Versailles, Yvelines

Last updated

Versailles
Versailles collage.jpg
From top left to bottom right: Le Soir ("The Evening" in the gardens of Versailles); rue des Deux-Portes; the Château de Versailles taken from the gardens; Versailles Cathedral; equestrian statue of Louis XIV, place d'Armes, in front of the Château; Church of Notre-Dame, Versailles, parish church of the Château; the bassin d'Apollon in the gardens of Versailles; la salle du Jeu de paume (where the Tennis Court Oath was signed); the Musée Lambinet (municipal museum of Versailles); the Temple de l'Amour ("Temple of Love", garden of the Petit Trianon)
Logo Ville de Versailles 2012.jpg
Coats of Arms of Versailles.svg
Versailles map.png
Location (in red) within Paris inner and outer suburbs
Location of Versailles
Versailles, Yvelines
France location map-Regions and departements-2016.svg
Red pog.svg
Versailles
Ile-de-France region location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Versailles
Coordinates: 48°48′19″N2°08′06″E / 48.8053°N 2.135°E / 48.8053; 2.135 Coordinates: 48°48′19″N2°08′06″E / 48.8053°N 2.135°E / 48.8053; 2.135
Country France
Region Île-de-France
Department Yvelines
Arrondissement Versailles
Canton Versailles-1 and 2
Intercommunality CA Versailles Grand Parc
Government
  Mayor (20202026) François de Mazières (DVD)
Area
1
26.18 km2 (10.11 sq mi)
Population
 (Jan. 2019) [1]
84,808
  Density3,200/km2 (8,400/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Versaillais
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
78646 /78000
Elevation103–180 m (338–591 ft)
(avg. 132 m or 433 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Versailles (French pronunciation:  [vɛʁsɑj] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a commune in the department of the Yvelines, Île-de-France, renowned worldwide for the Château de Versailles and the gardens of Versailles, designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Located in the western suburbs of the French capital, 17.1 km (10.6 mi) from the centre of Paris, Versailles is in the 21st century a wealthy suburb of Paris with a service-based economy, as well as a major tourist destination. According to the 2017 census, the population of the city is 85,862 inhabitants, down from a peak of 94,145 in 1975. [2]

Contents

A new town founded at the will of King Louis XIV, Versailles was the de facto capital of the Kingdom of France for over a century, from 1682 to 1789, before becoming the cradle of the French Revolution. After having lost its status of royal city, it became the préfecture (regional capital) of the Seine-et-Oise département in 1790, then of Yvelines in 1968. It is also a Roman Catholic diocese.

Versailles is historically known for numerous treaties such as the Treaty of Paris, which ended the American Revolution, and the Treaty of Versailles, after World War I. Today, the Congress of France – the name given to the body created when both houses of the French Parliament, the National Assembly and the Senate, meet – gathers in the Château de Versailles to vote on revisions to the Constitution.

Name

The argument over the etymology of Versailles tends to privilege the Latin word versare, meaning "to keep turning, turn over and over", [3] an expression used in medieval times for plowed lands, cleared lands (lands that had been repeatedly "turned over"). This word formation is similar to Latin seminare ("to sow") which gave French semailles ("sowings", "sown seeds").

During the Revolution of 1789, city officials had proposed to the convention to rename Versailles Berceau-de-la-Liberté ("Cradle of Liberty"), but they had to retract their proposal when confronted with the objections of the majority of the population. [4]

A seat of power

From May 1682, when Louis XIV moved the court and government permanently to Versailles, until his death in September 1715, Versailles was the unofficial capital of the kingdom of France. For the next seven years, during the Régence of Philippe d'Orléans, the royal court of the young King Louis XV was the first in Paris, while the Regent governed from his Parisian residence, the Palais-Royal. Versailles was again the unofficial capital of France from June 1722, when Louis XV returned to Versailles, until October 1789, when a Parisian mob forced Louis XVI and the royal family to move to Paris. Versailles again became the unofficial capital of France from March 1871, when Adolphe Thiers' government took refuge in Versailles, fleeing the insurrection of the Paris Commune, until November 1879, when the newly elected government and parliament returned to Paris. During the various periods when government affairs were conducted from Versailles, Paris remained the official capital of France.

