Location of Vendée in France
|Region||Pays de la Loire|
|Subprefectures|| Fontenay-le-Comte |
|• President of the General Council||Yves Auvinet|
|• Total||6,720 km2 (2,590 sq mi)|
|• Density||100/km2 (260/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|^1 French Land Register data, which exclude estuaries, and lakes, ponds, and glaciers larger than 1 km2|
The Vendée (French pronunciation: [vɑ̃de] (
The area today called the Vendée was originally known as the Bas-Poitou and is part of the former province of Poitou. In the southeast corner, the village of Nieul-sur-l'Autise is believed to be the birthplace of Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122–1204). Eleanor's son, Richard Lionheart often had his base in Talmont. The Hundred Years' War (1337–1453) turned much of the Vendée into a battleground.
Since the Vendée held a considerable number of influential Protestants, including control by Jeanne d'Albret mother of Henry IV of France, the region was greatly affected by the French Wars of Religion which broke out in 1562 and continued until 1598. In April of that year King Henri IV issued the Edict of Nantes and the Wars came to an end. The revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 caused many Huguenots to flee from the Vendée. In the void, the region became rigorously Catholic due to the influence of a preacher and Marian missionary Louis de Montfort who radically changed the spirituality of the region. Many attribute the effect of his preaching to prepare the Vendeans for their revolt against the French Revolution.
The Vendeans revolted against the Revolutionary government in 1793. They resented the harsh oppression imposed on the Catholic Church by the provisions of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy act (1790) and broke into open revolt after the Revolutionary government's imposition of military conscription. A massacre of Republicans at Machecoul in March was followed by guerrilla warfare, led at the outset by peasants who were chosen in each locale, and cost more than 240,000 lives before it ended in 1796 (190,000 Vendeans who were republicans or royalists and 50,000 non-Vendean republican soldiers; according to the Jacques Hussenet and Centre Vendéen de Recherche Historique's book "Détruisez la Vendée"). The Revolt in the Vendée must not be confused with the revolt of the Chouans, which took place at the same time in Maine and Brittany. In 1804, Napoleon I chose La Roche-sur-Yon to be the capital of the department. At the time, most of La Roche had been eradicated in the Vendée Revolt (1793–96); the renamed Napoléonville was laid out and a fresh population of soldiers and civil servants was brought in. Napoléonville had a square-grid street network and was designed to accommodate 15,000 people.
In 1815, when Napoleon escaped exile on Elba for his Hundred Days, the Vendée refused to recognise him and stayed loyal to King Louis XVIII. General Lamarque led 10,000 men into the Vendée to pacify the region.A failed rebellion in the Vendée in 1832 in support of Marie-Caroline de Bourbon-Sicile, duchess de Berry, the former King Charles X's widowed daughter-in-law, was an unsuccessful attempt to restore the Legitimist Bourbon dynasty during the reign of the Orléanist monarch, King Louis Philippe of the French (1830–1848).
In 1850, English author Anthony Trollope published his book La Vendée, detailing the history of the region and the war. In the preface he pays tribute to Madame de la Rochejaquelein, on whose memoirs of the war he based his story.
Vendée's highest point is Puy-Crapaud (295 m).
The department is crossed by four rivers: the Sèvre Nantaise (135 kilometres (84 mi) long), the Vendée (70 kilometres (43 mi)), the Lay (110 kilometres (68 mi)) and the Sèvre Niortaise (150 kilometres (93 mi)).
Vendée's inhabitants are referred to as Vendeans (French Vendéenspronounced [vɑ̃.de.ɛ̃] ).
|1||La Roche-sur-Yon|| La Roche-sur-Yon-1 |
|3||Les Herbiers||Les Herbiers||La Roche-sur-Yon||15,933|
|4||Olonne-sur-Mer||Les Sables-d'Olonne||Les Sables-d'Olonne||14,299|
|5||Les Sables-d'Olonne||Les Sables-d'Olonne||Les Sables-d'Olonne||14,253|
|7||Château-d'Olonne||Les Sables-d'Olonne||Les Sables-d'Olonne||13,593|
The main University of this department is the Catholic Institute of Higher Studies - ICESin La Roche-sur-Yon. The main goal of this institute is to achieve academic excellence through an enhancement of the Christian and human dimension in seven areas of study. Founded in 1989, Catholic Institute of Higher Studies - ICES has pioneered a new concept in higher education, that of the “University School”: halfway between the French Grande École and the traditional state university.
