Verkhoyansk

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Verkhoyansk

Верхоянск
Town under district jurisdiction [1]
Other transcription(s)
  YakutВерхоянскай
Werchojansk Kaltepoldenkmal II.JPG
Pole of Cold in Verkhoyansk
Flag of Verkhoyansk.png
Flag
Coat of Arms of Verkhoyansk (Yakutia) soviet.png
Coat of arms
Location of Verkhoyansk
Verkhoyansk
Russia administrative location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Verkhoyansk
Location of Verkhoyansk
Yakutia notext.svg
Red pog.svg
Verkhoyansk
Verkhoyansk (Sakha Republic)
Coordinates: 67°33′N133°23′E / 67.550°N 133.383°E / 67.550; 133.383 Coordinates: 67°33′N133°23′E / 67.550°N 133.383°E / 67.550; 133.383
Country Russia
Federal subject Sakha Republic [1]
Administrative district Verkhoyansky District [1]
Town Verkhoyansk [1]
Founded1638 [2] [1]
Town status since1817
Elevation
127 m (417 ft)
Population
  Total1,311
  Estimate 
(2018) [4]
1,122 (−14.4%)
   Capital ofTown of Verkhoyansk [1]
   Municipal district Verkhoyansky Municipal District [5]
  Urban settlementVerkhoyansk Urban Settlement [5]
   Capital ofVerkhoyansk Urban Settlement [5]
Time zone UTC+10 (MSK+7   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg [6] )
Postal code(s) [7]
678530
Dialing code(s) +7 41165 [8]
OKTMO ID98616103001
Verkhoyansk population
2010 Census 1,311 [3]
2002 Census 1,434 [9]
1989 Census 1,883 [10]
1979 Census 1,709 [11]

Verkhoyansk (Russian:Верхоянск,IPA:  [vʲɪrxɐˈjansk] ; Yakut : Верхоянскай, Verkhoyanskay) is a town in Verkhoyansky District of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located on the Yana River in the Arctic Circle, 92 kilometers (57 mi) from Batagay, the administrative center of the district, and 675 kilometers (419 mi) north of Yakutsk, the capital of the Sakha republic. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 1,311. [3] Verkhoyansk holds the record for both the hottest and the coldest temperatures ever recorded north of the Arctic Circle, with 47.8 °C (118.0 °F) and −67.8 °C (−90.0 °F) respectively. [12] [13] The heat record is shared with Fort Yukon, and the cold record is shared with Oymyakon.

Contents

History

Cossacks founded an ostrog in 1638, [2] 90 kilometers (56 mi) southwest of the modern town. The ostrog's name "Verkhoyansky", roughly translating from Russian as the town on the Upper Yana, derived from its geographical location on the upper reaches of the Yana River. In 1775, it was moved to the left bank of the Yana River to facilitate tax collection. It was granted town status in 1817.[ citation needed ] Between the 1860s and 1917, the town was a place of political exile, with some of the more prominent exiles including the Polish writer Wacław Sieroszewski, as well as Bolshevik revolutionaries Ivan Babushkin and Viktor Nogin.

Administrative and municipal status

As an inhabited locality, Verkhoyansk is classified as a town under district jurisdiction. [1] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated within Verkhoyansky District as the Town of Verkhoyansk. [1] As a municipal division, the Town of Verkhoyansk is incorporated within Verkhoyansky Municipal District as Verkhoyansk Urban Settlement. [5]

Economy and infrastructure

There is a river port, an airport, a fur-collecting depot, and the center of a reindeer-raising area. It is also home to the Pole of Cold Museum.

Geography

Climate

Verkhoyansk is notable chiefly for its exceptionally low winter temperatures and some of the greatest temperature differences on Earth between summer and winter. Average monthly temperatures range from −45.4 °C (−49.7 °F) in January to +16.5 °C (61.7 °F) in July. Mean monthly temperatures are below freezing from October through April and exceed +10 °C (50 °F) from June through August, with the intervening months of May and September constituting very short transitional seasons. Despite being located within the Arctic Circle, Verkhoyansk has an extreme subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification Dfd) dominated much of the year by high pressure. This has the effect of cutting off the region from warming influences in winter and together with a lack of cloud cover leads to extensive heat losses during the cooler months.

