yearbook. His works are on the etymology of Slavic languages and on East Slavic onomastics.
Bublik (also booblik or bublyk; Russian: бублик, tr.búblik, plural: bubliki; Ukrainian: бублик, romanized: búblyk;) is a traditional Eastern European bread roll. It is a ring of yeast-leavened wheat dough, that has been boiled in water for a short time before baking.
A chum is a temporary dwelling used by the nomadic Uralic reindeer herders of northwestern Siberia of Russia. The Evenks, Tungusic peoples, tribes, in Russia, Mongolia and China also use chums. They are also used by the southernmost reindeer herders, of the Todzha region of the Republic of Tyva and their cross-border relatives in northern Mongolia. It has a design similar to a Native American tipi but some versions are less vertical. It is very closely related to the Sami lavvu in construction, but is somewhat larger in size. Some chums can be up to thirty feet in diameter.
Pirog is a baked case of dough with either sweet or savory filling. The dish is common in Eastern European cuisines. Pirogi (pl.) are characterized as "ubiquitous in Russian life" and "the most popular and important dish" and "truly national goods" of Russian cuisine.
Oladyi are small thick pancakes or fritters common in Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian cuisines. The batter for oladyi is made from wheat or buckwheat flour, eggs, milk, salt and sugar with yeast or baking soda. The batter may also be based on kefir, soured milk or yoghurt. It may contain various additions, such as apple or raisins.
Covrigi are Romanian baked goods similar to pretzels. They consist of salted bread topped with poppy seeds, sesame seeds or large salt grains. They do not usually contain any added sweeteners such as sugar.
Zefir is a type of soft confectionery made by whipping fruit and berry purée with sugar and egg whites with subsequent addition of a gelling agent like pectin, carrageenan, agar, or gelatine. It is produced in the countries of the former Soviet Union. The name given after the Greek god of the light west wind Zephyr symbolizes its delicate airy consistency.
The Etymological Dictionary of Slavic Languages: Proto-Slavic Lexical Stock is an etymological dictionary of the reconstructed Proto-Slavic lexicon. It has been continuously published since 1974 until present, in 41 volumes, making it one of the most comprehensive in the world.
Pastila is a traditional Russian fruit confectionery. It has been described as "small squares of pressed fruit paste" and "light, airy puffs with a delicate apple flavor". In Imperial Russia, the "small jellied sweetmeats" were served for tea "with a white foamy top, a bit like marshmallow, but tasting of pure fruit".
Kubyshka is an early East Slavic ceramic jar or pot with narrow hole, short or absent neck and wide, rounded body. In the past the term kubyshka, a diminutive derivation from the word Куб (kub) in the generic meaning of "container", had a broader meaning of various rounded containers, e.g. a barrel or birch bark kubyshka.
Quark or quarg is a type of fresh dairy product made by warming soured milk until the desired amount of curdling is met, and then straining it. It can be classified as fresh acid-set cheese. Traditional quark can be made without rennet, but in modern dairies small quantities of rennet are typically added. It is soft, white and unaged, and usually has no salt added. It is traditional in the cuisines of German-speaking, Dutch-speaking, Slavic and Scandinavian countries.
Peremech is an individual-sized fried dough pastry common for Volga Tatar and Bashkir cuisines. It is made from unleavened or leavened dough and usually filled with ground meat and chopped onion. Originally, finely chopped pre-cooked meat was used as a filling, but later raw ground meat became more common. Alternatively, peremech can be filled with potato or quark.