Viceroy of Southern Rivers

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Viceroy of Southern Rivers
Traditional Chinese 江南河道總督
Simplified Chinese 江南河道总督
Viceroy of Rivers and Waterways in Jiangnan Overseeing Military Affairs
(full title)
Traditional Chinese 總督江南河道提督軍務
Simplified Chinese 总督江南河道提督军务
Viceroy of Southern Rivers and Waterways
(simplified title)
Traditional Chinese 南河河道總督
Simplified Chinese 南河河道总督
Viceroy of Southern Rivers
(simplified title)
Traditional Chinese 南河總督
Simplified Chinese 南河总督

The Viceroy of Rivers and Waterways in Jiangnan Overseeing Military Affairs, better known simply as the Viceroy of Southern Rivers or Viceroy of Southern Rivers and Waterways, was a government office in China proper during the Qing dynasty. The office was based in Qingjiangpu (清江浦), which is now a district of Huai'an City, Jiangsu Province. The Viceroy usually held the rank of a deputy first-grade official or a regular second-grade official. The Viceroy was in charge of dredging and embankment projects in the waterways of Jiangsu Province.



The office of Viceroy of Rivers and Waterways was created in the early Qing dynasty. In 1677, during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor, Jin Fu (靳輔) served as the Viceroy of Rivers and Waterways and his headquarters were in Jining, Shandong Province. As Huai'an, Jiangsu Province was near the intersection of the Yellow River, Huai River and Grand Canal, the waterworks in that area became of prime importance. Since the Viceroy's office was too far away from Huai'an, the Qing government created a separate branch for the Viceroy's office at the northwest of Qingjiangpu (清江浦; a district of present-day Huai'an, Jiangsu Province) to facilitate the Viceroy's job of overseeing the waterworks.

In 1729, the Yongzheng Emperor split the Viceroy of Rivers and Waterways into the Viceroy of Southern Rivers based in Qingjiangpu, and the Viceroy of Eastern Rivers based in Jining. In the following year, he created the Viceroy of Northern Rivers, which was then concurrently held by the Viceroy of Zhili. The Viceroy of Southern Rivers oversaw a total of four circuits, 24 subprefectures and 24 battalions of military forces.

In the early Qing dynasty, the central government provided an annual amount of 4.5 million silver taels to the Viceroy of Southern Rivers for construction and maintenance projects. When the rivers overflowed, the central government provided additional funds to the Viceroy. At the same time, numerous instances of corruption occurred when the Viceroy and his subordinates embezzled the funds and produced work of substandard quality. The area around Qingjiangpu developed rapidly and became a thriving centre of commerce, business and recreation, with dozens of streets filled with rows of shops, restaurants, teahouses, bathhouses and brothels.

In 1855, the Xianfeng Emperor ordered the Yellow River to be redirected northward from Lanyi County, Henan Province towards Changyuan County, Dongming County and Zhangqiu Town in Shandong Province, and then from the Ji River in Shandong Province towards the Bohai Sea.

In 1860, the Nian rebels attacked and captured Qingjiangpu from government forces and then burnt down the Viceroy's office and the surrounding areas. The Qing government abolished the Viceroy of Southern Rivers in the following year.

As of today, the garden of the Viceroy's office has been restored and is now known as Qing Yan Garden.

