Verdi (crater)

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Verdi
Planet Mercury
Coordinates 64°30′N169°00′W / 64.5°N 169°W / 64.5; -169 Coordinates: 64°30′N169°00′W / 64.5°N 169°W / 64.5; -169
Diameter 145 km (90 mi)
Eponym Giuseppe Verdi

Verdi is a relatively young[ citation needed ] impact crater on the planet Mercury. It was named after Italian Romantic composer Giuseppe Verdi (1813–1901) in 1979, as recognized by the International Astronomical Union. [1] The crater's extensive ejecta blanket and secondary crater field are superposed on plains materials and older craters.

Impact crater Circular depression on a solid astronomical body formed by a hypervelocity impact of a smaller object

An impact crater is an approximately circular depression in the surface of a planet, moon, or other solid body in the Solar System or elsewhere, formed by the hypervelocity impact of a smaller body. In contrast to volcanic craters, which result from explosion or internal collapse, impact craters typically have raised rims and floors that are lower in elevation than the surrounding terrain. Impact craters range from small, simple, bowl-shaped depressions to large, complex, multi-ringed impact basins. Meteor Crater is a well-known example of a small impact crater on Earth.

Mercury (planet) Smallest and closest planet to the Sun in the Solar System

Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System. Its orbital period around the Sun of 87.97 days is the shortest of all the planets in the Solar System. It is named after the Roman deity Mercury, the messenger of the gods.

Verdi lies in the northern section of the Shakespeare quadrangle and is relatively large for a Mercurian crater, with a low rim and shallow floor. [2] The crater has a diameter of about 145 kilometres (90 miles), although estimates of its size have varied. [3] Like its neighbour, Brahms, Verdi is "a complex crater with a central peak and terraced walls" and has several secondary craters. [4] Another key feature of the crater is its discontinuous inner rings.

The Shakespeare quadrangle is a region of Mercury running from 90 to 180° longitude and 20 to 70° latitude. It is also called Caduceata.

Brahms is a crater on Mercury. It has a diameter of 100 kilometers. Its name was adopted by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) in 1979. Brahms is named for the German composer Johannes Brahms, who lived from 1833 to 1897.

Verdi was first imaged by Mariner 10 , a robotic space probe launched in the early 1970s to survey Venus and Mercury. [5] Verdi and most of the planet's other craters were photographed in 2011 by the MESSENGER mission, a probe sent by NASA to orbit and photograph the planet. [3]

<i>Mariner 10</i>

Mariner 10 was an American robotic space probe launched by NASA on November 3, 1973, to fly by the planets Mercury and Venus.

<i>MESSENGER</i> Seventh mission of the Discovery program; orbital reconnaissance of the planet Mercury

Messenger was a NASA robotic spacecraft that orbited the planet Mercury between 2011 and 2015. The probe was launched aboard a Delta II rocket in August 2004 to study Mercury's chemical composition, geology, and magnetic field.

NASA space-related agency of the United States government

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is an independent agency of the United States Federal Government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

Verdi is one of several craters on Mercury named after famous composers. Other examples in the Shakespeare quadrangle include Brahms (after Johannes Brahms), Scarlatti (after Domenico Scarlatti), and Couperin (after Francois Couperin). [6] A number of Mercurian craters are named after historic cultural figures from different fields, including literature, philosophy, and art, but others feature names from popular culture, including Walt Disney and Muddy Waters. [1] [7]

Composer person who creates music, either by musical notation or oral tradition

A composer is a musician who is an author of music in any form, including vocal music, instrumental music, electronic music, and music which combines multiple forms. A composer may create music in any music genre, including, for example, classical music, musical theatre, blues, folk music, jazz, and popular music. Composers often express their works in a written musical score using musical notation.

Johannes Brahms German composer and pianist

Johannes Brahms was a German composer, pianist, and conductor of the Romantic period. Born in Hamburg into a Lutheran family, Brahms spent much of his professional life in Vienna, Austria. His reputation and status as a composer are such that he is sometimes grouped with Johann Sebastian Bach and Ludwig van Beethoven as one of the "Three Bs" of music, a comment originally made by the nineteenth-century conductor Hans von Bülow.

