Victoria Land is a region of Antarctica which fronts the western side of the Ross Sea and the Ross Ice Shelf, extending southward from about 70°30'S to 78°00'S, and westward from the Ross Sea to the edge of the Antarctic Plateau.It was discovered by Captain James Clark Ross in January 1841 and named after the UK's Queen Victoria. The rocky promontory of Minna Bluff is often regarded as the southernmost point of Victoria Land, and separates the Scott Coast to the north from the Hillary Coast of the Ross Dependency to the south.
The region includes ranges of the Transantarctic Mountains and the McMurdo Dry Valleys (the highest point being Mount Abbott in the Northern Foothills), and the flatlands known as the Labyrinth. Early explorers of Victoria Land include James Clark Ross and Douglas Mawson.
Victoria Island is a large island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago that straddles the boundary between Nunavut and the Northwest Territories of Canada. It is the eighth largest island in the world, and at 217,291 km2 (83,897 sq mi) in area, it is Canada's second largest island. It is nearly double the size of Newfoundland (111,390 km2 [43,008 sq mi]), and is slightly larger than the island of Great Britain (209,331 km2 [80,823 sq mi]) but smaller than Honshu (225,800 km2 [87,182 sq mi]). It contains the world's largest island within an island within an island. The western third of the island belongs to the Inuvik Region in the Northwest Territories; the remainder is part of Nunavut's Kitikmeot Region.
The Ross Dependency is a region of Antarctica defined by a sector originating at the South Pole, passing along longitudes 160° east to 150° west, and terminating at latitude 60° south. It is claimed by New Zealand. Since the Antarctic Treaty came into force in 1961, Article IV of which states: "No acts or activities taking place while the present Treaty is in force shall constitute a basis for asserting, supporting or denying a claim to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica or create any rights of sovereignty in Antarctica", most countries do not recognise territorial claims in Antarctica.
The Antarctic Peninsula, known as O'Higgins Land in Chile, Tierra de San Martin in Argentina, and originally known as the Palmer Peninsula in the US and as Graham Land in the United Kingdom, is the northernmost part of the mainland of Antarctica, located at the base of the Southern Hemisphere.
Marie Byrd Land is the portion of West Antarctica lying east of the Ross Ice Shelf and the Ross Sea and south of the Pacific Ocean, extending eastward approximately to a line between the head of the Ross Ice Shelf and Eights Coast. It stretches between 158°W and 103°24'W. The inclusion of the area between the Rockefeller Plateau and Eights Coast is based upon the leading role of the American Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd in the exploration of this area. The name was originally applied by Admiral Byrd in 1929, in honor of his wife, to the northwestern part of the area, the part that was explored in that year.
Bowers Mountains is a group of north-south trending mountains in Antarctica, about 145 km (90 mi) long and 56 km (35 mi) wide, bounded by the coast on the north and by the Rennick, Canham, Black and Lillie glaciers in other quadrants. The seaward end was first sighted in February 1911 from the Terra Nova, under Lt. Harry L.L. Pennell, RN, and was subsequently named "Bowers Hills" in honour of Henry Robertson Bowers who perished with Captain Robert Falcon Scott on their return from the South Pole in 1912. The mountain range is one of the most extensive topographical features within Victoria Land.
Tucker Glacier is a major valley glacier of Victoria Land, about 144 km (90 mi) long, flowing southeast between Admiralty Mountains and Victory Mountains to the Ross Sea. There is a snow saddle at the glacier's head, just west of Homerun Range, from which Ebbe Glacier flows northwestward.
The Royal Society Range is a majestic mountain range in Victoria Land, Antarctica. With its summit at 4,025 metres (13,205 ft), the massive Mount Lister forms the highest point in this range. Mount Lister is located along the western shore of McMurdo Sound between the Koettlitz, Skelton and Ferrar glaciers. Other notable local terrain features include Allison Glacier, which descends from the west slopes of the Royal Society Range into Skelton Glacier.
Mount Melbourne is a massive stratovolcano that makes up the projection of the coast between Wood Bay and Terra Nova Bay, in Victoria Land of Antarctica. It was discovered in 1841 by James Clark Ross, who named it for Lord Melbourne, British prime minister when the expedition was being planned.
Franklin Island is an island 13 kilometres (7 nmi) long, lying in the Ross Sea about 130 kilometres (80 mi) east of Cape Hickey, Victoria Land. It was discovered on January 27, 1841 by James Clark Ross, and named for Sir John Franklin, the noted Arctic explorer, who as Governor of Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania) had royally entertained the expedition on its way south at Hobart in 1840.
