|Born||1936 (age 84–85)|
|Field||Macroeconomics and monetary economics|
|Post Keynesian economics|
|Influences||John Maynard Keynes, Hyman Minsky|
|Contributions||Post Keynesian economics|
|Information at IDEAS / RePEc|
Victoria Chick (born 1936) is a Post Keynesian economist. She has made contributions to the understanding of Keynes's General Theory.
Chick was born in 1936 in Berkeley, California. She graduated from the University of California at Berkeley with Bachelor's and Master's degrees in economics.
Chick wrote her thesis on Canada's experience in the 1950s with flexible exchange rates. As a research student, she was taught by Hyman Minsky (among others), although her interest in Keynes and his General Theory developed much later. After further study at the London School of Economics, in 1963 she secured a post at University College London where she remained for the rest of her career, being appointed to a Chair in 1993.
At UCL her interests shifted from international economics to monetary theory and macroeconomics. Her first major book, The Theory of Monetary Policy (1973), was a critical evaluation of both the Keynesian and monetarist approaches to macroeconomics that were dominant of the time. In 1971 she was present at Joan Robinson's Ely Lecture to the American Economic Association, titled The Second Crisis in Economics, and at the meeting called by Joan Robinson and Paul Davidson which gave conscious expression to what became the Post Keynesian school of thought.
Chick then returned to The General Theory and wrote a critique of Clower and Leijonhufvud's reappraisal (Leijonhufvud, 1968) of the Economics of Keynes, leading eventually to her magnum opus Macroeconomics After Keynes (1983). In this book she portrayed the Keynesian Revolution as one of method, forced by taking seriously the effects of money, time and uncertainty. Her subsequent work has placed great emphasis on methodology and institutions.
In 1988, with Philip Arestis, Chick founded the Post Keynesian Economics Study Group (PKSG).
Keynesian economics are the various macroeconomic theories and models of how aggregate demand strongly influences economic output and inflation. In the Keynesian view, aggregate demand does not necessarily equal the productive capacity of the economy. Instead, it is influenced by a host of factors – sometimes behaving erratically – affecting production, employment, and inflation.
Macroeconomics is a branch of economics dealing with performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole. For example, using interest rates, taxes, and government spending to regulate an economy’s growth and stability. This includes regional, national, and global economies. According to a 2018 assessment by economists Emi Nakamura and Jón Steinsson, economic "evidence regarding the consequences of different macroeconomic policies is still highly imperfect and open to serious criticism."
Post-Keynesian economics is a school of economic thought with its origins in The General Theory of John Maynard Keynes, with subsequent development influenced to a large degree by Michał Kalecki, Joan Robinson, Nicholas Kaldor, Sidney Weintraub, Paul Davidson, Piero Sraffa and Jan Kregel. Historian Robert Skidelsky argues that the post-Keynesian school has remained closest to the spirit of Keynes' original work. It is a heterodox approach to economics.
The Stockholm School is a school of economic thought. It refers to a loosely organized group of Swedish economists that worked together, in Stockholm, Sweden primarily in the 1930s.
The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money of 1936 is a book by English economist John Maynard Keynes. It caused a profound shift in economic thought, giving macroeconomics a central place in economic theory and contributing much of its terminology – the "Keynesian Revolution". It had equally powerful consequences in economic policy, being interpreted as providing theoretical support for government spending in general, and for budgetary deficits, monetary intervention and counter-cyclical policies in particular. It is pervaded with an air of mistrust for the rationality of free-market decision making.
Joan Violet Robinson was a British economist well known for her wide-ranging contributions to economic theory. She was a central figure in what became known as post-Keynesian economics.
Johan Gustaf Knut Wicksell was a leading Swedish economist of the Stockholm school. His economic contributions would influence both the Keynesian and Austrian schools of economic thought. He was married to the noted feminist Anna Bugge.
The neoclassical synthesis (NCS), neoclassical–Keynesian synthesis, or just neo-Keynesianism was a post-World War II academic movement and paradigm in economics that worked towards reconciling the macroeconomic thought of John Maynard Keynes with neoclassical economics. Being Keynesian in the short run and neoclassical in the long run, neoclassical synthesis allowed the economy to adjust via fiscal and monetary policies in the short run whilst predicting that equilibrium in the long run will be reached without state intervention. The synthesis, formulated by a group of economists, dominated economics in the post-war period and formed the mainstream of macroeconomic thought in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s.
New classical macroeconomics, sometimes simply called new classical economics, is a school of thought in macroeconomics that builds its analysis entirely on a neoclassical framework. Specifically, it emphasizes the importance of rigorous foundations based on microeconomics, especially rational expectations.
Paul Davidson is an American macroeconomist who has been one of the leading spokesmen of the American branch of the post-Keynesian school in economics. He is a prolific writer and has actively intervened in important debates on economic policy from a position that is very critical of mainstream economics.
Axel Leijonhufvud is a Swedish economist, currently professor emeritus at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) and professor at the University of Trento, Italy.
The Keynesian Revolution was a fundamental reworking of economic theory concerning the factors determining employment levels in the overall economy. The revolution was set against the then orthodox economic framework, namely neoclassical economics.
Macroeconomic theory has its origins in the study of business cycles and monetary theory. In general, early theorists believed monetary factors could not affect real factors such as real output. John Maynard Keynes attacked some of these "classical" theories and produced a general theory that described the whole economy in terms of aggregates rather than individual, microeconomic parts. Attempting to explain unemployment and recessions, he noticed the tendency for people and businesses to hoard cash and avoid investment during a recession. He argued that this invalidated the assumptions of classical economists who thought that markets always clear, leaving no surplus of goods and no willing labor left idle.
Athanasios "Tom" Asimakopulos was a Canadian economist, who was the "William Dow Professor of Political Economy" in the Department of Economics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. His monograph, Keynes's General Theory and Accumulation, reviews important areas of Keynes's General Theory and the theories of accumulation of two of his most distinguished followers, Roy Harrod and Joan Robinson.
Geoffrey Colin Harcourt is an Australian academic economist who is a leading member of the post-Keynesian school. He studied at the University of Melbourne and then at King's College, Cambridge.
Robert Wayne Clower was an American economist. He is credited with having largely created the field of stock-flow analysis in economics and with seminal works on the microfoundations of monetary theory and macroeconomics.
Peter Howells is Professor Emeritus of Monetary Economics at the Bristol Business school at the University of the West of England.
Full Employment Abandoned: Shifting Sands and Policy Failures is a book on macroeconomic issues, written by economists William Mitchell & Joan Muysken and first published in 2008.
Stock-flow consistent models (SFC) are a family of macroeconomic models based on a rigorous accounting framework, which guarantees a correct and comprehensive integration of all the flows and the stocks of an economy. These models were first developed in the mid-20th century but have recently become popular, particularly within the post-Keynesian school of thought. Stock-flow consistent models are in contrast to dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models, which are used in mainstream economics.
Sheila Dow is a post-Keynesian economist. She was a Professor of Economics at the University of Stirling in Scotland. She has published in a wide range of areas, most notably in economic methodology, the endogeneity of money and the history of economic thought.