Veere

Last updated
Veere
Municipality and town
Vista de Veere.jpg
The city of Veere in 2007
Veere vlag.svg
Flag
Coat of arms of Veere.svg
Coat of arms
Map - NL - Municipality code 0717 (2009).svg
Location in Zeeland
Coordinates: 51°34′N3°30′E / 51.567°N 3.500°E / 51.567; 3.500 Coordinates: 51°34′N3°30′E / 51.567°N 3.500°E / 51.567; 3.500
Country Netherlands
Province Zeeland
Government [1]
  Body Municipal council
   Mayor Rob van der Zwaag (CDA)
Area [2]
  Total206.63 km2 (79.78 sq mi)
  Land133.13 km2 (51.40 sq mi)
  Water73.50 km2 (28.38 sq mi)
Elevation [3] 0 m (0 ft)
Population (August 2017) [4]
  Total21,890
  Density164/km2 (420/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postcode 4350–4379
Area code 0118
Website www.veere.nl

Veere (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈveːrə]  ( Loudspeaker.svg   listen ); Zeelandic: Ter Veere) is a municipality with a population of 22,000 and a town with a population of 1,500 in the southwestern Netherlands, in the region of Walcheren in the province of Zeeland.

Zeelandic language

Zeelandic is a Low Franconian dialect of Dutch spoken in the southwestern parts of the Netherlands. More specifically, it is spoken in the southernmost part of South Holland (Goeree-Overflakkee) and large parts of the province of Zeeland, with the notable exception of eastern Zeelandic Flanders..

Municipality An administrative division having corporate status and usually some powers of self-government or jurisdiction

A municipality is usually a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished (usually) from the county, which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns, villages and hamlets.

Netherlands Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Europe

The Netherlands is a country located mainly in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium, Germany and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian.

Contents

History

The name Veere means "ferry": Wolfert Van Borssele established a ferry and ferry house there in 1281. This ferry he called the "camper-veer" or "Ferry of Campu" and it soon became known as "de Veer". In the same year 1281 Wolfert also built the castle Sandenburg on one of the dikes he had built. On 12 November 1282, Count Floris V. thereupon issued a charter by which Wolfert received the sovereignty to the land and castle with the ferry and ferry house. From that time on Wolfert was given the title of Lord Van der Veer. [5] Veere received city rights in 1355.

The church in Veere, by Jan van der Heyden (1637-1712) Jan van der Heyden - The Church at Veere.jpg
The church in Veere, by Jan van der Heyden (1637–1712)

The "Admiraliteit van Veere" (Admiralty of Veere) was set up as a result of the Ordinance on the Admiralty of 8 January 1488 in an attempt to create a central naval administration in the Burgundian Netherlands. To this was subordinated the Vice-Admiralty of Flanders in Dunkirk. In 1560 under admiral Philip de Montmorency, Count of Hoorn, this admiralty relocated near Ghent and in 1561 the Habsburg naval forces were also moved to Veere.

Burgundian Netherlands the Netherlands from 1384 to 1482

In the history of the Low Countries, the Burgundian Netherlands were a number of Imperial and French fiefs ruled in personal union by the House of Valois-Burgundy in the period from 1384 to 1482 and later their Habsburg heirs. The area comprised large parts of present-day Belgium and the Netherlands, as well as Luxembourg and parts of northern France.

Flanders Community and region of Belgium

Flanders is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium and one of the communities, regions and language areas of Belgium. However, there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history, and sometimes involving neighbouring countries. The demonym associated with Flanders is Fleming, while the corresponding adjective is Flemish. The official capital of Flanders is Brussels, although the Brussels Capital Region has an independent regional government, and the government of Flanders only oversees the community aspects of Flanders life in Brussels such as (Flemish) culture and education.

Dunkirk Subprefecture and commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Dunkirk, is a commune in Nord, a French department in northern France. It is the most northern city of France, lying 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from the Belgian border. It has the third-largest French harbour. The population of the commune at the 2016 census was 91,412.

Veere functioned as the staple port for Scotland [6] between 1541 [7] and 1799. In Scotland it was known as Campvere. [8]

Scotland Country in Europe, part of the United Kingdom

Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides.

Flemish architects Antonis Keldermans and Evert Spoorwater designed the Grote Kerk, the fortifications, the Cisterne and the town hall. During this period of prosperity, the cultural centre was located at Sandenburgh castle, the residence of the noble Van Borsele and Van Bourgondië families. Court painter Jan Gossaert van Mabuse worked here. [9] The poet Adrianus Valerius lived and worked in the city from 1591. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Veere was a prosperous trading city, with about 750 houses inside the city walls then, compared to about 300 as of 2013.

