Viceroyalty of New Granada

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Viceroyalty of New Granada

Virreinato de la Nueva Granada
1717–1821
Motto: Vtraque Vnvm
"Out of two (worlds) one"
Anthem:  Marcha Real
"Royal March"
Viceroyalty of New Granada (orthographic projection).svg
Viceroyalty of New Granada
Status Viceroyalty of the Spanish Empire
Capital Santafé de Bogotá
Common languages Castilian Spanish
Religion
Christianity (Roman Catholicism)
GovernmentMonarchy
Kings  
 1717–1724 (first)
Philip V
 1813–1821 (last)
Ferdinand VII
Viceroy  
 1718–1719 (first)
Antonio Ignacio de la Pedrosa y Guerrero
 1819–1821 (last)
Juan de la Cruz Mourgeón
Historical era Spanish colonization of the Americas
 Established
27 May 1717
 Suppressed.
5 November 1723
 Reestablished.
20 August 1739
8 September 1777
20 July 1810
  Reconquered.
3 September 1816
 Disestablished
7 August 1821
Currency Spanish colonial real
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag of New Spain.svg New Spain
Flag of New Spain.svg New Kingdom of Granada
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Venezuela Province
Flag of New Spain.svg Viceroyalty of Peru
Venezuela Province Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg
Captaincy General of Venezuela Flag of Spain (1785-1873 and 1875-1931).svg
Trinidad and Tobago Union flag 1606 (Kings Colors).svg
Free and Independent State of Cundinamarca Flag of Cundinamarca.svg
United Provinces of New Granada Flag of New Granada (1811-1814).svg
Gran Colombia Flag of the Gran Colombia (1819-1820).svg

The Viceroyalty of New Granada (Spanish: Virreinato de Nueva Granada [birei̯ˈnato ðe ˈnweβa ɣɾaˈnaða] ) was the name given on 27 May 1717, [1] to the jurisdiction of the Spanish Empire in northern South America, corresponding to modern Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela. The territory corresponding to Panama was incorporated later in 1739, and the provinces of Venezuela were separated from the Viceroyalty and assigned to the Captaincy General of Venezuela in 1777. In addition to these core areas, the territory of the Viceroyalty of New Granada included Guyana, southwestern Suriname, parts of northwestern Brazil, and northern Peru.

Contents

Colonial history

Spanish and Portuguese empires, 1790. Imperios Espanol y Portugues 1790.svg
Spanish and Portuguese empires, 1790.

Two centuries after the establishment of the New Kingdom of Granada in the 16th century, whose governor was dependent upon the Viceroy of Peru at Lima, and an audiencia at Santa Fé de Bogotá (today capital of the republic of Colombia), the slowness of communications between the two capitals led to the creation of an independent Viceroyalty of New Granada in 1717 (and its reestablishment in 1739 after a short interruption). Other provinces corresponding to modern Ecuador, the eastern and southern parts of today's Venezuela, [2] and Panama came together in a political unit under the jurisdiction of Bogotá, confirming that city as one of the principal administrative centers of the Spanish possessions in the New World, along with Lima and Mexico City. Sporadic attempts at reform were directed at increasing efficiency and centralizing authority, but control from Spain was never very effective.

The rough and diverse geography of northern South America and the limited range of proper roads made travel and communications within the viceroyalty difficult. The establishment of an autonomous Captaincy General in Caracas in 1777 and the preservation of the older Audiencia of Quito, nominally subject to the Viceroy but for most purposes independent, was a response to the necessities of effectively governing the peripheral regions. Some analysts also consider that these measures reflected a degree of local traditions that eventually contributed to the differing political and national differences among these territories once they became independent in the nineteenth century and which the unifying efforts of Simón Bolívar could not overcome.

