Vicente de Zaldívar
|Spouse(s)||María de Oñate|
|Children||Nicolas de Zaldívar y Oñate|
|Parent(s)||Vicente de Zaldívar, Sr.|
Magdalena de Mendoza y Salazar
|Relatives|| Cristóbal de Oñate (paternal great-uncle)|
Juan de Oñate (paternal uncle & second cousin)
Juan de Zaldívar (brother)
Vicente de Zaldívar (c. 1573-before 1650) was a Spanish soldier and explorer in New Mexico. He led the Spanish force which perpetrated the Acoma Massacre at the Acoma Pueblo in 1599. He led or participated in several expeditions onto the Great Plains.
New Mexico is a state in the Southwestern region of the United States of America; its capital and cultural center is Santa Fe, which was founded in 1610 as capital of Nuevo México, while its largest city is Albuquerque with its accompanying metropolitan area. It is one of the Mountain States and shares the Four Corners region with Utah, Colorado, and Arizona; its other neighboring states are Oklahoma to the northeast, Texas to the east-southeast, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua to the south and Sonora to the southwest. With a population around two million, New Mexico is the 36th state by population. With a total area of 121,592 sq mi (314,920 km2), it is the fifth-largest and sixth-least densely populated of the 50 states. Due to their geographic locations, northern and eastern New Mexico exhibit a colder, alpine climate, while western and southern New Mexico exhibit a warmer, arid climate.
The Acoma Massacre refers to the brutal punitive expedition by Spanish conquistadors at Acoma Pueblo in January 1599 that resulted in the deaths of around 800 Acoma men, women and children during a three-day battle. Of the remaining Acoma who survived the attack, many were either enslaved or otherwise severely punished.
Acoma Pueblo is a Native American pueblo approximately 60 miles (97 km) west of Albuquerque, New Mexico in the United States. Four villages make up Acoma Pueblo: Sky City, Acomita, Anzac, and McCartys. The Acoma Pueblo tribe is a federally recognized tribal entity. The historical land of Acoma Pueblo totaled roughly 5,000,000 acres (2,000,000 ha). The community retains only 10% of this land, making up the Acoma Indian Reservation. Acoma Pueblo is a National Historic Landmark.
Vicente de Zaldívar was born circa 1573.The Zaldivar and Oñate families of Zacatecas and New Mexico were prominent and intertwined. His father, Vicente de Zaldívar, Sr., served in the Chichimeca War of 1550-1590 and other wars alongside his uncle (thus Vicente's great-uncle), Cristóbal de Oñate. His mother was Magdalena de Mendoza y Salazar. He had a brother, Juan de Zaldívar. Juan de Oñate, the founder of the Spanish colony of New Mexico in 1598, was their uncle and second cousin.
The Chichimeca War (1550–90) was a military conflict waged by Spain against the Chichimeca Confederation established in the lowlands of Mexico, called La Gran Chichimeca located in the West North-Central Mexican states. The region is now called the Bajío. It was recorded as the Spanish Empire's longest and most expensive war campaign against any indigenous people in the Americas. The result of the forty-year war was a Spanish Empire military and economic defeat.
Cristóbal de Oñate was a Spanish Basque explorer, conquistador and colonial official in New Spain. He is considered the founder of the contemporary city of Guadalajara in 1531, as well as other places in Nueva Galicia.
Juan de Zaldívar was a Spanish soldier and explorer. He was an early colonizer of New Mexico. He was killed by Native Americans.
In 1595, Zaldívar was appointed Sargento mayor by his uncle, Juan de Oñate, in their colonization of New Mexico for the Spanish Crown.They arrived in New Mexico in 1598.
Sargento mayor was a rank immediately below that of maestre de campo in the Spanish tercios of the 16th and 17th centuries. Initially second in rank to a coronel ("colonel") in a colunella, the sargento mayor became second in rank to the maestre de campo after the creation of the tercios in 1534. He took care of the tactical training, security and lodging of the troops of the tercio. He also transmitted the orders of the maestre de campo or the capitán general to subordinate officers.
Buffalo hunting. Food and resources were scarce in the young colony of New Mexico. On September 15, 1898, Zaldivar and his guide, Jusepe Gutierrez, led a group of 60 men onto the Great Plains to determine whether Bison, the American buffalo, could be domesticated. Departing from Pecos Pueblo, Zaldivar journeyed 57 leagues eastward, about 250 kilometres (160 mi), probably to the Canadian River valley. There he found huge herds of buffalo. Zaldivar and his men constructed a large corral in which they attempted to capture several thousand buffalo. The buffalo were recalcitrant and killed three horses and wounded 40 more. Zaldivar then captured a number of buffalo calves, but all of them quickly died. Failing in the attempt to domesticate buffalo, Zaldivar focused instead on hunting and returned to the Spanish settlements with 80 arobas, about 1,000 kilograms (2,200 lb) of buffalo fat. He proclaimed buffalo meat superior to the beef of Spanish cows. Zaldivar and his men arrived back at the Spanish settlements on November 8, 1598.
Jusepe Gutierrez ,) was a Native American guide and explorer. He was the only known survivor of the Umana and Leyba expedition to the Great Plains in 1594 or 1595. In 1599 he guided Vicente de Zaldivar and in 1601 Governor Juan de Oñate on expeditions to the plains.
The Great Plains is the broad expanse of flat land, much of it covered in prairie, steppe, and grassland, that lies west of the Mississippi River tallgrass prairie in the United States and east of the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. and Canada. It embraces:
Bison are large, even-toed ungulates in the genus Bison within the subfamily Bovinae.
