Vendôme

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Vendôme
Vendome (Loir-et-Cher).jpg
A view of Vendôme
Blason Comtes de Vendome.svg
Coat of arms
Location of Vendôme
France location map-Regions and departements-2016.svg
Red pog.svg
Vendôme
Centre-Val de Loire region location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Vendôme
Coordinates: 47°47′37″N1°03′59″E / 47.7936°N 1.0664°E / 47.7936; 1.0664 Coordinates: 47°47′37″N1°03′59″E / 47.7936°N 1.0664°E / 47.7936; 1.0664
Country France
Region Centre-Val de Loire
Department Loir-et-Cher
Arrondissement Vendôme
Canton Vendôme
Intercommunality Pays de Vendôme
Government
  Mayor (20142020) Pascal Brindeau
Area
1
23.89 km2 (9.22 sq mi)
Population
 (2016-01-01) [1]
17,496
  Density730/km2 (1,900/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
41269 /41100
Elevation76–141 m (249–463 ft)
(avg. 82 m or 269 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Vendôme (French pronunciation:  [vɑ̃dom] ) is a subprefecture of the department of Loir-et-Cher, France. It is also the department's third biggest commune with 16,716 inhabitants (2015).

Subprefectures in France

In France, a subprefecture is the administrative center of a departmental arrondissement that does not contain the prefecture for its department. The term also applies to the building that houses the administrative headquarters for an arrondissement.

In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, and five are overseas departments, which are also classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; the last two have no autonomy, and are used for the organisation of police, fire departments, and sometimes, elections.

Loir-et-Cher Department of France

Loir-et-Cher is a department in the Centre-Val de Loire region, France. Its name is originated from two rivers which cross it, the Loir on the North and the Cher on the South. Its prefecture is Blois. The INSEE and La Poste gave it the number 41.

Contents

It is one of the main towns along the river Loir. The river divides itself at the entrance of Vendôme, intersecting it into numerous different arms. The town has a rich medieval history and many historical monuments.

Middle Ages Period of European history from the 5th to the 15th century

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages.

History

Facade of Abbaye de la Trinite Vndmabbeyfacade.jpg
Façade of Abbaye de la Trinité
Ruins of the castle at Vendome VendomeCastleRuins.jpg
Ruins of the castle at Vendôme

Vendôme (in Latin : Vindocinum) appears originally to have been a Gallic oppidum , replaced later by a feudal castle, around which the modern town arose. Christianity was introduced by Saint Bienheuré in the 5th century, and the important abbey of the Trinity (which claimed to possess a tear shed by Jesus at the tomb of Lazarus) was founded about 1030. When the reign of the House of Capet began, Vendôme formed the chief town of a county belonging to Bouchard, called "the Venerable", who died in the monastery of Saint-Maur-des-Fossés in 1007. [2]

Gaul region of ancient Europe

Gaul was a historical region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, parts of Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine. It covered an area of 494,000 km2 (191,000 sq mi). According to the testimony of Julius Caesar, Gaul was divided into three parts: Gallia Celtica, Belgica, and Aquitania. Archaeologically, the Gauls were bearers of the La Tène culture, which extended across all of Gaul, as well as east to Raetia, Noricum, Pannonia, and southwestern Germania during the 5th to 1st centuries BC. During the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, Gaul fell under Roman rule: Gallia Cisalpina was conquered in 203 BC and Gallia Narbonensis in 123 BC. Gaul was invaded after 120 BC by the Cimbri and the Teutons, who were in turn defeated by the Romans by 103 BC. Julius Caesar finally subdued the remaining parts of Gaul in his campaigns of 58 to 51 BC.

Oppidum Iron Age type of settlement

An oppidum is a large fortified Iron Age settlement. Oppida are associated with the Celtic late La Tène culture, emerging during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, spread across Europe, stretching from Britain and Iberia in the west to the edge of the Hungarian plain in the east. They continued to be used until the Romans conquered Southern and Western Europe. In regions north of the rivers Danube and Rhine, such as most of Germania, where the populations remained independent from Rome, oppida continued to be used into the 1st century AD.

Jesus Central figure of Christianity

Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figure of Christianity, and is widely described as the most influential person in history. Most Christians believe he is the incarnation of God the Son and the awaited Messiah (Christ) prophesied in the Old Testament.

The succession passed by various marriages to the houses of Nevers, Preuilly and Montoire. Bouchard VI, Count of Vendôme and Castres (died c.1374), left as his heiress his sister Catherine, the wife of John of Bourbon, count of La Marche. The county of Vendôme was raised to the rank of a duchy and a peerage of France for Charles of Bourbon (1515); his son Antoine de Bourbon , king of Navarre, was the father of Henry IV, who gave the duchy of Vendôme in 1598 to his illegitimate son César de Bourbon (1594–1665). César, duke of Vendôme, took part in the disturbances which went on in France under the government of Cardinal Richelieu and of Cardinal Mazarin ; he was the father of Louis, Duke of Vendôme, who married a niece of Mazarin, and François de Vendôme, Duc de Beaufort . The last of his family in the male line was Louis XIV's famous general, Louis Joseph, duc de Vendôme (1645–1712). [2]

Peerage of France title of honor within the French nobility

The Peerage of France was a hereditary distinction within the French nobility which appeared in 1180 in the Middle Ages, and only a small number of noble individuals were peers. It was abolished in 1789 during the French Revolution, but it reappeared in 1814 at the time of the Bourbon Restoration which followed the fall of the First French Empire, when the Chamber of Peers was given a constitutional function somewhat along British lines, which lasted until the Revolution of 1848. On 10 October 1831, by a vote of 324 against 26 of the Chamber of Deputies, hereditary peerages were abolished, but peerages for the life of the holder continued to exist until the chamber and rank were definitively abolished in 1848.