Versailles was made the préfecture of the Seine-et-Oise département at its inception in March 1790 (at which time Seine-et-Oise had approximately 420,000 inhabitants). [5] By the 1960s, with the growth of the Paris suburbs, the Seine-et-Oise had reached more than 2 million inhabitants, [5] and was deemed too large and ungovernable, and thus it was split into three départements in January 1968. Versailles was made the préfecture of the Yvelines département, the largest chunk of the former Seine-et-Oise. At the 2017 census the Yvelines had 1,438,266 inhabitants. [6]

Versailles is the seat of a Roman Catholic diocese (bishopric) which was created in 1790. The diocese of Versailles is subordinate to the archdiocese of Paris.

In 1975, Versailles was made the seat of a Court of Appeal whose jurisdiction covers the western suburbs of Paris.

Since 1972, Versailles has been the seat of one of France's 30 nationwide académies (districts) of the Ministry of National Education. The académie de Versailles, the largest of France's thirty académies by its number of pupils and students, is in charge of supervising all the elementary schools and high schools of the western suburbs of Paris.

Versailles is also an important node for the French army, a tradition going back to the monarchy with, for instance, the military camp of Satory and other institutions.

Geography

Versailles is located 17.1 km (10.6 mi) west-southwest from the centre of Paris. The city sits on an elevated plateau, 130 to 140 metres (425 to 460 ft) above sea-level (whereas the elevation of the centre of Paris is only 33 m (108 ft) above sea level), surrounded by wooded hills: in the north the forests of Marly and Fausses-Reposes, and in the south the forests of Satory and Meudon.

The city (commune) of Versailles has an area of 26.18 km2 (10.11 sq mi, or 6,469 acres), which is a quarter of the area of the city of Paris. In 1989, Versailles had a population density of 3,344/km2 (8,660/sq mi), whereas Paris had a density of 20,696/km2 (53,602/sq mi).

Born out of the will of a king, the city has a rational and symmetrical grid of streets. By the standards of the 18th century, Versailles was a very modern European city. Versailles was used as a model for the building of Washington, D.C. by Pierre Charles L'Enfant. [7]

History

The name of Versailles appears for the first time in a medieval document dated 1038. In the feudal system of medieval France, the lords of Versailles came directly under the king of France, with no intermediary overlords between them and the king; yet they were not very important lords. In the end of the 11th century, the village curled around a medieval castle and the Saint Julien church. Its farming activity and its location on the road from Paris to Dreux and Normandy brought prosperity to the village, culminating in the end of the 13th century, the so-called "century of Saint Louis", famous for the prosperity of northern France and the building of Gothic cathedrals. The 14th century brought the Black Death and the Hundred Years' War, and with it death and destruction. At the end of the Hundred Years' War in the 15th century, the village started to recover, with a population of only 100 inhabitants.

In 1561, Martial de Loménie, secretary of state for finances under King Charles IX, became lord of Versailles. He obtained permission to establish four annual fairs and a weekly market on Thursdays. The population of Versailles was 500 inhabitants. Martial de Loménie was murdered during the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre (24 August 1572). In 1575, Albert de Gondi, a man from Florence who had come to France with Catherine de' Medici, bought the seigneury of Versailles.

Louis XIII

Louis XIII built the original hunting lodge that would become the Palace of Versailles under his son and successor Louis XIV Louis XIIIval grace.jpg
Louis XIII built the original hunting lodge that would become the Palace of Versailles under his son and successor Louis XIV

Henceforth Versailles was the possession of the Gondi family, a family of wealthy and influential parliamentarians at the Parlement of Paris. Several times during the 1610s, the de Gondis invited King Louis XIII to hunt in the large forests around Versailles. In 1622, the king purchased a parcel of forest for his private hunting. In 1624, he acquired more and entrusted Philibert Le Roy with the construction of a small hunting lodge of red bricks and stone with a slate roof. In 1632, the king bought the totality of the land and seigneury of Versailles from Jean-François de Gondi. The hunting lodge was enlarged to the size of a small château between 1632 and 1634.

