Vertebrate

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Vertebrate
Temporal range:
Cambrian Stage 3 Present, [1] 535–0  Ma [2]
Vertebrata 002.png
Example of vertebrates: Acipenser oxyrinchus (Actinopterygii), an African bush elephant (Tetrapoda), a Tiger shark (Chondrichthyes) and a River lamprey (Agnatha).
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Olfactores
Subphylum: Vertebrata
J-B. Lamarck, 1801 [3]
Simplified grouping (see text)
Synonyms

Ossea Batsch, 1788 [3]

Vertebrates ( /ˈvɜːrtɪbrəts/ ) comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata ( /vɜːrtɪˈbrtə/ ) (chordates with backbones). Vertebrates represent the overwhelming majority of the phylum Chordata, with currently about 69,963 species described. [4] Vertebrates comprise such groups as the following:

Contents

Extant vertebrates range in size from the frog species Paedophryne amauensis , at as little as 7.7 mm (0.30 in), to the blue whale, at up to 33 m (108 ft). Vertebrates make up less than five percent of all described animal species; the rest are invertebrates, which lack vertebral columns.

The vertebrates traditionally include the hagfish, which do not have proper vertebrae due to their loss in evolution, [5] though their closest living relatives, the lampreys, do. [6] Hagfish do, however, possess a cranium. For this reason, the vertebrate subphylum is sometimes referred to as "Craniata" when discussing morphology. Molecular analysis since 1992 has suggested that hagfish are most closely related to lampreys, [7] and so also are vertebrates in a monophyletic sense. Others consider them a sister group of vertebrates in the common taxon of craniata. [8]

The populations of vertebrates have dropped in the past 50 years. [9]

Etymology

The word vertebrate derives from the Latin word vertebratus (Pliny), meaning joint of the spine. [10]

Vertebrate is derived from the word vertebra , which refers to any of the bones or segments of the spinal column. [11]

Anatomy and morphology

All vertebrates are built along the basic chordate body plan: a stiff rod running through the length of the animal (vertebral column and/or notochord), [12] with a hollow tube of nervous tissue (the spinal cord) above it and the gastrointestinal tract below.

In all vertebrates, the mouth is found at, or right below, the anterior end of the animal, while the anus opens to the exterior before the end of the body. The remaining part of the body continuing after the anus forms a tail with vertebrae and spinal cord, but no gut. [13]

Vertebral column

The defining characteristic of a vertebrate is the vertebral column, in which the notochord (a stiff rod of uniform composition) found in all chordates has been replaced by a segmented series of stiffer elements (vertebrae) separated by mobile joints (intervertebral discs, derived embryonically and evolutionarily from the notochord).

However, a few vertebrates have secondarily lost this anatomy, retaining the notochord into adulthood, such as the sturgeon [14] and coelacanth. Jawed vertebrates are typified by paired appendages (fins or legs, which may be secondarily lost), but this trait is not required in order for an animal to be a vertebrate.

Fossilized skeleton (cast) of Diplodocus carnegii, showing an extreme example of the backbone that characterizes the vertebrates. Naturkundemuseum Berlin - Dinosaurierhalle.jpg
Fossilized skeleton (cast) of Diplodocus carnegii , showing an extreme example of the backbone that characterizes the vertebrates.

Gills

Gill arches bearing gills in a pike Gills (esox).jpg
Gill arches bearing gills in a pike

All basal vertebrates breathe with gills. The gills are carried right behind the head, bordering the posterior margins of a series of openings from the pharynx to the exterior. Each gill is supported by a cartilagenous or bony gill arch. [15] The bony fish have three pairs of arches, cartilaginous fish have five to seven pairs, while the primitive jawless fish have seven. The vertebrate ancestor no doubt had more arches than this, as some of their chordate relatives have more than 50 pairs of gills. [13]

In amphibians and some primitive bony fishes, the larvae bear external gills, branching off from the gill arches. [16] These are reduced in adulthood, their function taken over by the gills proper in fishes and by lungs in most amphibians. Some amphibians retain the external larval gills in adulthood, the complex internal gill system as seen in fish apparently being irrevocably lost very early in the evolution of tetrapods. [17]

While the more derived vertebrates lack gills, the gill arches form during fetal development, and form the basis of essential structures such as jaws, the thyroid gland, the larynx, the columella (corresponding to the stapes in mammals) and, in mammals, the malleus and incus. [13]

Central nervous system

The central nervous system of vertebrates is based on a hollow nerve cord running along the length of the animal. Of particular importance and unique to vertebrates is the presence of neural crest cells. These are progenitors of stem cells, and critical to coordinating the functions of cellular components. [18] Neural crest cells migrate through the body from the nerve cord during development, and initiate the formation of neural ganglia and structures such as the jaws and skull. [19] [20] [21]