Verkhoyansk is one of the places considered the northern Pole of Cold, the other being Oymyakon, located 629 km (391 miles) away by air. The lowest temperature recorded there, in February 1892, was −67.8 °C (−90.0 °F), recorded on February 5 and 7, [14] [15] although on 6 February 1933, the temperature at Oymyakon reached −67.7 °C (−89.9 °F), just barely above Verkhoyansk's record. [14] [15] Only Antarctica has recorded lower temperatures than Oymyakon or Verkhoyansk: the lowest directly recorded temperature at ground level is −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F), recorded at the Vostok Station in Antarctica on 21 July 1983, [16] [17] and a temperature of −93.2 °C (−135.8 °F) was recorded via satellite observations at the East Antarctic Plateau in Antarctica on 10 August 2010. [18]

In this area, temperature inversions consistently form in winter due to the extremely cold and dense air of the Siberian High pooling in deep hollows, so that temperatures increase rather than decrease with higher altitude. In Verkhoyansk it sometimes happens that the average minimum temperatures for January, February, and December are below −50 °C (−58 °F). Oymyakon and Verkhoyansk are the only two permanently populated places in the world that have recorded temperatures below −60.0 °C (−76.0 °F) every day of January.[ citation needed ]

In its short summer, daytime temperatures over +30 °C (86 °F) are not uncommon. The warmest month on record is July 2001, at +21.9 °C (71.4 °F). [19] The average annual temperature for Verkhoyansk is −14.5 °C (5.9 °F). On 20 June 2020, Verkhoyansk recorded a temperature of +38.0 °C (100.4 °F), yielding a temperature range of 105.8 °C (190.4 °F) based on reliable records, which is the greatest temperature range in the world. It was also the highest temperature above the Arctic Circle ever recorded. Only a handful of towns in Siberia and Canada have temperature ranges of 100 °C (180 °F) or more. Verkhoyansk has never recorded a temperature above freezing between November 10 and March 14. [20]

Verkhoyansk has an extreme latitude temperature anomaly when compared with Røst off the coastline of Norway. Both settlements are on 67°N, although Røst is on average more than 45 °C (81 °F) milder during winter. In July on the other hand Verkhoyansk is quite a bit warmer than its Norwegian counterpart.

Verkhoyansk has a dry climate with little rainfall or snowfall: the average annual precipitation is 180 millimeters (7.1 in). Although no month can be described as truly wet, there are strong seasonal differences in precipitation, with the summer being much wetter than the winter. Winter precipitation is extremely light, largely because of the dominance of high pressure at this time of year.