The primary factors of the Vendéen economy are:
The Vendée has been cited as the most economically dynamic department in France by L'Express magazine in a 2006 survey.Its economy is characterised by a low rate of unemployment (around 7% in late 2006 compared to more than 9% nationally) and a very high proportion of small and medium-sized businesses (one business for every 14 inhabitants).
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The coast of the Vendée extends over 200 kilometres (120 mi) of mostly sandy beaches. Tourists from overseas and locally frequent them. Some resorts include Les Sables-d'Olonne, La Tranche-sur-Mer and Saint-Jean-de-Monts. Some beaches are certified for the FEE Blue Flag for cleanliness.
With more than 160 kilometres (100 mi)[ clarification needed ] of sandy beaches edged with dunes and pine woods. There is a nude beach just south of La Faute sur Mer on the Pointe d'Arçay. The department also has churches and abbeys, museums, and—for nature lovers—thousands of marked footpaths, a signposted bicycle route running along the coastal mudflats, and marshes that attract unusual birds. There is fishing in the Vendée's rivers and lakes.
Inland, the chief attractions include the Marais Poitevin (an area of marshlands famed for wildlife), the forested area around the village of Mervent and the rolling countryside of the Bocage. In the north of the department, the historical theme park Puy du Fou attracts more than 1.45 million of visitors per year.
Agriculture remains a significant source of employment in the Vendée. Among departments, it has the second highest level of revenue from agriculture in France. The major arable crops grown are maize, colza, wheat and sunflowers. Meat and dairy production also feature, as does the offshore farming of shellfish (oysters and mussels). Poultry from Challans is highly regarded nationwide as is lamb produced from the salt marshes in the North of the Vendée.
Demonstrating its support for the agricultural sector, the Conseil Général of the Vendée has a stated policy to promote the construction of irrigation reservoirs to reduce dependence on ground water during key summer growing seasons.
The Vendée is home to a number of food processing firms. [ citation needed ]A manufacturer of ready-meals and charcuterie employs the majority of its workforce (some 3000 people) at local plants. Other employers include bakeries and biscuit producers.
The department also has some speciality products, including brioche (Label Rouge) and a raw cured ham (Jambon de Vendée) similar in flavour to bacon.[ citation needed ]
Wine is also produced in the area around the communes of Vix, Brem, Pissotte and Mareuil-sur-Lay, and is marketed under the "Fiefs Vendéens" designation. Production quality has improved markedly over recent years, and, having already achieved the classification Vin Délimité de Qualité Supérieure (VDQS), the wines are on their way towards A.O.C status (Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée).
Much of the manufacturing industry in the Vendée reflects its status as a major tourist destination. Mobile homes are manufactured at plants in Luçon and the building of motor and sail yachts takes place at locations all over the department. The service sector too is strongly inclined towards tourism with campsites, restaurants and other tourism businesses being important sources of revenue and employment.
The War in the Vendée is the subject of Ninety-Three (Quatrevingt-treize), the last novel by the French writer Victor Hugo, an episode in Mr. Midshipman Hornblower and also the backdrop of Les Chouans by Balzac.
In the writings of Karl Marx regarding revolutionary struggles in various countries, he uses the term "a Vendée" as meaning "a focus of persistent counter-revolutionary activities". Vladimir Lenin, when speaking about Cossacks as potential counter-revolutionary opposition, identified them as Russian Vendée.
In the Vendée, 31 members, elected through universal suffrage, govern the affairs of the department, with 26 members on the right-wing and 5 members on the left-wing.
The Prefect represents the French State in the department.
