Venetian Albania (Italian : Albania Veneta) was the official term for several possessions of the Republic of Venice in the southeastern Adriatic, encompassing coastal territories in modern northern Albania and southern Montenegro. Several major territorial changes occurred during the Venetian rule in those regions, starting from 1392, and lasting until 1797. By the end of the 15th century, the main possessions in northern Albania had been lost to the expansion of the Ottoman Empire. In spite of that, Venetians did not want to renounce their formal claims to the Albanian coast, and the term Venetian Albania was officially kept in use, designating the remaining Venetian possessions in the coastal regions of modern Montenegro, centered around the Bay of Kotor. Those regions remained under Venetian rule until the fall of the Republic of Venice in 1797. By the Treaty of Campo Formio, the region was transferred to the Habsburg Monarchy.
Venice used the term "Venetian Albania" for its initial possessions that stretched from the southern borders of the Republic of Ragusa to Durrës in coastal Albania. Generally these possessions extended not more than 20 km (12 miles) inland from the Adriatic Sea. Between the Siege of Shkodra and 1571 the territories in what is today Albania were lost. After 1573 the southern limit moved to the village of Kufin (which means border in Albanian) near Budva, because of the Ottoman conquests of Antivari (Bar), Dulcigno (Ulcinj), Scutari (Shkodër) and Durrës. From then on, the Venetian territory was centered on the Bay of Kotor, and included the towns of Kotor, Risan, Perast, Tivat, Herceg Novi, Budva, and Sutomore.
From 1718 to 1797 the Venetian Republic extended its territory south towards the Republic of Ragusa while maintaining the enclaves of Cattaro (Kotor) and Budua (Budva).
The Venetians sporadically controlled the small southern Dalmatian villages around the 10th century, but did not permanently assume control until 1420. The Venetians assimilated the Dalmatian language into the Venetian language quickly. The Venetian territories around Kotor lasted from 1420 to 1797 and were called Venetian Albania, a province of the Venetian Republic. [ failed verification ]
In the early years of the Renaissance the territories under Venetian control included areas from modern coastal Montenegro to northern Albania as far as Durrës: Venice retained this city after a siege by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II in 1466, but it fell to Ottoman forces in 1501.
At that time Venetian Albania was relatively rich, and the area around the city of Kotor enjoyed a huge cultural and artistic development.
When the Ottoman Empire started to conquer the Balkans in the 15th century, the population of Christian Slavs in Dalmatia increased greatly. As a consequence of this, by the end of the 17th century the Romance-speaking population of the historical Venetian Albania was a minority, according to Oscar Randi.
After the French Republic conquered the Venetian Republic, the area of Venetian Albania became part of the Austrian Empire under the Treaty of Campo Formio, and then part of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy under the Peace of Pressburg,and then the French Illyrian Provinces under the Treaty of Schönbrunn. In 1814 it was again included in the Austrian Empire.
According to the Dalmatian historian Luigi Paulucci (in his book Le Bocche di Cattaro nel 1810) the population of Venetian Albania, during the centuries of the Republic of Venice, was mainly Venetian speaking (approximately 66%) in the urban areas (Cattaro, Perasto, Budua, etc) around the "Bocche di Cattaro" (Bay of Kotor).
But in the inland areas more than half of the population was Serbo-Croatian speaking, after the first years of the 18th century. Paulucci wrote that near the border with Albania there were large communities of Albanian-speaking people: Ulcinj was half Albanian, one quarter Venetian and one quarter Slavic-speaking.
After the disappearance of the Venetian Albania, during the nineteenth century (according to the historian Marzio Scaglioni) the wars of independence of Italy from the Austro-Hungarian empire created a situation of harassment against the Italian (or Venetian speaking) communities in the Austrian southern dalmatia. The result was that in 1880 there were in Cattaro, according to the Austrian census, only 930 ethnic Italians (or only 32% of a total population of 2910 people). Furthermore, in the Austrian census of 1910, the Italians were reduced to only 13.6% in that city. Today there are 500 Italian speaking in Montenegro, mainly in the area of Cattaro (Kotor), who constitute the "Comunitá Nazionale Italiana del Montenegro".
Many notable people were born in the "Cattaro Bay" (now called Bay of Kotor) during the Venetian rule. These included:
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The Bay of Kotor, also known as the Boka, is the winding bay of the Adriatic Sea in southwestern Montenegro and the region of Montenegro concentrated around the bay.
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Perast is an old town on the Bay of Kotor in Montenegro. It is situated a few kilometres northwest of Kotor and is noted for its proximity to the islets of St. George and Our Lady of the Rocks.
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The Coastline of Montenegro, also called the Montenegrin Littoral, historically the Littoral or the Maritime, is the littoral region in Montenegro which borders the Adriatic Sea. Prior to the Creation of Yugoslavia, the Montenegrin Littoral was not part of the Kingdom of Montenegro, but rather a bordering region of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, latterly part of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs.
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Ludovico Pasquali was an Italian author, from Cattaro in the Albania Veneta. In Serbian his name is Ljudevit Pasković.
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Dalmatian Italians are the historical Italian national minority living in the region of Dalmatia, now part of Croatia and Montenegro. Since the middle of the 19th century, the community, counting according to some sources nearly 20% of all Dalmatian population in 1840, suffered from a constant trend of decreasing presence and now numbers only around 1,000–4,000 people. Throughout history, though small in numbers in the last two centuries, it exerted a vast and significant influence on the region.
The Stato da Màr or Domini da Mar was the name given to the Republic of Venice's maritime and overseas possessions, including Istria, Dalmatia, Albania, Negroponte, the Morea, the Aegean islands of the Duchy of the Archipelago, and the islands of Crete and Cyprus. It was one of the three subdivisions of the Republic of Venice's possessions, the other two being the Dogado, i.e. Venice proper, and the Domini di Terraferma in northern Italy.
The fortifications of Kotor are an integrated historical fortification system that protected the medieval town of Kotor containing ramparts, towers, citadels, gates, bastions, forts, cisterns, a castle, and ancillary buildings and structures. They incorporate military architecture mainly of Venice, but also a few of Illyria, Byzantium, and Austria. Together with the old town and its natural surroundings the fortifications were inscribed in the list of World Heritage Sites in 1979 labelled Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor and represent the only such site of cultural significance in Montenegro.
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Bolizza family or Bolica was a Dalmatian diplomat and noble family in Venetian Albania from the region Perast, Kotor. In 1578, the family became known for maintaining the relations between Venice and Istanbul having the first of the family member Zuanne Giovanni Bolizza. Eventually the family became the most known mercantile and seafaring families who traded all over the Adriatic ocean. The family received three ships used for the transfer of letters which is mentioned in the report of Marino Bolizza in 1614, who according to studies, was one of Zuanne's sons. The mailmen arrived from Venice in Kotor who then proceeded to travel the dangerous path to Plav and from there, the travel was safe. Eventually, the Propaganda Fide gained new momentum thus the communication with Istanbul grew in important to which Francesco Bolizza who had been the main courier, seemed suitable for the task. His brother Vincent Bolizza continued in his path as did the nephew Nicolo Bolizza. There was also a Giovanni The family maintained good relations with the Montenegrin and Albanian tribes, Ottoman pashas and beys as well as Venice and Rome. They are remembered as having maintained the relations of commission. Francesco's father was Giovanni Bolizza who was honored in 1578 in Venice. Generally, the family was known for maintaining the postal service between Venice and the Ottoman Empire.