At the death of Louis XIII, in 1643, the village had 1,000 inhabitants.

This small château was the site of one of the historical events that took place during the reign of Louis XIII, on 10 November 1630, when, on the Day of the Dupes, the party of the queen mother was defeated and Richelieu was confirmed as Prime minister.

Louis XIV

King Louis XIV, son of Louis XIII, was only four years old when his father died. It was 20 years later, in 1661, when Louis XIV commenced his personal reign, that the young king showed interest in Versailles. The idea of leaving Paris, where, as a child, he had experienced first-hand the insurrection of the Fronde, had never left him. Louis XIV commissioned his architect Le Vau and his landscape architect Le Nôtre to transform the castle of his father, as well as the park, in order to accommodate the court. In 1678, after the Treaty of Nijmegen, the king decided that the court and the government would be established permanently in Versailles, which happened on 6 May 1682.

At the same time, a new city was emerging from the ground, resulting from an ingenious decree of the king dated 22 May 1671, whereby the king authorized anyone to acquire a lot in the new city for free. There were only two conditions to acquire a lot: 1- a token tax of 5 shillings (5 sols) per arpent of land should be paid every year ($0.03 per 1,000 sq ft (93 m2) per year in 2005 US dollars); 2- a house should be built on the lot according to the plans and models established by the Surintendant des Bâtiments du Roi (architect in chief of the royal demesne). The plans provided for a city built symmetrically with respect to the Avenue de Paris (which starts from the entrance of the castle). The roofs of the buildings and houses of the new city were not to exceed the level of the Marble Courtyard, at the entrance of the castle (built above a hill dominating the city), so that the perspective from the windows of the castle would not be obstructed.

The old village and the Saint Julien church were demolished to make room for buildings housing the administrative services managing the daily life in the castle. On both sides of the Avenue de Paris were built the Notre-Dame neighborhood and the Saint-Louis neighborhood, with new large churches, markets, aristocratic mansions, all built in very homogeneous style according to the models established by the Surintendant des Bâtiments du Roi. Versailles was a vast construction site for many years. Little by little came to Versailles all those who needed or desired to live close to the maximum power. At the death of the Sun King in 1715, the village of Versailles had turned into a city of approximately 30,000 inhabitants.

Versailles in 1789. Map of Versailles in 1789 by William R Shepherd (died 1934).jpg
Versailles in 1789.

Louis XV and Louis XVI

When the court of King Louis XV returned to Versailles in 1722, the city had 24,000 inhabitants. With the reign of Louis XV, Versailles grew even further. Versailles was the capital of the most powerful kingdom in Europe, and the whole of Europe admired its new architecture and design trends. Soon enough, the strict building rules decided under Louis XIV were not respected anymore, real estate speculation flourished, and the lots that had been given for free under Louis XIV were now on the market for hefty prices. By 1744, the population reached 37,000 inhabitants. The cityscape changed considerably under kings Louis XV and Louis XVI. Buildings were now taller. King Louis XV built a Ministry of War, a Ministry of Foreign Affairs (where the Treaty of Paris (1783) ending the American Revolutionary War was signed in 1783 with the United Kingdom), and a Ministry of the Navy. By 1789, the population had reached 60,000 inhabitants, [8] and Versailles was now the seventh or eighth-largest city of France, and one of the largest cities of Europe.