Scarlatti (crater) Crater on Mercury

Scarlatti is a pit-floored crater on Mercury, which was discovered in 1974 by the Mariner 10 spacecraft. It has a prominent peak ring, which floor is covered by the smooth plain material. The crater displays an arcuate collapse feature along the peak ring. The size of the pit, which was first noticed in MESSENGER images obtained in January 2008, is 38 × 12 km. Such a feature may have resulted from collapse of a magma chamber underlying the central peak ring complex of the crater. The collapse feature is an analog of Earth's volcanic calderas. Scarlatti is thought to have the same age as the Caloris basin.

Related Research Articles

Geology of Mercury Geologic structure and composition of planet Mercury

The geology of Mercury is the least understood of all the terrestrial planets in the Solar System. This stems largely from Mercury's proximity to the Sun which makes reaching it with spacecraft technically challenging and Earth-based observations difficult.

Kuiper (Mercurian crater) crater on Mercury

Kuiper is a moderate-size crater with a central peak cluster located at 11.35°S 31.23°W on Mercury. It is 62 kilometers in diameter and was named after Dutch-American astronomer Gerard Kuiper in 1976. It is one of only 2 Mercurian craters which are named not after artists, and one of very few cases when the same name is used for 3 craters. Gerard Kuiper, being a leader of American planetary science, died shortly before the first images of Mercurian surface were made.

The Borealis quadrangle is a quadrangle on Mercury surrounding the north pole down to 65° latitude.

Tolstoj quadrangle

The Tolstoj quadrangle in the equatorial region of Mercury runs from 144 to 216° longitude and -25 to 25° latitude. It was provisionally called "Tir", but renamed after Leo Tolstoy by the International Astronomical Union in 1976. Also called Phaethontias.

The Kuiper quadrangle, located in a heavily cratered region of Mercury, includes the young, 55-km-diameter crater Kuiper, which has the highest albedo recorded on the planet, and the small crater Hun Kal, which is the principal reference point for Mercurian longitude. Impact craters and basins, their numerous secondary craters, and heavily to lightly cratered plains are the characteristic landforms of the region. At least six multiringed basins ranging from 150 km to 440 km in diameter are present. Inasmuch as multiringed basins occur widely on that part of Mercury photographed by Mariner 10, as well as on the Moon and Mars, they offer a potentially valuable basis for comparison between these planetary bodies.

Hokusai quadrangle

The Hokusai quadrangle (H-5) is one of fifteen quadrangles on Mercury. It runs from 360 to 270° longitude and 20 to 70° latitude. Named after the Hokusai crater, it was mapped in detail for the first time after MESSENGER entered orbit around Mercury in 2011. It had not been mapped prior to that point because it was one of the six quadrangles that wasn't illuminated when Mariner 10 made its flybys in 1974 and 1975. These six quadrangles continued to be known by their albedo feature names, with this one known as the Apollonia quadrangle.

Raditladi quadrangle one of fifteen quadrangles on Mercury; runs from 270 to 180° longitude and 20 to 70° latitude; named after the Raditladi Basin; mapped in detail for the first time after MESSENGER entered orbit around Mercury in 2011

The Raditladi quadrangle (H-4) is one of fifteen quadrangles on Mercury. It runs from 270 to 180° longitude and 20 to 70° latitude. Named after the Raditladi Basin, it was mapped in detail for the first time after MESSENGER entered orbit around Mercury in 2011. It had not been mapped prior to that point because it was one of the six quadrangles that was not illuminated when Mariner 10 made its flybys in 1974 and 1975. These six quadrangles continued to be known by their albedo feature names, with this one known as the Liguria quadrangle.

Eminescu quadrangle quadrangle

The Eminescu quadrangle (H-9) is one of fifteen quadrangles on Mercury. It runs from 216 to 288° longitude and from -25 to 25° latitude. Named after the Eminescu crater, it was mapped in detail for the first time after MESSENGER entered orbit around Mercury in 2011. It had not been mapped prior to that point because it was one of the six quadrangles that was not illuminated when Mariner 10 made its flybys in 1974 and 1975. These six quadrangles continued to be known by their albedo feature names, with this one known as the Solitudo Criophori quadrangle.