The vertebrates are the only chordate group with neural cephalisation, the concentration of brain functions in the head. A slight swelling of the anterior end of the nerve cord is found in the lancelet, a chordate, though it lacks the eyes and other complex sense organs comparable to those of vertebrates. Other chordates do not show any trends towards cephalisation. [13]

A peripheral nervous system branches out from the nerve cord to innervate the various systems. The front end of the nerve tube is expanded by a thickening of the walls and expansion of the central canal of spinal cord into three primary brain vesicles: The prosencephalon (forebrain), mesencephalon (midbrain) and rhombencephalon (hindbrain), further differentiated in the various vertebrate groups. [22] Two laterally placed eyes form around outgrowths from the midbrain, except in hagfish, though this may be a secondary loss. [23] [24] The forebrain is well-developed and subdivided in most tetrapods, while the midbrain dominates in many fish and some salamanders. Vesicles of the forebrain are usually paired, giving rise to hemispheres like the cerebral hemispheres in mammals. [22]

The resulting anatomy of the central nervous system, with a single hollow nerve cord topped by a series of (often paired) vesicles, is unique to vertebrates. All invertebrates with well-developed brains, such as insects, spiders and squids, have a ventral rather than dorsal system of ganglions, with a split brain stem running on each side of the mouth or gut. [13]

Molecular Signatures

In addition to the morphological characteristics used to define vertebrates (i.e. the presence of a notochord, the development of a vertebral column from the notochord, a dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal gills, a post-anal tail, etc.), molecular markers known as conserved signature indels (CSIs) in protein sequences have been identified and provide distinguishing criteria for the subphylum Vertebrata. [25] Specifically, 5 CSIs in the following proteins: protein synthesis elongation factor-2 (EF-2), eukaryotic translational initiation factor 3 (Euk IF-3), adenosine kinase (AdK) and a protein related to ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase are exclusively shared by all vertebrates and reliably distinguish them from all other metazoan. [25] The CSIs in these protein sequences are predicted to play important functionally important in vertebrates.

A specific relationship between Vertebrates and Tunicates is also strongly supported by two CSIs found in the proteins predicted exosome complex RRP44 and serine palmitoyltransferase, that are exclusively shared by species from these two subphyla but not Cephalochordates, indicating Vertebrates are more closely related to Tunicates than Cephalochordates. [25]

Evolutionary history

First vertebrates

The early vertebrate Haikouichthys Haikouichthys cropped.jpg
The early vertebrate Haikouichthys

Vertebrates originated about 525 million years ago during the Cambrian explosion, which saw rise in organism diversity. The earliest known vertebrate is believed to be Myllokunmingia . [1] One of many early vertebrates are Haikouichthys ercaicunensis . Unlike the other fauna that dominated the Cambrian, these groups had the basic vertebrate body plan: a notochord, rudimentary vertebrae, and a well-defined head and tail. [26] All of these early vertebrates lacked jaws in the common sense and relied on filter feeding close to the seabed. [27] [ page needed ] A vertebrate group of uncertain phylogeny, small eel-like conodonts, are known from microfossils of their paired tooth segments from the late Cambrian to the end of the Triassic. [28]

From fish to amphibians

Acanthostega, a fish-like early labyrinthodont. Acanthostega BW.jpg
Acanthostega , a fish-like early labyrinthodont.

The first jawed vertebrates may have appeared in the late Ordovician (~450 mya) and became common in the Devonian, often known as the "Age of Fishes". [29] The two groups of bony fishes, the actinopterygii and sarcopterygii, evolved and became common. [30] The Devonian also saw the demise of virtually all jawless fishes save for lampreys and hagfish, as well as the Placodermi, a group of armoured fish that dominated the entirety of that period since the late Silurian. The Devonian also saw the rise of the first labyrinthodonts, which was a transitional form between fishes and amphibians.

Mesozoic vertebrates

Amniotes branched from labyrinthodonts in the subsequent Carboniferous period. The Parareptilia and synapsid amniotes were common during the late Paleozoic, while diapsids became dominant during the Mesozoic. In the sea, the bony fishes became dominant. Birds, a derived form of dinosaur, evolved in the Jurassic. [31] The demise of the non-avian dinosaurs at the end of the Cretaceous allowed for the expansion of mammals, which had evolved from the therapsids, a group of synapsid amniotes, during the late Triassic Period.

After the Mesozoic

The Cenozoic world has seen great diversification of bony fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals.