Acoma. After his brother and other Spaniards were killed by Native Americans at Acoma Pueblo in New Mexico on December 4, 1598, Zaldívar was promoted to Maestre de Campo, second in command to Oñate.In January 1599, Zaldívar avenged his brother's death in an attack on Acoma, culminating in the Acoma Massacre in which hundreds of Acomans were killed or enslaved. Poet Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá subsequently wrote a poem about his victory.
Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá (1555–1620) was a captain and legal officer in the Juan de Oñate expedition that first colonized Santa Fe de Nuevo México in 1598. Between 1601 and 1603, he served as the Alcalde mayor of the Guanacevi mines in what is now the Mexican state of Durango. He is better known for his authorship of Historia de la Nueva México, published in 1610.
Jumano War. Zaldívar was maestro de campo in the expedition to Quivira in 1601.During that process, he encountered the Jumano people and served in the Jumano War of 1601.
Quivira is a place named by explorer Francisco Vásquez de Coronado in 1541, for the mythical "Seven Cities of Gold" that he never found. The location of Quivira is believed by most authorities to be in central Kansas near present-day Lyons extending northeast to Salina. The Quivirans were the forebears of the modern day Wichita Indians and Caddoan tribes, such as the Pawnee or Arikara. The city of Etzanoa, which flourished between 1450 and 1700, is thought to be part of Quivira.
Later life. Zaldívar received the Order of Santiago in 1626.
Zaldívar married María de Oñate, who was his cousin (Juan de Oñate's daughter).They had an only son, Nicolas de Zaldívar y Oñate, who was later appointed Adelantado.
Zaldívar died by 1650.
Santa Fe de Nuevo México was a province of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, and later a territory of independent Mexico. The first capital was San Juan de los Caballeros from 1598 until 1610, and from 1610 onward the capital was La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís. The naming, capital, the Palace of the Governors, and rule of law were retained as the New Mexico Territory, and the subsequent U.S. State of New Mexico, became a part of the United States. The New Mexican citizenry, primarily consisting of Hispano, Pueblo, Navajo, Apache, and Comanche peoples, became citizens of the United States as a result of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
Juan de Oñate y Salazar was a conquistador from New Spain, explorer, and colonial governor of the province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México in the viceroyalty of New Spain. He led early Spanish expeditions to the Great Plains and Lower Colorado River Valley, encountering numerous indigenous tribes in their homelands there. Oñate founded settlements in the province, now in the Southwestern United States.
The Spanish Missions in New Mexico were a series of religious outposts in the Province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México — present day New Mexico. They were established by Franciscan friars under charter from the monarchs of the Spanish Empire and the government of the Viceroyalty of New Spain in a policy called Reductions to facilitate the conversion of Native Americans—Indians into Christianity.
Although the DeSoto expedition fought numerous battles earlier, the Tiguex War was the first named war between Europeans and Native Americans in what is now the United States. It was fought in the winter of 1540-41 by the expedition of Francisco Vázquez de Coronado against the twelve or thirteen pueblos of Tiwa Indians as well as other Puebloan tribes along both sides of the Rio Grande, north and south of present-day Bernalillo, New Mexico, in what was called the Tiguex Province. The only book-length treatment of the Tiguex War is in the historical novel, Winter of the Metal People.
Zaldívar is a Spanish/French family name of Basque origin. Zaldi, meaning "horse" and Ibar, meaning valley. Zaldivar, means "valley of horses".
Dona Isabel de Tolosa Cortés de Moctezuma, was a wealthy Mexican heiress and the wife of conqueror and explorer Don Juan de Oñate who led an expedition in 1598 and founded the first Spanish settlement in what is now the state of New Mexico. She was the granddaughter of Spanish explorer and conquistador Hernán Cortés, and the great-granddaughter of Aztec Emperor Moctezuma II.
The Escanjaques were a native American people named this by Juan de Onate in 1601 during an expedition to the Great Plains of Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas. The Escanjaques may have been identical with the Aguacane who lived along the tributaries of the Red River in western Oklahoma. If so, they were probably related to the people later known as the Wichita.
Etzanoa is a historical Wichita city, located in present-day Arkansas City, Kansas, near the Arkansas River, that flourished between 1450 and 1700. Dubbed "the Great Settlement" by Spanish explorers, who visited the site, Etzanoa may have housed 20,000 Wichita people. The historical city is considered part of Quivira.
Antonio Gutiérrez de Humana and Francisco Leyva de Bonilla, Spanish colonists, made an unauthorized expedition to the Great Plains in 1594 or 1595. An Indian, Jusepe Gutierrez, was the only survivor of the expedition.
The Chamuscado and Rodríguez Expedition visited the land on what became present day New Mexico in 1581-1582. The expedition was led by Francisco Sánchez, called "El Chamuscado," and Fray Agustín Rodríguez, the first Spaniards known to have visited the Pueblo Indians since Francisco Vásquez de Coronado 40 years earlier.
The Jumanos were a prominent indigenous tribe or several tribes, who inhabited a large area of western Texas, adjacent New Mexico, and northern Mexico, especially near the La Junta de los Rios region with its large settled Indian population. Spanish explorers first recorded encounters with the Jumano in 1581; later expeditions noted them in a broad area of the Southwest and the Great Plains. The last historic reference was in a 19th-century oral history, but their population had declined by the early 18th century.
Juan Domínguez de Mendoza was a Spanish soldier who played an important role in suppressing the Pueblo Revolt of 1680 and who made two major expeditions from New Mexico into Texas.
Captain Marcos Farfán de los Godos was a Spanish explorer.
The Galisteo Pass is a historic mountain pass in New Mexico in the United States.