Sir James Clark Ross was a British Royal Navy officer and polar explorer known for his explorations of the Arctic, participating in two expeditions led by his uncle Sir John Ross, and four led by Sir William Parry, and, in particular, for his own Antarctic expedition from 1839 to 1843.
Taylor Valley is the southernmost of the three large Dry Valleys in the Transantarctic Mountains, Victoria Land, located west of McMurdo Sound at approximately. The valley extends from Taylor Glacier in the west to McMurdo Sound at Explorers Cove at the northwest head of New Harbour in the east and is about 29 kilometres (18 mi) long. It was once occupied by the receding Taylor Glacier, from which it derives its name. Taylor Valley contains Lake Bonney in the west (inward), and Lake Fryxell in the east (coastward), and Lake Hoare, Lake Chad, Lake Popplewell, Mummy Pond and Parera Pond close together between the two. Further east of Lake Bonney is Pearse Valley. Taylor Valley is separated from Wright Valley in the north by Asgard Range, and from Ferrar Glacier in the south by Kukri Hills.
The borders of the oceans are the limits of the Earth's oceanic waters. The definition and number of oceans can vary depending on the adopted criteria.
The Freyberg Mountains are a group of mountains in Victoria Land, Antarctica, bounded by Rennick Glacier, Bowers Mountains, Black Glacier, and Evans Neve. Named for New Zealand's most famous General, Lord Bernard Freyberg, by the Northern Party of New Zealand Geological Survey Antarctic Expedition (NZGSAE), 1963-64. This mountain group includes the Alamein Range. These topographical features all lie situated on the Pennell Coast, a portion of Antarctica lying between Cape Williams and Cape Adare.
The Downshire Cliffs are a line of precipitous basalt cliffs rising to 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) above the Ross Sea and forming much of the east side of Adare Peninsula along the coast of Victoria Land. In 1841 Captain James Clark Ross applied the name "Cape Downshire" to a part of these cliffs. He did so at the request of Commander Francis R.M. Crozier of the Downshire. No prominent cape exists here and, for the sake of historical continuity, the name has been reapplied to these cliffs.
Mount Draeger is a mountain, 1,690 metres (5,540 ft) high, in the northwest part of the Posey Range, Bowers Mountains, Victoria Land, Antarctica. The mountain overlooks from the east the junction of Smithson Glacier with the Graveson Glacier. The topographical feature was first mapped by the United States Geological Survey from surveys and U.S. Navy air photos, 1960–62, and was named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names for chief radioman Ernest J. Draeger, U.S. Navy, a member of the winter party at McMurdo Station, Hut Point Peninsula, Ross Island, in 1967. The mountain lies situated on the Pennell Coast, a portion of Antarctica lying between Cape Williams and Cape Adare.
Moubray Bay is a bay in the western Ross Sea, indenting the coast of Victoria Land, Antarctica, between Cape Roget and Cape Hallett. It was discovered in 1841 by Sir James Clark Ross and named by him for George H. Moubray, clerk in charge of the expedition ship Terror.
Mericle Rock is a nunatak in the middle of Campbell Glacier, approximately 9 nautical miles (17 km) from its head, in Victoria Land, Antarctica. It was mapped by the United States Geological Survey from surveys and U.S. Navy air photos, 1960–64, and was named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names for David L. Mericle, U.S. Navy, an electronics technician at McMurdo Station, 1967.
Cape Ross is a granite headland 8 nautical miles (15 km) north of Cape Archer on the coast of Victoria Land. First charted by the British Antarctic Expedition (1907–09) which named this feature for Sir James Clark Ross, the discoverer of the Ross Sea and Victoria Land.
New Harbour is a bay about 10 miles (16 km) wide between Cape Bernacchi and Butter Point along the coast of Victoria Land, due west of Ross Island. It was discovered by the British National Antarctic Expedition (1901–04) and so named because this new harbor was found while the Discovery was seeking the farthest possible southern anchorage along the coast of Victoria Land. The Ferrar Glacier flows into the bay, which overlooked by Mount Barnes, which sits at the eastern end of the Kukri Hills range.
Mount Phillips is a mainly ice-covered mountain rising to about 3,035 metres (9,957 ft) lying about 11 miles (18 km) west of Mount Alberts, situated in the southern portion of the Malta Plateau, on the Borchgrevink Coast, named for Anglo-Norwegian explorer Carsten Borchgrevink (1864–1934), marking the western extremity of Victoria Land, Antarctica. The mountain was first discovered in January 1841 by Sir James Clark Ross who so named the mountain for professor John Phillips, assistant secretary of the British Association.
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