Over half of all living vertebrate species (about 32,000 species) are fish (non-tetrapod craniates), a diverse set of lineages that inhabit all the world's aquatic ecosystems, from snow minnows (Cypriniformes) in Himalayan lakes at elevations over 4,600 metres (15,100 feet) to flatfishes (order Pleuronectiformes) in the Challenger Deep, the deepest ocean trench at about 11,000 metres (36,000 feet). Fishes of myriad varieties are the main predators in most of the world's water bodies, both freshwater and marine. The rest of the vertebrate species are tetrapods, a single lineage that includes amphibians (with roughly 7,000 species); mammals (with approximately 5,500 species); and reptiles and birds (with about 20,000 species divided evenly between the two classes). Tetrapods comprise the dominant megafauna of most terrestrial environments and also include many partially or fully aquatic groups (e.g., sea snakes, penguins, cetaceans).

Classification

There are several ways of classifying animals. Evolutionary systematics relies on anatomy, physiology and evolutionary history, which is determined through similarities in anatomy and, if possible, the genetics of organisms. Phylogenetic classification is based solely on phylogeny. [32] Evolutionary systematics gives an overview; phylogenetic systematics gives detail. The two systems are thus complementary rather than opposed. [33]

Traditional classification

Traditional spindle diagram of the evolution of the vertebrates at class level Spindle diagram.jpg
Traditional spindle diagram of the evolution of the vertebrates at class level

Conventional classification has living vertebrates grouped into seven classes based on traditional interpretations of gross anatomical and physiological traits. This classification is the one most commonly encountered in school textbooks, overviews, non-specialist, and popular works. The extant vertebrates are: [13]

In addition to these, there are two classes of extinct armoured fishes, the Placodermi and the Acanthodii, both of which are considered paraphyletic.

Other ways of classifying the vertebrates have been devised, particularly with emphasis on the phylogeny of early amphibians and reptiles. An example based on Janvier (1981, 1997), Shu et al. (2003), and Benton (2004) [34] is given here († = extinct):

Diversity of various groups of vertebrates through the geologic ages. The width of the bubbles signify the diversity (number of families). Fish evolution.png
Diversity of various groups of vertebrates through the geologic ages. The width of the bubbles signify the diversity (number of families).

While this traditional classification is orderly, most of the groups are paraphyletic, i.e. do not contain all descendants of the class's common ancestor. [34] For instance, descendants of the first reptiles include modern reptiles as well as mammals and birds; the agnathans have given rise to the jawed vertebrates; the bony fishes have given rise to the land vertebrates; the traditional "amphibians" have given rise to the reptiles (traditionally including the synapsids or mammal-like "reptiles"), which in turn have given rise to the mammals and birds. Most scientists working with vertebrates use a classification based purely on phylogeny, [35] organized by their known evolutionary history and sometimes disregarding the conventional interpretations of their anatomy and physiology.

Phylogenetic relationships

In phylogenetic taxonomy, the relationships between animals are not typically divided into ranks but illustrated as a nested "family tree" known as a phylogenetic tree. The cladogram below is based on studies compiled by Philippe Janvier and others for the Tree of Life Web Project and Delsuc et al., [36] [37] and complemented (based on [38] and [39] ). A dagger (†) denotes an extinct clade, whereas all other clades have living descendants.

The galeaspid Nochelaspis maeandrine from the Devonian period NochelaspisMaeandrine-PaleozoologicalMuseumOfChina-May23-08.jpg
The galeaspid Nochelaspis maeandrine from the Devonian period
The placoderm Dunkleosteus terrelli from the Devonian period Dunkleosteus terrelli - Cleveland Museum of Natural History - 2014-12-26 (21137540331).jpg
The placoderm Dunkleosteus terrelli from the Devonian period
The acanthodian fish Diplacanthus acus from the Devonian period Diplacanthus acus (acanthodian fish) from Waterloo Farm.jpg
The acanthodian fish Diplacanthus acus from the Devonian period
The early ray-fin Cheirolepis canadensis from the Devonian period Cheirolepis canadensis.jpg
The early ray-fin Cheirolepis canadensis from the Devonian period
The tetrapodomorph Tiktaalik roseae from the Devonian period Tiktaalik roseae.jpg
The tetrapodomorph Tiktaalik roseae from the Devonian period
The early tetrapod Seymouria from the Permian period Seymouria Tambach Lovers.jpg
The early tetrapod Seymouria from the Permian period
The synapsid "mammal-like reptile" Dimetrodon limbatus from the Permian period Tellus Dimetrodon.jpg
The synapsid "mammal-like reptile" Dimetrodon limbatus from the Permian period
The bird-like dinosaur Archaeopteryx lithographica from the Jurassic period Archaeopteryx fossil.jpg
The bird-like dinosaur Archaeopteryx lithographica from the Jurassic period
Vertebrata/
Agnatha/