Guajira rebellion

Map of La Guajira in 1769 Map of La Guajira 1769.png
Map of La Guajira in 1769

The Wayuu had never been subjugated by the Spanish. The two groups were in a more or less permanent state of war. There had been rebellions in 1701 (when they destroyed a Capuchin mission), 1727 (when more than 2,000 Wayuus attacked the Spanish), 1741, 1757, 1761 and 1768. In 1718, Governor Soto de Herrera called them "barbarians, horse thieves, worthy of death, without God, without law and without a king". Of all the Indians in the territory of Colombia, the Wayuu were unique in having learned the use of firearms and horses. [3]

In 1769 the Spanish took 22 Wayuus captive, in order to put them to work building the fortifications of Cartagena. The reaction of the Wayuus was unexpected. On 2 May 1769, at El Rincón, near Riohacha, they set their village afire, burning the church and two Spaniards who had taken refuge in it. They also captured the priest. The Spanish immediately dispatched an expedition from El Rincón to capture the Wayuus. At the head of this force was José Antonio de Sierra, a mestizo who had also headed the party that had taken the 22 Guajiro captives. The Guajiros recognized him and forced his party to take refuge in the house of the curate, which they then set afire. Sierra and eight of his men were killed. [3]

Pedro Messia de la Cerda, Viceroy of New Granada Pedro Messia de la Cerda2.jpg
Pedro Messía de la Cerda, Viceroy of New Granada

This success was soon known in other Guajiro areas, and more men joined the revolt. According to Messía, at the peak there were 20,000 Wayuus under arms. Many had firearms acquired from English and Dutch smugglers, sometimes even from the Spanish. This enabled the rebels to take nearly all the settlements of the region, which they burned. According to the authorities, more than 100 Spaniards were killed and many others taken prisoner. Many cattle were also taken by the rebels. The Spaniards took refuge in Riohacha and sent urgent messages to Maracaibo, Valledupar, Santa Marta and Cartagena, the latter responding by sending 100 troops. The rebels themselves were not unified. Sierra's relatives among the Indians took up arms against the rebels to avenge his death. A battle between the two groups of Wayuus was fought at La Soledad. That and the arrival of the Spanish reinforcements caused the rebellion to fade away, but not before the Guajiro had regained much territory. [3]

Comunero revolt

Separation of Venezuela

Independent history

The retribution stoked renewed rebellion, which, combined with a weakened Spain, made possible a successful independence struggle led mainly by Simón Bolívar and Francisco de Paula Santander in neighboring Venezuela. Bolívar returned to New Granada only in 1819 after establishing himself as leader of the pro-independence forces in the Venezuelan llanos . From there Bolivar led an army over the Andes and captured New Granada after a quick campaign that ended at the Battle of Boyacá, on August 7, 1819. finally proclaimed independence in 1819. The pro-Spanish resistance was defeated in 1822 in the present territory of Colombia and in 1823 in Venezuela.

The territories of the viceroyalty gained full de facto independence from Spain between 1819 and 1822 after a series of military and political struggles, uniting in a republic now known as Gran Colombia.

With the dissolution of Gran Colombia, the states of Ecuador, Venezuela, and the Republic of New Granada were created. The Republic of New Granada, with its capital at Bogotá, lasted from 1831 to 1856. The name "Colombia" reappeared in the "United States of Colombia"; the new name for the country having been introduced by a liberal government after a civil war. The use of the term "New Granada" survived in conservative circles, such as among ecclesiastics.

Demographics

New Granada was estimated to have 4,345,000 inhabitants in 1819. [4]

Main cities

By population

See also

Notes

  1. "El archipiélago de Los Monjes y las relaciones diplomáticas con Venezuela: Historia de una cesión territorial cuyas consecuencias siguen vigentes - banrepcultural.org". banrep.gov.co.
  2. (in Spanish) Diccionario de Historia de Venezuela. Caracas: Fundación Polar, 1997.
  3. 1 2 3 "La rebelión Guajira de 1769 : algunas constantes de la Cultura Wayuu y razones de su pervivencia - banrepcultural.org". banrep.gov.co.
  4. World Population, GDP and Per Capita GDP, 1-2003 AD

Bibliography

Coordinates: 4°39′N74°03′W / 4.650°N 74.050°W / 4.650; -74.050

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