Climate data for Verkhoyansk
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)−9.5
(14.9)
−0.3
(31.5)
5.6
(42.1)
14.3
(57.7)
28.1
(82.6)
38.0
(100.4)
37.3
(99.1)
33.7
(92.7)
25.1
(77.2)
14.5
(58.1)
1.1
(34.0)
−5.3
(22.5)
38.0
(100.4)
Average high °C (°F)−42.2
(−44.0)
−36.6
(−33.9)
−19.7
(−3.5)
−3
(27)
9.9
(49.8)
19.9
(67.8)
23.4
(74.1)
18.6
(65.5)
8.4
(47.1)
−9.3
(15.3)
−31.1
(−24.0)
−40.2
(−40.4)
−8.5
(16.7)
Daily mean °C (°F)−45.3
(−49.5)
−41.6
(−42.9)
−29.6
(−21.3)
−12.4
(9.7)
3.7
(38.7)
13.2
(55.8)
16.4
(61.5)
11.5
(52.7)
2.6
(36.7)
−14.3
(6.3)
−34.7
(−30.5)
−43.4
(−46.1)
−14.3
(6.3)
Average low °C (°F)−48.3
(−54.9)
−45.8
(−50.4)
−37.9
(−36.2)
−22.1
(−7.8)
−2.5
(27.5)
6.7
(44.1)
9.7
(49.5)
5.2
(41.4)
−2.3
(27.9)
−18.9
(−2.0)
−38.2
(−36.8)
−46.4
(−51.5)
−20.1
(−4.2)
Record low °C (°F)−67.8
(−90.0)
−67.8
(−90.0)
−60.3
(−76.5)
−57.2
(−71.0)
−34.2
(−29.6)
−7.9
(17.8)
−3.2
(26.2)
−9.9
(14.2)
−21.7
(−7.1)
−48.7
(−55.7)
−57.2
(−71.0)
−64.5
(−84.1)
−67.8
(−90.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches)6
(0.2)
6
(0.2)
5
(0.2)
5
(0.2)
14
(0.6)
27
(1.1)
34
(1.3)
34
(1.3)
19
(0.7)
11
(0.4)
11
(0.4)
8
(0.3)
180
(7.1)
Average snowfall cm (inches)20
(7.9)
22
(8.7)
24
(9.4)
18
(7.1)
1
(0.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
2
(0.8)
5
(2.0)
12
(4.7)
16
(6.3)
120
(47.3)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)2.31.71.52.23.65.26.55.74.04.83.53.244.2
Average snowy days171512840004171816111
Average relative humidity (%)74746963585761697478777573
Mean monthly sunshine hours 684219280309354327219132842612,041
Source 1: Погода и Климат [21] January record [22]
Source 2: NOAA (precipitation days and sunshine hours, 1961-1990) [23]

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References

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Divisions of the Sakha Republic
  2. 1 2 Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 69. ISBN   5-7107-7399-9.
  3. 1 2 3 Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  4. "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  5. 1 2 3 4 Law #173-Z #353-III
  6. "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  7. Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  8. http://www.pogodaiklimat.ru/climate/24266.htm
  9. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000](XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  10. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 via Demoscope Weekly.
  11. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 г. Национальный состав населения по регионам России [All Union Population Census of 1979. Ethnic composition of the population by regions of Russia](XLS). Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 года [All-Union Population Census of 1979] (in Russian). 1979 via Demoscope Weekly (website of the Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics.
  12. Schultz, Isaac (June 22, 2021). "Ground Temperatures Hit 118 Degrees in the Arctic Circle". Gizmodo. Retrieved June 22, 2021.
  13. "Northern Hemisphere: Lowest Temperature". Arizona State University. Retrieved June 21, 2020.
  14. 1 2 N. A. Stepanova. "On the Lowest Temperatures on Earth" (PDF).
  15. 1 2 Weather Underground - The Coldest Places on Earth https://www.wunderground.com/blog/weatherhistorian/the-coldest-places-on-earth
  16. "Global Weather & Climate Extremes". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved December 23, 2015.
  17. "World: Lowest Temperature". World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on June 16, 2010. Retrieved December 23, 2015.
  18. "The Coldest Place in the World". NASA. Retrieved December 12, 2017.
  19. GHCN monthly climate data; Goddard Institute of Space Studies record for Verhojansk 1885-2010
  20. "Weather and Climate - Climate Monitor: The weather in Verkhoyansk" (in Russian). www.pogodaiklimat.ru. Retrieved December 25, 2013. Daily records on the right of the page; December–March records can be accessed via buttons at the bottom of the page.
  21. Погода и Климат. Retrieved 1 January 2013.
  22. Verkhoyansk Monument image: https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-JZsosJzSVV8/WJv6EuE-_QI/AAAAAAABRs0/BRgPwLTin-4/verkhoyansk-87.jpg?imgmax=1600
  23. "Verhojansk Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved February 9, 2015.

Sources