Hyperoartia (lampreys) Nejonoga, Iduns kokbok.jpg

Myxini Eptatretus polytrema.jpg

Cyclostomes

Euconodonta ConodontZICA.png

Pteraspidomorphi Astraspis desiderata.png

Thelodonti Sphenonectris turnernae white background.jpg

Anaspida Lasanius NT small.jpg

Galeaspida Galeaspids NT.jpg

Pituriaspida Pituriaspida.gif

Osteostraci Cephalaspis Lyellii.jpg

Gnathostomata

"†Placodermi" (armoured fishes, paraphyletic) [40] Dunkleosteus intermedius.jpg

"†Acanthodii" ("spiny sharks", paraphyletic or polyphyletic) [39] Diplacanthus reconstructed.jpg

Chondrichthyes

"†Acanthodii" ("spiny sharks", paraphyletic or polyphyletic) BrochoadmonesDB15.jpg

Holocephali (ratfish) Chimaera monstrosa1.jpg

Euselachii (sharks, rays) Carcharodon carcharias drawing.jpg

(cartilaginous fishes)
Euteleostomi/

"†Acanthodii" ("spiny sharks", paraphyletic or polyphyletic) Acanthodes BW.jpg

Actinopterygii

Cladistia (bichirs, reedfish) Cuvier-105-Polyptere.jpg

Chondrostei (sturgeons, paddlefish) Atlantic sturgeon flipped.jpg

Neopterygii (includes Teleostei, 96% of fish species today) Cyprinus carpio3.jpg

(rayfinned fishes)
Sarcopterygii

Onychodontiformes OnychodusDB15 flipped.jpg

Actinistia (coelacanths) Coelacanth flipped.png

Rhipidistia

Porolepiformes Reconstruction of Porolepis sp flipped.jpg

Dipnoi (lungfishes) Barramunda coloured.jpg

Tetrapodomorpha/

Rhizodontimorpha Gooloogongia loomesi reconstruction.jpg

Tristichopteridae Eusthenodon DB15 flipped.jpg

Tiktaalik Tiktaalik BW white background.jpg

Ichthyostega Ichthyostega BW (flipped).jpg

Tetrapoda (four-limbed vertebrates) Deutschlands Amphibien und Reptilien (Salamandra salamdra).jpg

(Choanata)
(lobefinned fish)
Osteichthyes
(jawed vertebrates)
Craniata

Note that Acanthodii, the "spiny sharks", were shown to be either a paraphyletic or a polyphyletic group, with some taxa being more closely related with cartilaginous fish, others more closely related with bony fish, and again others being more basal on the tree of life. [39] Similarly, the Placodermi and Ostracodermi are not anymore considered monophyletic groups. [40] [41]

Also note that Teleostei (Neopterygii) and Tetrapoda (amphibians, mammals, reptiles, birds) each make up about 50% of today's vertebrate diversity, while all other groups are either extinct or rare. The next cladogram shows the extant clades of tetrapods (the four-limbed vertebrates), and a selection of extinct (†) groups:

Tetrapoda

Amphibians (frogs, salamanders, caecilians) Deutschlands Amphibien und Reptilien (Salamandra salamdra).jpg

†"Reptile-like amphibians" (paraphyletic) Diadectes1DB (flipped).jpg

Amniota
Synapsida

†"Mammal-like reptiles" (paraphyletic) Ophiacomorphs2.jpg

Mammals (monotremes, marsupials, placental mammals) Ruskea rotta.png

Sauropsida

Parareptilia Scutosaurus BW flipped.jpg

Diapsida

Scaled reptiles (lizards, snakes) Zoology of Egypt (1898) (Varanus griseus).png

Archosaurs

Crocodilians (crocodiles, alligatorids, gavialids) Description des reptiles nouveaux, ou, Imparfaitement connus de la collection du Museum d'histoire naturelle et remarques sur la classification et les caracteres des reptiles (1852) (Crocodylus moreletii).jpg

Dinosaurs

†"Non-avian dinosaurs" (paraphyletic) Allosaurus Revised.jpg

Birds Meyers grosses Konversations-Lexikon - ein Nachschlagewerk des allgemeinen Wissens (1908) (Antwerpener Breiftaube).jpg

Note that reptile-like amphibians, mammal-like reptiles, and non-avian dinosaurs are all paraphyletic.

