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**Victor Michael Jean-Marie Thébault** (1882–1960) was a French mathematician best known for propounding three problems in geometry. Thébault's theorem is used in some references to refer to the first of these problems, in other references to the third.

**France**, officially the **French Republic**, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.

A **mathematician** is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems.

**Geometry** is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space. A mathematician who works in the field of geometry is called a geometer.

Thébault was born on March 6, 1882 in Ambrières-les-Grand (today a part of Ambrières-les-Vallées, Mayenne) in the northwest of France. He got his education at a teacher's college in Laval, where he studied from 1898 to 1901. After his graduation he taught for three years at Pré-en-Pail until he got a professorship at technical school in Ernée. In 1909 he placed first in a competitive exams, which yielded him a certificate to work as a science professor at teachers' colleges. Thébault however found a professor's salary insufficient to support his large family and hence he left teaching to become a factory superintendent at Ernée from 1910 to 1923. In 1924 he became a chief insurance inspector in Le Mans, a position he held until his retirement in 1940. During his retirement he lived in Tennie. He died on March 19, 1960 shortly after a severe stroke and was survived by his wife, five sons and a daughter.^{ [1] }

**Ambrières-les-Vallées** is a commune in the Mayenne department in northwestern France. It is on the border of Normandy.

**Mayenne** is a department in northwest France named after the Mayenne River. Mayenne is part of the current region of Pays de la Loire and is surrounded by the departments of Manche, Orne, Sarthe, Maine-et-Loire, and Ille-et-Vilaine.

**Laval** is a town in western France, about 300 km (190 mi) west-southwest of Paris, and the capital of the Mayenne department. Laval was before the French Revolution part of the province of Maine, now split between two departments, Mayenne and Sarthe. Its inhabitants are called *Lavallois*. The commune of Laval proper, without the metropolitan area, is the 13th most populous in northwestern France and the 119th in France.

Despite leaving teaching Thébault stayed active in mathematics with number theory and geometry being his main areas of interest. He published a large number of articles in math journals all over the world and aside from regular articles he also contributed many original problems and solutions to their problem sections. He published over 1000 original problems in various mathematical magazines^{ [2] } and his contributions to the problem section of the American Mathematical Monthly alone comprise over 600 problems and solutions. In recognition of his contributions the French government bestowed two titles on him. In 1932 he became an *Officier de L'Instruction Publique* and in a 1935 a *Chevalier de l'Order de Couronne de Belgium*.^{ [1] }

* The American Mathematical Monthly* is a mathematical journal founded by Benjamin Finkel in 1894. It is published ten times each year by Taylor & Francis for the Mathematical Association of America.

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Baron **Augustin-Louis Cauchy** was a French mathematician, engineer and physicist who made pioneering contributions to several branches of mathematics, including mathematical analysis and continuum mechanics. He was one of the first to state and rigorously prove theorems of calculus, rejecting the heuristic principle of the generality of algebra of earlier authors. He almost singlehandedly founded complex analysis and the study of permutation groups in abstract algebra.

**George Pólya** was a Hungarian mathematician. He was a professor of mathematics from 1914 to 1940 at ETH Zürich and from 1940 to 1953 at Stanford University. He made fundamental contributions to combinatorics, number theory, numerical analysis and probability theory. He is also noted for his work in heuristics and mathematics education. He has been described as one of The Martians.

**Jules Henri Poincaré** was a French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer, and philosopher of science. He is often described as a polymath, and in mathematics as "The Last Universalist," since he excelled in all fields of the discipline as it existed during his lifetime.

**Joseph-Louis Lagrange** was an Italian Enlightenment Era mathematician and astronomer. He made significant contributions to the fields of analysis, number theory, and both classical and celestial mechanics.

**James Joseph Sylvester** FRS HFRSE LLD was an English mathematician. He made fundamental contributions to matrix theory, invariant theory, number theory, partition theory, and combinatorics. He played a leadership role in American mathematics in the later half of the 19th century as a professor at the Johns Hopkins University and as founder of the American Journal of Mathematics. At his death, he was professor at Oxford.

**Jacques Salomon Hadamard** ForMemRS was a French mathematician who made major contributions in number theory, complex function theory, differential geometry and partial differential equations.

In contemporary education, **mathematics education** is the practice of teaching and learning mathematics, along with the associated scholarly research.

**Élie Joseph Cartan,** ForMemRS was an influential French mathematician who did fundamental work in the theory of Lie groups, differential systems, and differential geometry. He also made significant contributions to general relativity and indirectly to quantum mechanics. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest mathematicians of the twentieth century.

**Eugène Charles Catalan** was a French and Belgian mathematician who worked on continued fractions, descriptive geometry, number theory and combinatorics. His notable contributions included discovering a periodic minimal surface in the space
; stating the famous Catalan's conjecture, which was eventually proved in 2002; and, introducing the Catalan numbers to solve a combinatorial problem.

**Spiru C. Haret** was a Romanian-Armenian mathematician, astronomer and politician. He made a fundamental contribution to the *n*-body problem in celestial mechanics by proving that using a third degree approximation for the disturbing forces implies instability of the major axes of the orbits, and by introducing the concept of *secular perturbations* in relation to this.

The **Leroy P. Steele Prizes** are awarded every year by the American Mathematical Society, for distinguished research work and writing in the field of mathematics. Since 1993 there has been a formal division into three categories.

**Gheorghe Țițeica** publishing as **George** or **Georges Tzitzeica**) was a Romanian mathematician with important contributions in geometry. He is recognized as the founder of the Romanian school of differential geometry.

**Nicolaas Govert** (**Dick**) **de Bruijn** was a Dutch mathematician, noted for his many contributions in the fields of analysis, number theory, combinatorics and logic.

**László Rátz**,, was a Hungarian mathematics high school teacher best known for educating such people as John von Neumann and Nobel laureate Eugene Wigner. He was a legendary teacher of "Budapest-Fasori Evangélikus Gimnázium", the Budapest Lutheran Gymnasium, a famous secondary school in Budapest in Hungary.

**Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat** is a French mathematician and physicist. Her work lies in the intersection of mathematics and physics, notably in Einstein's general theory of relativity. She is one of the pioneers of the study of General relativity, and she is particularly known as the first to prove the well-posedness of the Einstein equations. Her work was applied in the detection of gravitational waves.

**Thébault** may refer to:

**Viacheslav Valentinovich Nikulin (Slava)** is a Russian mathematician working in algebraic geometry of classical algebraic varieties, e.g. K3 surfaces, Calabi–Yau threefolds and others, mirror symmetry, arithmetic of quadratic forms, Hyperbolic Kac–Moody algebras. He is a professor of mathematics at the University of Liverpool. A third chair of mathematics was established for Nikulin in 1999, the second chair having been established in 1964 for C. T. C. Wall and the first having been established in 1882. Nikulin's teaching duties include modules on Riemann surfaces, Galois theory, and Lie groups and Lie algebras. Nikulin has made notable contributions towards the solution of Hilbert's 16th problem.

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**François-Joseph Servois** was a French priest, military officer and mathematician. His most notable contribution came in his publication of Essai sur un nouveau mode d’exposition des principes du calcul différentiel in 1814, where he first introduced the mathematical terms for commutative and distributive.

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