Charles, Duke of Vendôme French noble

Charles de Bourbon was a French prince du sang and military commander at the court of Francis I of France. He is notable as the paternal grandfather of King Henry IV of France.

Antoine of Navarre French king consort

Antoine was the King of Navarre through his marriage to Queen Jeanne III, from 1555 until his death. He was the first monarch of the House of Bourbon, of which he was head from 1537. He was the father of Henry IV of France.

Nominoe , King of Brittany, died undefeated in Vendôme in 851, after conquering the counties of Maine and Anjou .

Maine (province) Place in France

Maine[mɛːn] is one of the traditional provinces of France. It corresponds to the former County of Maine, whose capital was also the city of Le Mans. The area, now divided into the departments of Sarthe and Mayenne, counts about 857,000 inhabitants.

Anjou Province

Anjou is a historical province of France straddling the lower Loire River. Its capital was Angers and it was roughly coextensive with the diocese of Angers. It bordered Brittany to the west, Maine to the north, Touraine to the east and Poitou to the south. The adjectival form of Anjou is Angevin, and inhabitants of Anjou are known as Angevins. During the Middle Ages, the County of Anjou, ruled by the Counts of Anjou, was a prominent fief of the French crown.

The comte de Rochambeau , leader of 6,000 French troops in the American Revolutionary War, was born in Vendôme.

Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau French noble

Marshal Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau was a French nobleman and general who played a major role in helping the Thirteen Colonies win independence during the American Revolution. During this time, he served as commander-in-chief of the French Expeditionary Force that embarked from France in order to help the American Continental Army fight against British forces.

American Revolutionary War War between Great Britain and the Thirteen Colonies, which won independence as the United States of America

The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America.

Place Vendôme in Paris had been the site of the Hôtel de Vendôme, a mansion which belonged to César de Bourbon, the illegitimate son of Henry IV and his mistress Gabrielle d'Estrées .

Geography

Vendôme is located 22 miles (35 kilometres) northwest of the city of Blois and 40 minutes from Paris by TGV train. The town lies on the Loir River, which here divides into numerous arms intersecting the town.

Administration

Vendôme is the capital of the arrondissement of Vendôme in the Loir-et-Cher department, of which it is a sub-prefecture. It has a tribunal of first instance.[ citation needed ]

Population

Historical population
YearPop.±%
17936,226    
18067,128+14.5%
18216,997−1.8%
18317,771+11.1%
18419,470+21.9%
18519,325−1.5%
18619,356+0.3%
18729,259−1.0%
18819,420+1.7%
18919,538+1.3%
19019,459−0.8%
19119,707+2.6%
19219,035−6.9%
19319,047+0.1%
194610,315+14.0%
195410,811+4.8%
196213,556+25.4%
196816,157+19.2%
197517,952+11.1%
198217,593−2.0%
199017,525−0.4%
199917,707+1.0%
200617,029−3.8%
201516,716−1.8%

Sights

On the south, it is overlooked by an eminence on which stand ruins of the castle of the counts of Vendôme. The abbey-church of the Holy Trinity has a façade in the florid Gothic style. Abbey buildings of various periods lie round the church. The church of La Madeleine (15th century) is surmounted by a stone spire, an imitation of that of the abbey. [2] The tower of Saint-Martin (16th century) represents the vanished church of that name.

Other monuments are: the old gate, the Porte Saint-Georges; its river front is composed of two large crenelated and machicolated towers, connected by a pavilion, and the ancient hospital of Saint-Jacques that afterwards became a college of the Oratorians, then a lycée for boys and that is now occupied by the town administration offices. The charming chapel, in the most florid Gothic style, is preserved. In the garden surrounding, is located the tourism office in an ancient building called l'Orangerie (facing the public library). The town has a well-known archaeological and scientific society, and possesses a library with more than three hundred manuscripts, and a museum, mostly archaeological, in front of which stands a statue of the poet Pierre de Ronsard. There is also a statue of Marshal Rochambeau, born at Vendôme in 1725. Some interesting houses of the 15th and 16th centuries survive. [2]

See also

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Louis, Duke of Vendôme Duke of Vendôme

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César, Duke of Vendôme French nobleman

César de Bourbon, Légitimé de France was the illegitimate son of Henry IV of France and his mistress Gabrielle d'Estrées, and founder of the House of Bourbon-Vendome. He held the titles of 1st Duke of Vendôme, 2nd Duke of Beaufort and 2nd Duke of Étampes, but is also simply known as César de Vendôme. Through his daughter, Élisabeth de Bourbon, César was a great-great-great-grandfather of Louis XV of France.

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Bourbon-Vendôme noble family

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François de Vendôme, duc de Beaufort French noble

François de Vendôme, duc de Beaufort was the son of César de Vendôme and Françoise de Lorraine. He was a prominent figure in the Fronde, and later went on to fight in the Mediterranean. He is sometimes called François de Vendôme, though he was born into the House of Bourbon, Vendôme coming from his father's title of Duke of Vendôme.

Vendôme, Loir-et-Cher French pronunciation: ​[vɑ̃dom]) is a town in central France. Most other uses of Vendome or Vendôme commemorate the famous French general Louis Joseph de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme.

References

  1. "Populations légales 2016". INSEE . Retrieved 25 April 2019.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Wikisource-logo.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Vendôme"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 27 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 982.