The placement of hagfish on the vertebrate tree of life has been controversial. Their lack of proper vertebrae (among with other characteristics found in lampreys and jawed vertebrates) led phylogenetic analyses based on morphology to place them outside Vertebrata. Molecular data, however, indicates they are vertebrates closely related to lampreys. A study by Miyashita et al. (2019), 'reconciliated' the two types of analysis as it supports the Cyclostomata hypothesis using only morphological data. [42]

Anaspida Pharyngolepis2.png

Pipiscius

Euconodonta ConodontZICA.png

Cyclostomata Nejonoga, Iduns kokbok.jpg

Pteraspidomorphi Astraspis desiderata.png

Thelodonti Sphenonectris turnernae white background.jpg

Pituriaspida Pituriaspida.gif

Galeaspida Galeaspids NT.jpg

Osteostraci Cephalaspis Lyellii.jpg

jawed vertebrates Dunkleosteus intermedius.jpg

Number of extant species

The number of described vertebrate species are split between tetrapods and fish. The following table lists the number of described extant species for each vertebrate class as estimated in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 2014.3. [43]

Vertebrate groupsImageClassEstimated number of
described species [43] [44]
Group
totals [43]
Anamniote

lack
amniotic
membrane

so need to
reproduce
in water
Jawless Fish Eptatretus polytrema.jpg Myxini
(hagfish)
78>32,900
Eudontomyzon danfordi Tiszai ingola.jpg Hyperoartia
(lamprey)
40
Jawed Shark fish chondrichthyes.jpg cartilaginous
fish
>1,100
Carassius wild golden fish 2013 G1.jpg ray-finned
fish
>32,000
Coelacanth-bgiu.png lobe-finned
fish
8
Tetrapods Lithobates pipiens.jpg amphibians 7,30233,278
Amniote

have
amniotic
membrane

adapted to
reproducing
on land
Florida Box Turtle Digon3.jpg reptiles 10,711
Squirrel (PSF).png mammals 5,513
Secretary bird (Sagittarius serpentarius) 2.jpg birds 10,425
Total described species66,178

The IUCN estimates that 1,305,075 extant invertebrate species have been described, [43] which means that less than 5% of the described animal species in the world are vertebrates.

Vertebrate species databases

The following databases maintain (more or less) up-to-date lists of vertebrate species:

Reproductive systems

Nearly all vertebrates undergo sexual reproduction. They produce haploid gametes by meiosis. The smaller, motile gametes are spermatozoa and the larger, non-motile gametes are ova. These fuse by the process of fertilisation to form diploid zygotes, which develop into new individuals.

Inbreeding

During sexual reproduction, mating with a close relative (inbreeding) often leads to inbreeding depression. Inbreeding depression is considered to be largely due to expression of deleterious recessive mutations. [45] The effects of inbreeding have been studied in many vertebrate species.

In several species of fish, inbreeding was found to decrease reproductive success. [46] [47] [48]

Inbreeding was observed to increase juvenile mortality in 11 small animal species. [49]

A common breeding practice for pet dogs is mating between close relatives (e.g. between half- and full siblings). [50] This practice generally has a negative effect on measures of reproductive success, including decreased litter size and puppy survival. [51] [52] [53]

Incestuous matings in birds result in severe fitness costs due to inbreeding depression (e.g. reduction in hatchability of eggs and reduced progeny survival). [54] [55] [56]

Inbreeding avoidance

As a result of the negative fitness consequences of inbreeding, vertebrate species have evolved mechanisms to avoid inbreeding.

Numerous inbreeding avoidance mechanisms operating prior to mating have been described. Toads and many other amphibians display breeding site fidelity. Individuals that return to natal ponds to breed will likely encounter siblings as potential mates. Although incest is possible, Bufo americanus siblings rarely mate. [57] These toads likely recognize and actively avoid close kin as mates. Advertisement vocalizations by males appear to serve as cues by which females recognize their kin. [57]

Inbreeding avoidance mechanisms can also operate subsequent to copulation. In guppies, a post-copulatory mechanism of inbreeding avoidance occurs based on competition between sperm of rival males for achieving fertilization. [58] In competitions between sperm from an unrelated male and from a full sibling male, a significant bias in paternity towards the unrelated male was observed. [58]

When female sand lizards mate with two or more males, sperm competition within the female's reproductive tract may occur. Active selection of sperm by females appears to occur in a manner that enhances female fitness. [59] On the basis of this selective process, the sperm of males that are more distantly related to the female are preferentially used for fertilization, rather than the sperm of close relatives. [59] This preference may enhance the fitness of progeny by reducing inbreeding depression.

Outcrossing

Mating with unrelated or distantly related members of the same species is generally thought to provide the advantage of masking deleterious recessive mutations in progeny [60] (see heterosis). Vertebrates have evolved numerous diverse mechanisms for avoiding close inbreeding and promoting outcrossing [61] (see inbreeding avoidance).