List of Viceroys of Southern Rivers

#NamePortraitStart of termEnd of termNotes
Yin Ji Shan .jpg March 1729April 1729Acting Viceroy
1 Kong Yuxun
April 1729May 1730Died in office
Kang Hongxun
17301730Acting Viceroy
Ji Zengyun
Ji Ceng Yun .jpg May 1730January 1734Acting Viceroy; left office for filial mourning
Ji Zengyun
Ji Ceng Yun .jpg 17341734
2 Gao Bin
17341734Concurrently held the appointment of Salt Commissioner of the Two Huais
Zhao Hong'en
17351735Acting Viceroy
3 Gao Bin
January 1736September 1741
Bai Zhongshan
January 1735December 1736As Deputy Viceroy
Liu Yongcheng
January 1735December 1736As Deputy Viceroy; later as acting Viceroy for a year
December 1736January 1738As Deputy Viceroy; later as acting Viceroy for two years
Sun Jun
17401741As Financial Officer of Southern Rivers
4 Wanyan Wei
September 1741January 1743
5 Bai Zhongshan
January 1743April 1746
6 Zhou Xuejian
October 1746August 1748
Gu Cong
April 1746October 1746As Viceroy of Caoyun
Gao Bin
August 1748September 1753Acting Viceroy
Zhang Shizai
1750September 1753Acting Viceroy
September 1753October 1753Acting Viceroy
Bai Zhongshan
17531754Acting Viceroy
7 Yengišan
Yin Ji Shan .jpg October 1753January 1755
Bai Zhongshan
17551755As Viceroy of Eastern Rivers
8 Fulehe
January 1755November 1756
9 Liu Tongxun
November 1756 Aibilong was acting Viceroy before Liu Tongxun arrived to assume office
Zhuang Yougong
Zhuang You Gong .jpg 17561757As Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
10 Aibilong
November 1756February 1757
11 Bai Zhongshan
February 1757April 1761
Ji Huang
Ji Huang .jpg February 1757April 1761As Deputy Viceroy
12 Gao Jin
April 1761April 1765
13 Li Hong
April 1765September 1771Died in office
14 Wu Sijue
September 1771April 1776Died in office
15 Sazai
April 1776February 1779
17771777Acting Viceroy
Li Fenghan
February 1779March 1780Acting Viceroy
16 Chen Huizu
March 1780January 1781
Li Fenghan
January 1781February 1781Acting Viceroy
17 Li Fenghan
February 1781March 1789
Kang Jitian
Kang Ji Tian .jpg March 1789April 1789Acting Viceroy
18 Lan Dixi
April 1789January 1798Died in office
Li Fenghan
January 1798January 1798Acting Viceroy
19 Kang Jitian
Kang Ji Tian .jpg January 1798March 1800
20 Wu Jing
March 1800January 1805
21 Xu Rui
January 1805July 1806Became Deputy Viceroy from July 1806
22 Dai Junyuan
July 1806April 1808
Xu Rui
July 1806April 1808As Deputy Viceroy
January 1809February 1809As Deputy Viceroy
Xu Rui
April 1808January 1809Acting Viceroy
23 Wu Jing
January 1809August 1810Left office due to illness
Xu Rui
February 1809August 1810As Deputy Viceroy
24 Xu Rui
August 1810December 1810
Xu Rui
December 1810August 1811As Deputy Viceroy
25 Jiang Youxian
December 1810January 1811
January 1811January 1811Acting Viceroy
26 Chen Fengxiang
January 1811September 1812
Chu Pengling
Chu Pengling.jpg September 1812September 1812Acting Viceroy
27 Li Shixu
September 1812March 1824Died in office
Sun Yuting
18211821Acting Viceroy
Sun Yuting
18241824Acting Viceroy
28 Zhang Wenhao
March 1824December 1824
29 Yan Lang
December 1824April 1826
30 Zhang Jing
April 1826April 1833Left office due to illness
Pan Xi'en
May 1826May 1829As Deputy Viceroy
31 Linqing
April 1833September 1842Temporarily left office for filial mourning from May to September 1833
Zhang Jing
May 1833September 1833Acting Viceroy in Linqing's absence
Chen Luan
18391839Acting Viceroy
32 Pan Xi'en
September 1842October 1848Left office due to illness
Liao Hongquan
18421842As Secretary of Works
Zhou Tianjue
18421842Acting Viceroy
Li Xingyuan
Li Xing Yuan .jpg October 1848October 1848Acting Viceroy
33 Yang Yizeng
October 1848February 1856Died in office
Shao Can
Shao Can .jpg February 1856February 1856As Viceroy of Caoyun
34 Gengchang
February 1856June 1860
Wang Mengling
June 1860July 1860Acting Viceroy

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