French Revolution

Seat of the political power, Versailles naturally became the cradle of the French Revolution. The Estates-General met in Versailles on 5 May 1789. The members of the Third Estate took the Tennis Court Oath on 20 June 1789, and the National Constituent Assembly abolished feudalism on 4 August 1789. Eventually, on 5 and 6 October 1789, a crowd of women joined by some members of the national guard from Paris invaded the castle to protest bread prices and forced the royal family to move to Paris. The National Constituent Assembly followed the king to Paris soon afterwards, and Versailles lost its role of capital city. During this turbulent time, Jean-François Coste, who had also been the chief physician of the King's Armies, was appointed mayor of Versailles. [9]

From then on, Versailles lost a good deal of its inhabitants. From 60,000, the population had declined to 26,974 inhabitants by 1806. [10] The castle, stripped of its furniture and ornaments during the Revolution, was left abandoned, with only Napoleon briefly staying one night there and then leaving the castle for good. Louis-Philippe, who took the throne in the July Revolution of 1830, transformed the palace into a National Museum dedicated to "all the glories of France" in 1837. Versailles had become a sleepy town, a place of pilgrimage for those nostalgic for the old monarchy.

19th century to the present day

The Franco-Prussian War of 1870 put Versailles in the limelight again. On 18 January 1871 the victorious Germans proclaimed the king of Prussia, Wilhelm I, emperor of Germany in the very Hall of Mirrors of the castle, in an attempt to take revenge for the conquests of Louis XIV two centuries earlier. Then in March of the same year, following the insurrection of the Paris Commune, the French Third Republic government under Thiers relocated to Versailles, and from there directed the military suppression of the insurrection. The government and the French parliament stayed in Versailles after the quelling of the Commune (May 1871), and it was even thought[ by whom? ] for some time that the capital of France would move definitely to Versailles in order to avoid the revolutionary mood of Paris in the future.

Restoration of a monarchy almost occurred in 1873, with parliament offering the crown to Henri, comte de Chambord, but his refusal to accept the tricolor flag that had been adopted during the Revolution made the restoration of monarchy impossible for the time being. Versailles became again the political center of France, full of buzz and rumors, with its population briefly peaking at 61,686 in 1872, [10] matching the record level of population reached on the eve of the French Revolution 83 years earlier. Eventually, however, left-wing republicans won a string of parliamentary elections, defeating the parties supporting a restoration of the monarchy, and the new majority decided to relocate the government to Paris in November 1879. Versailles then experienced a new population setback (48,324 inhabitants at the 1881 census). [10] After that, Versailles never again functioned as the seat of the capital of France, but the presence of the French Parliament there in the 1870s left a vast hall, built in one aisle of the palace, which the French Parliament uses when it meets in Congress to amend the French Constitution, as well as when the President of France addresses the two chambers of the French Parliament.

The Chateau de Versailles (Pavillon Dufour) in the spring of 2006. Versailles Cour Royale Sud.jpg
The Château de Versailles (Pavillon Dufour) in the spring of 2006.

Only in 1911 did Versailles definitely recover its level of population of 1789, with 60,458 inhabitants at the 1911 census. [10] In 1919, at the end of the First World War, Versailles came into the limelight again as the various treaties ending the war were signed in the castle proper and in the Grand Trianon. After 1919, as the suburbs of Paris continued to expand, Versailles was absorbed by the urban area of Paris and the city experienced a strong demographic and economic growth, turning it into a large suburban city of the metropolitan area of Paris. The role of Versailles as an administrative and judicial center has been reinforced in the 1960s and 1970s, and somehow Versailles has become the main center of the western suburbs of Paris.

The center of the town has kept its very bourgeois atmosphere, while more middle-class neighborhoods have developed around the train stations and in the outskirts of the city. Versailles is a chic suburb of Paris, well linked with the center of Paris by several train lines. However, the city is extremely compartmentalized, divided by large avenues inherited from the monarchy which create the impression of several small cities ignoring each other. Versailles was never an industrial city, even though there are a few chemical and food-processing plants. Essentially, Versailles is a place of services, such as public administration, tourism, business congresses, and festivals. From 1951 until France's withdrawal from the NATO unified command in 1966, nearby Rocquencourt functioned as the site for SHAPE. Versailles is an important military center, with several units and training schools headquartered at the Satory military base, which hosted the headquarters of the famed 2nd French Armored Division until 1999, and where a military exhibition is organized[ by whom? ] annually.