Outcrossing as a way of avoiding inbreeding depression has been especially well studied in birds. For instance, inbreeding depression occurs in the great tit (Parus major) when the offspring are produced as a result of a mating between close relatives. In natural populations of the great tit, inbreeding is avoided by dispersal of individuals from their birthplace, which reduces the chance of mating with a close relative. [62]

Purple-crowned fairywren females paired with related males may undertake extra-pair matings that can reduce the negative effects of inbreeding, despite ecological and demographic constraints. [56]

Southern pied babblers (Turdoides bicolor) appear to avoid inbreeding in two ways: through dispersal and by avoiding familiar group members as mates. [63] Although both males and females disperse locally, they move outside the range where genetically related individuals are likely to be encountered. Within their group, individuals only acquire breeding positions when the opposite-sex breeder is unrelated.

Cooperative breeding in birds typically occurs when offspring, usually males, delay dispersal from their natal group in order to remain with the family to help rear younger kin. [64] Female offspring rarely stay at home, dispersing over distances that allow them to breed independently or to join unrelated groups.

Parthenogenesis

Parthenogenesis is a natural form of reproduction in which growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization.

Reproduction in squamate reptiles is ordinarily sexual, with males having a ZZ pair of sex determining chromosomes, and females a ZW pair. However, various species, including the Colombian Rainbow boa (Epicrates maurus), Agkistrodon contortrix (copperhead snake) and Agkistrodon piscivorus (cotton mouth snake) can also reproduce by facultative parthenogenesis—that is, they are capable of switching from a sexual mode of reproduction to an asexual mode—resulting in production of WW female progeny. [65] [66] The WW females are likely produced by terminal automixis.

Mole salamanders are an ancient (2.4–3.8 million year-old) unisexual vertebrate lineage. [67] In the polyploid unisexual mole salamander females, a premeiotic endomitotic event doubles the number of chromosomes. As a result, the mature eggs produced subsequent to the two meiotic divisions have the same ploidy as the somatic cells of the female salamander. Synapsis and recombination during meiotic prophase I in these unisexual females is thought to ordinarily occur between identical sister chromosomes and occasionally between homologous chromosomes. Thus little, if any, genetic variation is produced. Recombination between homeologous chromosomes occurs only rarely, if at all. [68] Since production of genetic variation is weak, at best, it is unlikely to provide a benefit sufficient to account for the long-term maintenance of meiosis in these organisms.

Self-fertilization

Two killifish species, the mangrove killifish (Kryptolebias marmoratus) and Kryptolebias hermaphroditus , are the only known vertebrates to self-fertilize. [69] They produces both eggs and sperm by meiosis and routinely reproduces by self-fertilisation. This capacity has apparently persisted for at least several hundred thousand years. [70] Each individual hermaphrodite normally fertilizes itself through uniting inside the fish's body of an egg and a sperm that it has produced by an internal organ. [71] In nature, this mode of reproduction can yield highly homozygous lines composed of individuals so genetically uniform as to be, in effect, identical to one another. [72] [73] Although inbreeding, especially in the extreme form of self-fertilization, is ordinarily regarded as detrimental because it leads to expression of deleterious recessive alleles, self-fertilization does provide the benefit of fertilization assurance (reproductive assurance) at each generation. [72]

The Living Planet Index, following 16,704 populations of 4,005 species of vertebrates, shows a decline of 60% between 1970 and 2014. [74] Since 1970, freshwater species declined 83%, and tropical populations in South and Central America declined 89%. [75] The authors note that, "An average trend in population change is not an average of total numbers of animals lost." [75] According to WWF, this could lead to a sixth major extinction event. [76] The five main causes of biodiversity loss are land-use change, overexploitation of natural resources, climate change, pollution and invasive species. [77]

See also

Related Research Articles

Chordate Phylum of animals having a dorsal nerve cord

A chordate is an animal of the phylum Chordata. All chordates possess 5 synapomorphies, or primary characteristics, at some point during their larval or adulthood stages that distinguish them from all other taxa. These 5 synapomorphies include a notochord, dorsal hollow nerve cord, endostyle or thyroid, pharyngeal slits, and a post-anal tail. Chordates get their name from their characteristic “notochord”, which plays a significant role in chordate structure and movement. Chordates are also bilaterally symmetric, have a coelom, possess a circulatory system, and exhibit metameric segmentation.