Derain quadrangle

The Derain quadrangle (H-10) is one of fifteen quadrangles on Mercury. It runs from 288 to 360° longitude and from -25 to 25° latitude. Named after the Derain crater, it was mapped in detail for the first time after MESSENGER entered orbit around Mercury in 2011. It had not been mapped prior to that point because it was one of the six quadrangles that was not illuminated when Mariner 10 made its flybys in 1974 and 1975. These six quadrangles continued to be known by their albedo feature names, with this one known as the Pieria quadrangle.

Debussy quadrangle

The Debussy quadrangle (H-14) is one of fifteen quadrangles on Mercury. It runs from 270 to 360° longitude and from -20 to -70° latitude. Named after the Debussy crater, it was mapped in detail for the first time after MESSENGER entered orbit around Mercury in 2011. It had not been mapped prior to that point because it was one of the six quadrangles that was not illuminated when Mariner 10 made its flybys in 1974 and 1975. These six quadrangles continued to be known by their albedo feature names, with this one known as the Cyllene quadrangle.

Discovery quadrangle

The Discovery quadrangle lies within the heavily cratered part of Mercury in a region roughly antipodal to the 1550-km-wide Caloris Basin. Like the rest of the heavily cratered part of the planet, the quadrangle contains a spectrum of craters and basins ranging in size from those at the limit of resolution of the best photographs to those as much as 350 km across, and ranging in degree of freshness from pristine to severely degraded. Interspersed with the craters and basins both in space and time are plains deposits that are probably of several different origins. Because of its small size and very early segregation into core and crust, Mercury has seemingly been a dead planet for a long time—possibly longer than the Moon. Its geologic history, therefore, records with considerable clarity some of the earliest and most violent events that took place in the inner Solar System.

Neruda quadrangle

The Neruda quadrangle (H-13) is one of fifteen quadrangles on Mercury. It runs from 180 to 270° longitude and -20 to -70° latitude. Named after the Neruda crater, it was mapped in detail for the first time after MESSENGER entered orbit around Mercury in 2011. It had not been mapped prior to that point because it was one of the six quadrangles that was not illuminated when Mariner 10 made its flybys in 1974 and 1975. These six quadrangles continued to be known by their albedo feature names, with this one known as the Solitudo Persephones quadrangle.

Michelangelo quadrangle

The Michelangelo quadrangle is in the southern hemisphere of the planet Mercury, where the imaged part is heavily cratered terrain that has been strongly influenced by the presence of multiring basins. At least four such basins, now nearly obliterated, have largely controlled the distribution of plains materials and structural trends in the map area. Many craters, interpreted to be of impact origin, display a spectrum of modification styles and degradation states. The interaction between basins, craters, and plains in this quadrangle provides important clues to geologic processes that have formed the morphology of the mercurian surface.

Couperin is a crater on Mercury. It has a diameter of 80 kilometers. Its name was adopted by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) in 1979. Couperin is named for the French composer François Couperin, who lived from 1688 to 1733.

Wagner (crater) crater on Mercury

Wagner is an impact crater in the south polar region of the planet Mercury. It was named after the German composer Richard Wagner (1813–1883) in 1976, as recognized by the International Astronomical Union. It is located in the Bach quadrangle, between Bach and Chopin.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Mercury:

References

  1. 1 2 "Nomenclature: Mercury, craters". IAU. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  2. Greeley, Ronald. Introduction to planetary geomorphology. Cambridge University Press. p. 94. ISBN   9780521867115.
  3. 1 2 "Verdi's encore". Messenger. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  4. "Appreciating Mercury's Brahms". NASA . Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  5. "Meet Joe Green". NASA. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  6. "Map of Shakespeare quadrangle" (PDF). IAU. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  7. Rannals, Lee (21 December 2012). "Disney name goes interplanetary with impact crater identity". redorbit. Retrieved 20 May 2013.