Keldermans is a family of Flemish artists, originating from the city of Mechelen in the Duchy of Brabant. The members of the family were mostly architects working in the Brabantine Gothic style. As the most important architects of their time in the Netherlands, they defined the Brabantine Gothic style, and their works can still be seen today in cities like Mechelen, Brussels, Antwerp, Ghent, Lier, Middelburg and Gouda. Anthonis II and Rombout II were court architects for Charles V. Laurens II, last in the line, was influenced by Renaissance architecture and marked the end of the Gothic period in this region.

Adrianus Valerius Dutch National Anthem writer

Adrianus (Adriaen) Valerius, also known as Adriaen Valerius, was a Dutch poet and composer, known mostly for his poems dealing with peasant and burgher life and those dealing with the Dutch War of Independence, assembled in his great work Nederlandtsche gedenck-clanck.

At the start of the Second World War, there was a Royal Netherlands Navy seaplane base at Veere, with six Fokker C XIV-W aircraft. On 12 May 1940 the base was bombed by He 111 bombers causing some casualties. [10] On 14 May, the seaplanes were ordered to evacuate to France and then England, eventually arriving in the Dutch East Indies where they would be destroyed in action with the Japanese in 1941 and 1942. [11] On 17 May, German infantry of SS Regiment Deutschland of the 2nd SS Panzer Division crossed onto Walcheren via the Sloedam and by 18:00 that evening, the Dutch forces on the island, including the garrison at Veere, were ordered to surrender. [12] Veere was finally liberated on 7 November 1944 by Scottish troops of the British 52nd (Lowland) Infantry Division during Operation Infatuate, the Allied assault on Walcheren. As part of the preparations for the operation, the island's sea dykes were bombed resulting in the inundation of much of the area. Unlike many other towns on the island, Veere was virtually undamaged in the fighting. [13]

Royal Netherlands Navy Naval warfare branch of the Netherlands armed forces

The Royal Netherlands Navy (RNLN) is the navy of the Netherlands. Its origins date back to the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648), the war of independence from the House of Habsburg who ruled over the Habsburg Netherlands.

Seaplane airplane with an undercarriage capable of operating from water surfaces

A seaplane is a powered fixed-wing aircraft capable of taking off and landing (alighting) on water. Seaplanes that can also take off and land on airfields are in a subclass called amphibious aircraft. Seaplanes and amphibians are usually divided into two categories based on their technological characteristics: floatplanes and flying boats; the latter are generally far larger and can carry far more. These aircraft were sometimes called hydroplanes, but currently this term applies instead to motor-powered watercraft that use the technique of hydrodynamic lift to skim the surface of water when running at speed.

The Fokker CXIV-W was a reconnaissance seaplane produced in the Netherlands in the 1930s. It was a conventional, single-bay biplane with staggered wings of unequal span braced by N-struts. The pilot and observer sat in tandem, open cockpits, and the undercarriage consisted of twin pontoons. 11 of the 24 examples produced were stationed in the Dutch East Indies. These were later joined by 12 aircraft that had escaped to the UK following the German invasion of the Netherlands in 1940. All C.XIVs were destroyed during the Japanese invasion of the Dutch East Indies.

As a result of the damming of the Veerse Gat inlet in 1961, the fishing fleet of Veere moved to a new home port at Colijnsplaat on Noord-Beveland. [14] As of 2013 the main business of the town is tourism.

Veere municipality reached its current expanded shape in 1997, after the addition of several neighboring towns. During the course of nearly two centuries seventeen historical municipalities have merged to become present-day Veere. Its original full name was 'Veere-de-Stad en Zanddijk-Binnen'.

Geography

Municipality of Veere in 2015 Gem-Veere-OpenTopo.jpg
Municipality of Veere in 2015

The city of Veere stands on the Veerse Meer lagoon on the island of Walcheren in the province of Zeeland in the Netherlands.

The area of the municipality of Veere is 13,496 hectares, with a coastline of 34 kilometres and a population of about 22,000. The population centres in the municipality are:

Tourism

The area is visited by 4 million tourists annually. The main attractions are the beaches and marinas. The Storm Surge Barrier on the Oosterschelde is the most popular visitor attraction in Zeeland. [15] The Scoutcentrum Zeeland on the coast of the Veerse Meer attracts Scout visitors from around the world [16]

In fiction

The town of Veere forms the setting for "Van Loon's Lives", a book of contemporary fantasy written by Hendrik Willem Van Loon in 1942, in which the protagonists are able to magically summon the great men and women of history for weekend dinner parties, leading to often humorous incidents. The book was written at the time when Veere, like the rest of the Netherlands, lay under Nazi occupation, and despite its light-hearted tone clearly indicates the longing of the writer - living in the US - for his homeland whose liberation he was doomed never to see.