Tetrapod Superclass of the first four-limbed vertebrates and their descendants

Tetrapods are four-limbed animals constituting the superclass Tetrapoda. It includes extant and extinct amphibians, reptiles, and synapsids. Tetrapods evolved from a group of animals known as the Tetrapodomorpha which, in turn, evolved from ancient sarcopterygian fish around 390 million years ago in the middle Devonian period; their forms were transitional between lobe-finned fishes and the four-limbed tetrapods. The first tetrapods appeared by the late Devonian, 367.5 million years ago. The specific aquatic ancestors of the tetrapods and the process by which they colonized Earth's land after emerging from water remains unclear. The change from a body plan for breathing and navigating in water to a body plan enabling the animal to move on land is one of the most profound evolutionary changes known. The first tetrapods were primarily aquatic. Modern amphibians, which evolved from earlier groups, are generally semiaquatic; the first stage of their lives is as fish-like tadpoles, and later stages are partly terrestrial and partly aquatic. However, most tetrapod species today are amniotes, most of those are terrestrial tetrapods whose branch evolved from earlier tetrapods about 340 million years ago. The key innovation in amniotes over amphibians is the ability for the eggs to retain their aqueous contents on land, rather than needing to stay in water.

Hagfish Family of eel-shaped, slime producing-animal

Hagfish, of the class Myxini and order Myxiniformes, are eel-shaped, slime-producing marine fish. They are the only known living animals that have a skull but no vertebral column, although hagfish do have rudimentary vertebrae. Along with lampreys, hagfish are jawless; the two form the sister group to jawed vertebrates, and living hagfish remain similar to hagfish from around 300 million years ago.

Agnatha Superclass of fishes

Agnatha is a superclass of jawless fish in the phylum Chordata, subphylum Vertebrata, consisting of both present (cyclostomes) and extinct species. Among recent animals, cyclostomes are sister to all vertebrates with jaws, known as gnathostomes.

<i>Haikouichthys</i> Extinct genus of jawless fishes

Haikouichthys is an extinct genus of craniate believed to have lived 535 million years ago, during the Cambrian explosion of multicellular life. Haikouichthys had a defined skull and other characteristics that have led paleontologists to label it a true craniate, and even to be popularly characterized as one of the earliest fishes. Cladistic analysis indicates that the animal is probably a basal chordate or a basal craniate; but it does not possess sufficient features to be included uncontroversially even in either stem group. It was formally described in 1999.

Fish anatomy study of the form or morphology of fishes

Fish anatomy is the study of the form or morphology of fish. It can be contrasted with fish physiology, which is the study of how the component parts of fish function together in the living fish. In practice, fish anatomy and fish physiology complement each other, the former dealing with the structure of a fish, its organs or component parts and how they are put together, such as might be observed on the dissecting table or under the microscope, and the latter dealing with how those components function together in living fish.

Craniate Clade of chordates, member of the Craniata

A craniate is a member of the Craniata, a proposed clade of chordate animals with a skull of hard bone or cartilage. Living representatives are the Myxini (hagfishes), Hyperoartia, and the much more numerous Gnathostomata. Formerly distinct from vertebrates by excluding hagfish, molecular and anatomical research in the 21st century has led to the reinclusion of hagfish, making living craniates synonymous with living vertebrates.

Egg Organic vessel in which an embryo first begins to develop

An egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an embryo develops until it can survive on its own, at which point the animal hatches. An egg results from fertilization of an egg cell. Most arthropods, vertebrates, and mollusks lay eggs, although some, such as scorpions, do not.

Notochord Flexible rod-shaped body found in embryos of all chordates

In anatomy, the notochord is a flexible rod formed of a material similar to cartilage. If a species has a notochord at any stage of its life cycle, it is, by definition, a chordate. The notochord lies along the anteroposterior axis, is usually closer to the dorsal than the ventral surface of the embryo, and is composed of cells derived from the mesoderm.

Lepospondyli Extinct subclass of amphibians

Lepospondyli is a diverse taxon of early tetrapods. With the exception of one late-surviving lepospondyl from the Late Permian of Morocco, lepospondyls lived from the Early Carboniferous (Mississippian) to the Early Permian and were geographically restricted to what is now Europe and North America. Five major groups of lepospondyls are known: Adelospondyli; Aïstopoda; Lysorophia; Microsauria; and Nectridea. Lepospondyls have a diverse range of body forms and include species with newt-like, eel- or snake-like, and lizard-like forms. Various species were aquatic, semiaquatic, or terrestrial. None were large, and they are assumed to have lived in specialized ecological niches not taken by the more numerous temnospondyl amphibians that coexisted with them in the Paleozoic. Lepospondyli was named in 1888 by Karl Alfred von Zittel, who coined the name to include some tetrapods from the Paleozoic, that shared some specific characteristics in the notochord and teeth. Lepospondyls have sometimes been considered to be either related or ancestral to modern amphibians or to Amniota. It has been suggested that the grouping is polyphyletic, with aïstopods being primitive stem-tetrapods, while microsaurs are primitive reptiles.