Culture

Versailles' primary cultural attraction is the Palace, with its ornately decorated rooms and historic significance. The Potager du roi is a kitchen garden created under Louis XIV to supply fruits and vegetables to the Court. It is officially recognized as a Remarkable Garden of France.

The town also has other points of cultural notability; in recent times, its position as an affluent suburb of Paris has meant that it forms a part of the Paris artistic scene, and musical groups such as Phoenix, Air, Fuzati, and Daft Punk have some link to the city, [11] as does the director Michel Gondry.

Sport

Football Club de Versailles 78 is a semi-professional association football club founded in 1989. Their home stadium is the Stade de Montbauron, which has a capacity of 6,208 people.

Population

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1793 35,093    
1800 27,574−3.39%
1806 26,974−0.37%
1821 27,528+0.14%
1831 28,477+0.34%
1836 29,209+0.51%
1841 35,412+3.93%
1846 34,901−0.29%
1851 35,367+0.27%
1856 39,306+2.13%
1861 43,899+2.23%
1866 44,021+0.06%
1872 61,686+5.78%
1876 49,847−5.19%
1881 48,324−0.62%
1886 49,852+0.62%
1891 51,679+0.72%
1896 54,874+1.21%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1901 54,982+0.04%
1906 54,820−0.06%
1911 60,458+1.98%
1921 64,753+0.69%
1926 68,574+1.15%
1931 66,859−0.51%
1936 73,839+2.01%
1946 70,141−0.51%
1954 84,445+2.35%
1962 86,759+0.34%
1968 90,829+0.77%
1975 94,145+0.51%
1982 91,494−0.41%
1990 87,789−0.52%
1999 85,726−0.26%
200786,979+0.18%
201285,424−0.36%
201785,862+0.10%
Source: EHESS [10] and INSEE [2]

Immigration

Place of birth of residents of Versailles in 1999
Born in metropolitan France Born outside metropolitan France
87.9%12.1%
Born in
overseas France
Born in foreign countries with French citizenship at birth1 EU-15 immigrants2Non-EU-15 immigrants
0.9%4.2%3.2%3.8%
1 This group is made up largely of former French settlers, such as Pieds-Noirs in Northwest Africa, followed by former colonial citizens who had French citizenship at birth (such as was often the case for the native elite in French colonies), as well as to a lesser extent foreign-born children of French expatriates. Note that a foreign country is understood as a country not part of France in 1999, so a person born for example in 1950 in Algeria, when Algeria was an integral part of France, is nonetheless listed as a person born in a foreign country in French statistics.

2 An immigrant is a person born in a foreign country not having French citizenship at birth. Note that an immigrant may have acquired French citizenship since moving to France, but is still considered an immigrant in French statistics. On the other hand, persons born in France with foreign citizenship (the children of immigrants) are not listed as immigrants.

Education

The headquarters of the Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines University are located in the city, as well as the ISIPCA, a post graduate school in perfume, cosmetics products and food flavor formulation.

Transport

Versailles is served by Versailles – Chantiers station, which is an interchange station on Paris RER line C, on the Transilien La Défense suburban rail line, on the Transilien Paris – Montparnasse suburban rail line, and on several national rail lines, including low-frequency TGV service.

Versailles is also served by two other stations on Paris RER line C: Versailles-Château–Rive-Gauche (the closest station to the Palace of Versailles and consequently the station most frequently used by tourists) and Porchefontaine.

Versailles is also served by two stations on the Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail line: Versailles-Rive-Droite and Montreuil.