Scottish singer-songwriter Brian McNeill based the song "The Holland Trade" from his tenth studio album The Baltic tae Byzantium on the trade and cultural ties between Veere and Scotland from 1541 on.

Related Research Articles

Walcheren Former Island in Zeeland, Netherlands


Walcheren is a region and former island in the Dutch province of Zeeland at the mouth of the Scheldt estuary. It lies between the Eastern Scheldt in the north and the Western Scheldt in the south and is roughly the shape of a rhombus. The two sides facing the North Sea consist of dunes; the rest of its coastline is made up of dykes. Middelburg lies at its centre; this city is the provincial capital and Vlissingen 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) to the south is the main harbour. The third municipality is Veere.

Middelburg City and municipality in Zeeland, Netherlands

Middelburg is a city and municipality in the south-western Netherlands serving as the capital of the province of Zeeland. Situated on the central peninsula of the Zeeland province, Midden-Zeeland, it has a population of about 48,000.

Noord-Beveland Municipality in Zeeland, Netherlands

Noord-Beveland(Dutch pronunciation: [ˈnoːrd ˈbeːvəlɑnt]) is a municipality and region in the southwestern Netherlands and a former island, now part of the Walcheren-Zuid-Beveland-Noord-Beveland peninsula. Noord-Beveland is enclosed by the Oosterschelde estuary to the north, and the former straits, now combined lake, of Veerse Meer and Zandkreek to the south. As part of the Delta Works, dams have connected Noord-Beveland to Walcheren and Zuid-Beveland.

Zuid-Beveland Peninsula in Zeeland, Netherlands

Zuid-Beveland is part of the province of Zeeland in the Netherlands north of the Western Scheldt and south of the Eastern Scheldt.

Jan Toorop 19th and 20th-century Dutch-Indonesian painter

Johannes Theodorus 'Jan' Toorop was a Dutch-Indonesian painter, who worked in various styles, including Symbolism, Art Nouveau, and Pointillism. His early work was influenced by the Amsterdam Impressionism movement.

Westkapelle, Netherlands City in Zeeland, Netherlands

Westkapelle is a small city in the municipality of Veere on the island Walcheren, in the province Zeeland of the Netherlands. On 1 January 2005, it had a population of 2,671. Westkapelle is on the westernmost tip of Walcheren and is surrounded by the sea on three sides.

Domburg Town in Zeeland, Netherlands

Domburg is a seaside resort on the North Sea, on the northwest coast of Walcheren in the Dutch province of Zeeland. It is a part of the municipality of Veere, and lies about 11 km northwest of the city of Middelburg, the provincial capital.

Zoutelande Town in Zeeland, Netherlands

Zoutelande is a town in the southwestern Netherlands. It is located in the municipality of Veere, Zeeland, between Dishoek and Westkapelle on the former island Walcheren. On 1 January 2005 it had 1,556 inhabitants. Originally, Zoutelande was mainly an agricultural village. The village's character changed slowly into a tourist resort as the demand for beach recreation rose from about the middle of the 19th century.

Serooskerke, Schouwen-Duiveland Village in Zeeland, Netherlands

Serooskerke is a village in the southwest Netherlands. It is located in the municipality of Schouwen-Duiveland, Zeeland about 100 km southwest of Rotterdam.

Gapinge Town in Zeeland, Netherlands

Gapinge is a town in the Dutch province of Zeeland. It is a part of the municipality of Veere, and lies about 6 km north of Middelburg.

Vrouwenpolder Village in Zeeland, Netherlands

Vrouwenpolder is a village in the Dutch province of Zeeland. It is a part of the municipality of Veere, and lies about 9 km north of Middelburg. The name is derived from "the polder of Our Lady", referring to the Virgin Mary.

Serooskerke, Walcheren Village in Zeeland, Netherlands

Serooskerke is a village in the Dutch province of Zeeland. It is a part of the municipality of Veere, and lies about 6 km north of Middelburg.