The President of the General Council has been for a long time the President of the Movement for France, Philippe de Villiers. He held the office from 1988 to 2010 and was seen as the department's political strongman. He has been replaced by Bruno Retailleau.
|•||Movement for France||10|
|•||Union for a Popular Movement||2|
|Vendée's 1st constituency||Philippe Latombe||MoDem|
|Vendée's 2nd constituency||Patricia Gallerneau||MoDem|
|Vendée's 3rd constituency||Stéphane Buchou||La République En Marche!|
|Vendée's 4th constituency||Martine Leguille-Balloy||La République En Marche!|
|Vendée's 5th constituency||Pierre Henriet||La République En Marche!|
La Roche-sur-Yon is a commune in the Vendée department in the Pays de la Loire region in western France. It is the capital of the department. The demonym for its inhabitants is Yonnais.
The War in the Vendée was a counter-revolution in the Vendée region of France during the French Revolution. The Vendée is a coastal region, located immediately south of the Loire River in western France. Initially, the war was similar to the 14th-century Jacquerie peasant uprising, but quickly acquired themes considered by the Jacobin government in Paris to be counter-revolutionary, and Royalist. The uprising headed by the newly formed Catholic and Royal Army was comparable to the Chouannerie, which took place in the area north of the Loire.
Nesmy is a commune in the Vendée department in the Pays de la Loire region in western France.
François Athanase de Charette de la Contrie was a French Royalist soldier and politician. He served in the French Royal Navy during the American Revolutionary War and was one of the leaders of the Revolt in the Vendée against the revolutionary regime. His relative Athanase-Charles-Marie Charette de la Contrie was a noted military leader.
The Chouannerie was a royalist uprising or counter-revolution in 12 of the western départements of France, particularly in the provinces of Brittany and Maine, against the First Republic during the French Revolution. It played out in three phases and lasted from the spring of 1794 until 1800.
The arrondissement of Fontenay-le-Comte is an arrondissement of France in the Vendée department in the Pays de la Loire region. It has 110 communes. Its population is 141,620 (2016), and its area is 2,315.8 km2 (894.1 sq mi).
The arrondissement of La Roche-sur-Yon is an arrondissement of France in the Vendée department in the Pays de la Loire region. It has 77 communes. Its population is 293,895 (2016), and its area is 2,489.1 km2 (961.0 sq mi).
The arrondissement of Les Sables-d'Olonne is an arrondissement of France in the Vendée department in the Pays de la Loire region. It has 71 communes. Its population is 235,082 (2016), and its area is 1,914.7 km2 (739.3 sq mi).
The following is a list of the 17 cantons of the Vendée department, in France, following the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015:
Corpe is a commune of the Vendée department in the Pays de la Loire region in western France.
Les Essarts is a former commune in the Vendée department in the Pays de la Loire region in western France. Since 1 January 2016 it is part of Essarts-en-Bocage.
Beaufou is a small village in the region of Pays de la Loire in western France. It is designated municipally as a commune within the département of Vendée.
Belleville-sur-Vie is a former commune in the Vendée department in the Pays de la Loire region in western France. On 1 January 2016, it was merged into the new commune of Bellevigny.
Saint-Gilles-Croix-de-Vie is a commune in the Vendée department in the Pays de la Loire region in western France.
Saint-Mesmin is a commune in the Vendée department in the Pays de la Loire region in western France.
The Institut catholique d’études supérieures, also called “Catholic University of the Vendée”, founded in 1989, is a small private university located in Vendée department of western France. ICES has utilized the concept in higher education, introduced by its first Director, Hervé Grollier, of the “University School”: a blend of the French Grandes écoles and the traditional state university.
Charles Aimé de Royrand became a Vendean leader in the War in the Vendée, a revolt against the French Revolution. He joined the French Royal Army and served in an infantry regiment during the American Revolutionary War before retiring to his estates in 1780. When the Vendean insurrection broke out in 1793 he was chosen as the leader of the southern army. He led rebel forces at Luçon, Cholet and Entrames. He was fatally wounded at Entrames on 26 October and died at Baugé-en-Anjou.
The canton of Mareuil-sur-Lay-Dissais is an administrative division of the Vendée department, western France. Its borders were modified at the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015. Its seat is in Mareuil-sur-Lay-Dissais.
France Bleu Loire Océan is a general public radio station which is part of the Radio France group. The station is based in Nantes and covers Loire-Atlantique, Vendée and part of Maine-et-Loire.
2. "The Guillotine And The Cross" by Warren H. Carroll
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