Twin towns – sister cities

Versailles is twinned with:

Notable people

See also

Related Research Articles

Palace of Versailles French palace located in Île-de-France

The Palace of Versailles is a former royal residence located in Versailles, about 12 miles (19 km) west of Paris, France. The palace is owned by the French Republic and has since 1995 been managed, under the direction of the French Ministry of Culture, by the Public Establishment of the Palace, Museum and National Estate of Versailles. 15,000,000 people visit the Palace, Park, or Gardens of Versailles every year, making it one of the most popular tourist attractions in the world. However, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of paying visitors to the Château dropped by 75 percent from eight million in 2019 to two million in 2020. The drop was particularly sharp among foreign visitors, who account for eighty percent of paying visitors.

Hauts-de-Seine Department of France in Île-de-France

Hauts-de-Seine is a landlocked department in the Île-de-France region, Northern France. It covers Paris's western inner suburbs. It is bordered by Paris, Seine-Saint-Denis, and Val-de-Marne to the east, Val-d'Oise to the north, Yvelines to the west and Essonne to the south. With a population of 1,603,268 and a total area of 176 square kilometres, it is the second most highly densely populated department of France after Paris. It is the fifth most populous department in France. Its prefecture is Nanterre although Boulogne-Billancourt, one of its two subprefectures alongside Antony, has a larger population.

Saint-Germain-en-Laye Subprefecture and commune in Île-de-France, France

Saint-Germain-en-Laye is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France in north-central France. It is located in the western suburbs of Paris, 19.1 km (11.9 mi) from the centre of Paris.

Yvelines Department of France in Île-de-France

Yvelines is a department in the western part of the Île-de-France region in Northern France. In 2016, it had a population of 1,431,808. Its prefecture is Versailles, home to the Palace of Versailles, the principal residence of the King of France from 1682 until 1789, a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1979. Yvelines' subprefectures are Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Mantes-la-Jolie and Rambouillet.

Essonne Department of France

Essonne is a French department in the region of Île-de-France. It is named after the river Essonne.

Val-dOise Department of France

Val-d'Oise is a French department, created in 1968 after the split of the Seine-et-Oise department and located in the Île-de-France region. It gets its name from the Oise River, a major tributary of the Seine, which crosses the region after having started in Belgium and flowed through north-eastern France. Charles de Gaulle Airport, France's main international airport is partially located in Roissy-en-France, a commune of Val d'Oise.

Seine-et-Oise Former département of France

Seine-et-Oise was the former department of France encompassing the western, northern, and southern parts of the metropolitan area of Paris. Its prefecture (capital) was Versailles and its number was 78. Seine-et-Oise was disbanded in 1968 as part of the reorganization of the departments of the Paris metropolitan area.

Rambouillet Commune in Île-de-France, France

Rambouillet is a subprefecture of the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France region of France. It is located beyond the outskirts of Paris, 44.3 km (27.5 mi) southwest of its centre. In 2018, the commune had a population of 26,933.

Jean-Pierre, Count of Montalivet

Jean-Pierre Bachasson, Seigneur et 1er Comte de Montalivet was a French statesman and Peer of France. He was the father of Camille Bachasson, 3rd Count of Montalivet, Minister of the Interior under Louis-Philippe.

House of Orléans French noble family, a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon

The 4th House of Orléans, sometimes called the House of Bourbon-Orléans to distinguish it, is the fourth holder of a surname previously used by several branches of the Royal House of France, all descended in the legitimate male line from the dynasty's founder, Hugh Capet. The house was founded by Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, younger son of Louis XIII and younger brother of Louis XIV, the "Sun King".

Louveciennes Commune in Île-de-France, France

Louveciennes is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France. It is located in the western suburbs of Paris, between Versailles and Saint-Germain-en-Laye, and adjacent to Marly-le-Roi.

Île-de-France Administrative region of France

The Île-de-France is the most populous of the eighteen regions of France. Centred on the capital Paris, it is located in the north-central part of the country and often called the Région Parisienne. Île-de-France is densely populated and retains a prime economic position on the national stage: though it covers only 12,012 square kilometres, about 2% of metropolitan French territory, its estimated 2020 population of 12,997,058 was nearly one-fifth of the national total; its economy accounts for nearly one-third of the French gross domestic product.