Oostkapelle Village in Zeeland, Netherlands

Oostkapelle is a village in the Dutch province of Zeeland. It is a part of the municipality of Veere, and lies about 9 km north of Middelburg. Oostkapelle was a separate municipality until 1966, when it was merged with Domburg. In 2001, the village of Oostkapelle had 1819 inhabitants. The built-up area of the village was 1.1 km², and contained 953 residences. The statistical area "Oostkapelle", which also can include the surrounding countryside, has a population of around 2420.

Koudekerke Town in Zeeland, Netherlands

Koudekerke is a town in the region of Walcheren in the Dutch province of Zeeland. It is a part of the municipality of Veere. According to the 2018 census, the town has a population of 3419, making it the largest settlement in Veere. The built-up area of the town was 0.55 km², and contained 1133 residences.

Kortgene Village in Zeeland, Netherlands

Kortgene is a village in the Dutch province of Zeeland. It is a part of the municipality of Noord-Beveland, and lies about 15 km northeast of Middelburg.

Valkenisse, Walcheren former municipality in Walcheren, Zeeland, the Netherlands

Valkenisse is a former municipality in the Dutch province of Zeeland, on the peninsula of Walcheren.

Operation Infatuate

Operation Infatuate was the code name given to an Anglo-Canadian operation during the Second World War to open the port of Antwerp to shipping and relieve logistical constraints. The operation was part of the wider Battle of the Scheldt and involved two assault landings from the sea by the 4th Special Service Brigade and the 52nd (Lowland) Division. At the same time the 2nd Canadian Infantry Division would force a crossing of the Walcheren causeway.

Middelburg railway station

Middelburg is a railway station in southern Middelburg, the Netherlands. The station opened on 1 March 1872 and is located on the Roosendaal–Vlissingen railway. The services are operated by Nederlandse Spoorwegen. The station lies on the south side of Middelburg across the canal from the centre.

Inundation of Walcheren intentional inundation of Walcheren

The Inundation of Walcheren was the intentional, but uncontrolled military inundation, effected by bombing the sea dikes of the former island of Walcheren in Zeeland by the Allies on and after 3 October 1944 in the context of Operation Infatuate during the Battle of the Scheldt after the Allied Invasion of Normandy during World War II. Though the inundation was justified by military necessity, it is controversial whether it was proportional in view of the predictable devastating effects for the civilian population, and the ecology of the island. The fact that the breaches in the sea dikes of the island remained open for a very long time, subjecting the island to the full impact of the twice-daily tides, caused severe damage to agricultural land and infrastructure, and severe hardship for the civilian population. Leaving the breaches open for such a long time, which was unavoidable due to the war-time lack of resources making closing impossible, subjected them to scouring by the tides, that widened and deepened them to such an extent that closing them eventually became extremely difficult, necessitating the development of new dike-building techniques, such as the use of caissons. The last breach was closed on 23 October 1945 and the draining of the island took until early 1946. Only after that could rebuilding the infrastructure and reconstructing the housing stock and the island's economy start. Walcheren was spared during the North Sea Flood of 1953 that devastated many other parts of Zeeland.

References

  1. "Burgemeester" [Mayor] (in Dutch). Gemeente Veere. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
  2. "Kerncijfers wijken en buurten" [Key figures for neighbourhoods]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 2 July 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  3. "Postcodetool for 4357ET". Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland (in Dutch). Het Waterschapshuis. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
  4. "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth; regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 27 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
  5. http://www.veerhuis.org/genealogy/NethBook/NetherlandsBook.html
  6. AT HOME ABROAD: ETHNICITY AND ENCLAVE IN THE WORLD OF SCOTS TRADERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE, c. 1600-1800* by DOUGLAS CATTERALL (page 4)
  7. "Scotland in Europe". BBC History. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
  8. Morris, David B. (1919). The Stirling merchant gild and life of John Cowane. Stirling: Morris, David B. pp. 195–210. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
  9. http://www.veere.nl/index.php?simaction=content&mediumid=1&pagid=258&stukid=534
  10. "War over Holland - Zeeland - The airforce and navy air fleet bases". www.waroverholland.nl. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
  11. "War over Holland - Zeeland - The AFB's". www.waroverholland.nl. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
  12. "War over Holland - Zeeland - Capitulation of Walcheren and Zuid-Beveland". www.waroverholland.nl. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
  13. "NL06 - Operation Infatuate". www.scottishdiasporatapestry.org. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
  14. http://islas.ruudbijlsma.nl/wcr_en.htm
  15. http://www.veere.nl/index.php?simaction=content&mediumid=1&pagid=258&stukid=533
  16. http://scoutcentrumzeeland.scouting.nl/index.php/welcome