|Viceroy of Southern Rivers|
|Viceroy of Rivers and Waterways in Jiangnan Overseeing Military Affairs|
|Viceroy of Southern Rivers and Waterways|
|Viceroy of Southern Rivers|
The Viceroy of Rivers and Waterways in Jiangnan Overseeing Military Affairs, better known simply as the Viceroy of Southern Rivers or Viceroy of Southern Rivers and Waterways, was a government office in China proper during the Qing dynasty. The office was based in Qingjiangpu (清江浦), which is now a district of Huai'an City, Jiangsu Province. The Viceroy usually held the rank of a deputy first-grade official or a regular second-grade official. The Viceroy was in charge of dredging and embankment projects in the waterways of Jiangsu Province.
The office of Viceroy of Rivers and Waterways was created in the early Qing dynasty. In 1677, during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor, Jin Fu (靳輔) served as the Viceroy of Rivers and Waterways and his headquarters were in Jining, Shandong Province. As Huai'an, Jiangsu Province was near the intersection of the Yellow River, Huai River and Grand Canal, the waterworks in that area became of prime importance. Since the Viceroy's office was too far away from Huai'an, the Qing government created a separate branch for the Viceroy's office at the northwest of Qingjiangpu (清江浦; a district of present-day Huai'an, Jiangsu Province) to facilitate the Viceroy's job of overseeing the waterworks.
In 1729, the Yongzheng Emperor split the Viceroy of Rivers and Waterways into the Viceroy of Southern Rivers based in Qingjiangpu, and the Viceroy of Eastern Rivers based in Jining. In the following year, he created the Viceroy of Northern Rivers, which was then concurrently held by the Viceroy of Zhili. The Viceroy of Southern Rivers oversaw a total of four circuits, 24 subprefectures and 24 battalions of military forces.
In the early Qing dynasty, the central government provided an annual amount of 4.5 million silver taels to the Viceroy of Southern Rivers for construction and maintenance projects. When the rivers overflowed, the central government provided additional funds to the Viceroy. At the same time, numerous instances of corruption occurred when the Viceroy and his subordinates embezzled the funds and produced work of substandard quality. The area around Qingjiangpu developed rapidly and became a thriving centre of commerce, business and recreation, with dozens of streets filled with rows of shops, restaurants, teahouses, bathhouses and brothels.
In 1855, the Xianfeng Emperor ordered the Yellow River to be redirected northward from Lanyi County, Henan Province towards Changyuan County, Dongming County and Zhangqiu Town in Shandong Province, and then from the Ji River in Shandong Province towards the Bohai Sea.
In 1860, the Nian rebels attacked and captured Qingjiangpu from government forces and then burnt down the Viceroy's office and the surrounding areas. The Qing government abolished the Viceroy of Southern Rivers in the following year.
As of today, the garden of the Viceroy's office has been restored and is now known as Qing Yan Garden.