Montmorency, Val-dOise Commune in Île-de-France, France

Montmorency is a commune in the northern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 15.3 km (9.5 mi) from the center of Paris.

Marly-le-Roi Commune in Île-de-France, France

Marly-le-Roi is a commune in the Yvelines department in the administrative region of Île-de-France, France. It is located in the western suburbs of Paris, 18.4 km (11.4 mi) from the centre of Paris.

Guyancourt Commune in Île-de-France, France

Guyancourt is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France. It is located in the south-western suburbs of Paris, 21.2 km (13.2 mi) from the center of Paris, in the "new town" of Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines.

Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye Former royal palace in Saint-Germain-en-Laye

The Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye is a former royal palace in the commune of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, in the département of Yvelines, about 19 km west of Paris, France. Today, it houses the musée d'Archéologie nationale.

Château de Saint-Cloud Former royal palace in France, today a national park

The Château de Saint-Cloud was a château in France, built on a site overlooking the Seine at Saint-Cloud in Hauts-de-Seine, about 5 kilometres west of Paris. On the site of the former palace is the state-owned Parc de Saint-Cloud.

Buc, Yvelines Commune in Île-de-France, France

Buc is a commune in the Yvelines department and Île-de-France region of north central France.

Gargenville Commune in Île-de-France, France

Gargenville is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France, 45 km to the center of Paris. It is part of the Parc naturel régional du Vexin français. With the neighborhing commune of Issou, it forms an urban area of around 10000 inhabitants.

History of the Palace of Versailles

The Palace of Versailles is a royal château in Versailles, in the Île-de-France region of France. When the château was built, Versailles was a country village; today, however, it is a suburb of Paris, some 20 kilometres southwest of the French capital. The court of Versailles was the centre of political power in France from 1682, when Louis XIV moved from Paris, until the royal family was forced to return to the capital in October 1789 after the beginning of the French Revolution. Versailles is therefore famous not only as a building, but as well as a symbol of the system of absolute monarchy of the Ancien Régime.

References

  1. "Populations légales 2019". The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies. 29 December 2021.
  2. 1 2 Population en historique depuis 1968, INSEE
  3. University of Notre Dame, William Whitaker's Words, http://www.archives.nd.edu/cgi-bin/wordz.pl?keyword=versare
  4. Georges Moussoir, Versailles, "Berceau de la Liberté", in Revue de l'histoire de Versailles et de Seine-et-Oise, 1899, pp. 215–224 Archived 28 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine (Gallica)
  5. 1 2 SPLAF. "Ancien département : Seine-et-Oise" (in French). Archived from the original on 26 March 2010. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
  6. Téléchargement du fichier d'ensemble des populations légales en 2017, INSEE
  7. Phillips, P. Lee, F. R. G. S., List of maps and views of Washington and District of Columbia in the Library of Congress, Map Division, Government Printing Office, 1900, p. 16
  8. La Grande Encyclopédie (1902). "Volume 31 (on page 882)" (in French). Retrieved 20 June 2007.
  9. Lane, John E. (John Edward) (1928). Jean-Francois Coste : chief physician of the French expeditionary forces in the American revolution. Wellcome Library. [Somerville, N.J.] ; [New York city] : [The American historical society, inc.]
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 Des villages de Cassini aux communes d'aujourd'hui: Commune data sheet Versailles, EHESS. (in French)
  11. Sound Opinions Show #204: 10.23.09
  12. "Twinning Relationship". commune-carthage.gov.tn. Carthage. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  13. "Sister Cities". gyeongju.go.kr. Gyeongju. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  14. "国内外の「姉妹都市」と「友好都市」". city.nara.lg.jp. Nara. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  15. "Jumelage". versailles.fr (in French). Versailles. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  16. "International Sister Cities". tcc.gov.tw. Taipei City. Retrieved 15 December 2021.