Cyclostomata Superclass of jawless fishes

Cyclostomata is a group of agnathans that comprises the living jawless fishes: the lampreys and hagfishes. Both groups have jawless mouths with horny epidermal structures that function as teeth called ceratodontes, and branchial arches that are internally positioned instead of external as in jawed fishes. The name Cyclostomata means "round mouths". It was named by Joan Crockford Beattie.

Limbless vertebrate Vertebrates without legs or fins

Many vertebrates have evolved limbless, limb-reduced, or apodous forms. Reptiles have on a number of occasions evolved into limbless forms – snakes, amphisbaenia, and legless lizards. The same is true of amphibians – caecilians, Sirenidae, Amphiumidae and at least three extinct groups. Larval amphibians, tadpoles, are also often limbless.

Fish Vertebrate animal that lives in water and usually has gills

Fish are aquatic, craniate, gill-bearing animals that lack limbs with digits. Included in this definition are the living hagfish, lampreys, and cartilaginous and bony fish as well as various extinct related groups. Around 99% of living fish species are ray-finned fish, belonging to the class Actinopterygii, with over 95% belonging to the teleost subgrouping.

Marine vertebrate

Marine vertebrates are vertebrates that live in marine environments. These are the marine fish and the marine tetrapods. Vertebrates are a subphylum of chordates that have a vertebral column (backbone). The vertebral column provides the central support structure for an internal skeleton. The internal skeleton gives shape, support, and protection to the body and can provide a means of anchoring fins or limbs to the body. The vertebral column also serves to house and protect the spinal cord that lies within the column.

Branchial arch

Branchial arches, or gill arches, are a series of bony "loops" present in fish, which support the gills. As gills are the primitive condition of vertebrates, all vertebrate embryos develop pharyngeal arches, though the eventual fate of these arches varies between taxa. In jawed fish, the first arch develops into the jaws, the second into the hyomandibular complex, with the posterior arches supporting gills. In amphibians and reptiles, many elements are lost including the gill arches, resulting in only the oral jaws and a hyoid apparatus remaining. In mammals and birds, the hyoid is still more simplified.

Deuterostome Superphylum of bilateral animals

Deuterostomia are animals typically characterized by their anus forming before their mouth during embryonic development. The group's sister clade is Protostomia, animals whose digestive tract development is more varied. Some examples of deuterostomes include vertebrates, sea stars, and crinoids.

Lamprey Order of vertebrates, the cyclostomes

Lampreys are an ancient extant lineage of jawless fish of the order Petromyzontiformes, placed in the superclass Cyclostomata. The adult lamprey may be characterized by a toothed, funnel-like sucking mouth. The common name "lamprey" is probably derived from Latin lampetra, which may mean "stone licker", though the etymology is uncertain. The plural form lamprey is sometimes seen.

Evolution of fish Origin and diversification of fish through geologic time

The evolution of fish began about 530 million years ago during the Cambrian explosion. It was during this time that the early chordates developed the skull and the vertebral column, leading to the first craniates and vertebrates. The first fish lineages belong to the Agnatha, or jawless fish. Early examples include Haikouichthys. During the late Cambrian, eel-like jawless fish called the conodonts, and small mostly armoured fish known as ostracoderms, first appeared. Most jawless fish are now extinct; but the extant lampreys may approximate ancient pre-jawed fish. Lampreys belong to the Cyclostomata, which includes the extant hagfish, and this group may have split early on from other agnathans.

Fish gill

Fish gills are organs that allow fish to breathe underwater. Most fish exchange gases like oxygen and carbon dioxide using gills that are protected under gill covers (operculum) on both sides of the pharynx (throat). Gills are tissues that are like short threads, protein structures called filaments. These filaments have many functions including the transfer of ions and water, as well as the exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, acids and ammonia. Each filament contains a capillary network that provides a large surface area for exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Evolution of tetrapods The evolution of four legged vertebrates and their derivatives

The evolution of tetrapods began about 400 million years ago in the Devonian Period with the earliest tetrapods evolved from lobe-finned fishes. Tetrapods are categorized as animals in the biological superclass Tetrapoda, which includes all living and extinct amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. While most species today are terrestrial, little evidence supports the idea that any of the earliest tetrapods could move about on land, as their limbs could not have held their midsections off the ground and the known trackways do not indicate they dragged their bellies around. Presumably, the tracks were made by animals walking along the bottoms of shallow bodies of water. The specific aquatic ancestors of the tetrapods, and the process by which land colonization occurred, remain unclear. They are areas of active research and debate among palaeontologists at present.

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