|#||Name||Portrait||Start of term||End of term||Notes|
| Yengišan |
|March 1729||April 1729||Acting Viceroy|
|1|| Kong Yuxun |
|April 1729||May 1730||Died in office|
| Kang Hongxun |
| Ji Zengyun |
|May 1730||January 1734||Acting Viceroy; left office for filial mourning|
| Ji Zengyun |
|2|| Gao Bin |
|1734||1734||Concurrently held the appointment of Salt Commissioner of the Two Huais|
| Zhao Hong'en |
|3|| Gao Bin |
|January 1736||September 1741|
| Bai Zhongshan |
|January 1735||December 1736||As Deputy Viceroy|
| Liu Yongcheng |
|January 1735||December 1736||As Deputy Viceroy; later as acting Viceroy for a year|
| De'ermin |
|December 1736||January 1738||As Deputy Viceroy; later as acting Viceroy for two years|
| Sun Jun |
|1740||1741||As Financial Officer of Southern Rivers|
|4|| Wanyan Wei |
|September 1741||January 1743|
|5|| Bai Zhongshan |
|January 1743||April 1746|
|6|| Zhou Xuejian |
|October 1746||August 1748|
| Gu Cong |
|April 1746||October 1746||As Viceroy of Caoyun|
| Gao Bin |
|August 1748||September 1753||Acting Viceroy|
| Zhang Shizai |
|1750||September 1753||Acting Viceroy|
| Celeng |
|September 1753||October 1753||Acting Viceroy|
| Bai Zhongshan |
|7|| Yengišan |
|October 1753||January 1755|
| Bai Zhongshan |
|1755||1755||As Viceroy of Eastern Rivers|
|8|| Fulehe |
|January 1755||November 1756|
|9|| Liu Tongxun |
|November 1756||Aibilong was acting Viceroy before Liu Tongxun arrived to assume office|
| Zhuang Yougong |
|1756||1757||As Provincial Governor of Jiangsu|
|10|| Aibilong |
|November 1756||February 1757|
|11|| Bai Zhongshan |
|February 1757||April 1761|
| Ji Huang |
|February 1757||April 1761||As Deputy Viceroy|
|12|| Gao Jin |
|April 1761||April 1765|
|13|| Li Hong |
|April 1765||September 1771||Died in office|
|14|| Wu Sijue |
|September 1771||April 1776||Died in office|
|15|| Sazai |
|April 1776||February 1779|
| Debao |
| Li Fenghan |
|February 1779||March 1780||Acting Viceroy|
|16|| Chen Huizu |
|March 1780||January 1781|
| Li Fenghan |
|January 1781||February 1781||Acting Viceroy|
|17|| Li Fenghan |
|February 1781||March 1789|
| Kang Jitian |
|March 1789||April 1789||Acting Viceroy|
|18|| Lan Dixi |
|April 1789||January 1798||Died in office|
| Li Fenghan |
|January 1798||January 1798||Acting Viceroy|
|19|| Kang Jitian |
|January 1798||March 1800|
|20|| Wu Jing |
|March 1800||January 1805|
|21|| Xu Rui |
|January 1805||July 1806||Became Deputy Viceroy from July 1806|
|22|| Dai Junyuan |
|July 1806||April 1808|
| Xu Rui |
|July 1806||April 1808||As Deputy Viceroy|
| Nayancheng |
|January 1809||February 1809||As Deputy Viceroy|
| Xu Rui |
|April 1808||January 1809||Acting Viceroy|
|23|| Wu Jing |
|January 1809||August 1810||Left office due to illness|
| Xu Rui |
|February 1809||August 1810||As Deputy Viceroy|
|24|| Xu Rui |
|August 1810||December 1810|
| Xu Rui |
|December 1810||August 1811||As Deputy Viceroy|
|25|| Jiang Youxian |
|December 1810||January 1811|
| Songyun |
|January 1811||January 1811||Acting Viceroy|
|26|| Chen Fengxiang |
|January 1811||September 1812|
| Chu Pengling |
|September 1812||September 1812||Acting Viceroy|
|27|| Li Shixu |
|September 1812||March 1824||Died in office|
| Sun Yuting |
| Sun Yuting |
|28|| Zhang Wenhao |
|March 1824||December 1824|
|29|| Yan Lang |
|December 1824||April 1826|
|30|| Zhang Jing |
|April 1826||April 1833||Left office due to illness|
| Pan Xi'en |
|May 1826||May 1829||As Deputy Viceroy|
|31|| Linqing |
|April 1833||September 1842||Temporarily left office for filial mourning from May to September 1833|
| Zhang Jing |
|May 1833||September 1833||Acting Viceroy in Linqing's absence|
| Chen Luan |
|32|| Pan Xi'en |
|September 1842||October 1848||Left office due to illness|
| Liao Hongquan |
|1842||1842||As Secretary of Works|
| Zhou Tianjue |
| Li Xingyuan |
|October 1848||October 1848||Acting Viceroy|
|33|| Yang Yizeng |
|October 1848||February 1856||Died in office|
| Shao Can |
|February 1856||February 1856||As Viceroy of Caoyun|
|34|| Gengchang |
|February 1856||June 1860|
| Wang Mengling |
|June 1860||July 1860||Acting Viceroy|
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