Victoriano Huerta

Last updated

Further reading


  1. There is dispute about the date of birth and the maternal surname of Victoriano Huerta. Many sources, including Gobernantes de México by Fernando Orozco Linares give a birthdate of 23 March 1854 and a maternal surname of Ortega. However, the parish register of Colotlán, Jalisco as filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah on film 0443681 v. 24 p. 237 shows a baptism date of 23 December 1850, a birth date of 22 December 1850 and his mother's name as María Lázara del Refugio Márquez. The marriage record dated 21 November 1880 at Santa Veracruz parrish in Mexico City as filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah on film 0035853 confirms his mother's name as: Del Refugio Márquez.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Francisco I. Madero</span> President of Mexico from 1911 to 1913

Francisco Ignacio Madero González was a Mexican businessman, revolutionary, writer and statesman, who became the 37th president of Mexico from 1911 until he was deposed in a coup d'etat in February 1913, and assassinated.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Emiliano Zapata</span> Mexican revolutionary (1879–1919)

Emiliano Zapata Salazar was a Mexican revolutionary. He was a leading figure in the Mexican Revolution of 1910–1920, the main leader of the people's revolution in the Mexican state of Morelos, and the inspiration of the agrarian movement called Zapatismo.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pancho Villa</span> Mexican revolutionary general and politician (1878–1923)

Francisco "Pancho" Villa was a general in the Mexican Revolution. He was a key figure in the revolutionary movement that forced out President Porfirio Díaz and brought Francisco I. Madero to power in 1911. When Madero was ousted by a coup led by General Victoriano Huerta in February 1913, he led anti-Huerta forces in the Constitutionalist Army 1913–14. The commander of the coalition was civilian governor of Coahuila Venustiano Carranza. After the defeat and exile of Huerta in July 1914, Villa broke with Carranza. Villa dominated the meeting of revolutionary generals that excluded Carranza and helped create a coalition government. Emiliano Zapata and Villa became formal allies in this period, but it was only in principle. Like Zapata, Villa was strongly in favor of land reform, but his plans were not implemented when he had power. At the height of his power and popularity in late 1914 and early 1915, the U.S. considered recognizing him as Mexico's legitimate authority. Civil war broke out when Carranza challenged Villa. Villa was decisively defeated by Constitutionalist General Álvaro Obregón in summer 1915, and the U.S. aided Carranza directly against Villa in the Second Battle of Agua Prieta in November 1915. Much of Villa's army left after Villa's defeat on the battlefield and for his lack of resources to buy arms and pay soldiers' salaries. Angered at the U.S. aid to Carranza, Villa conducted a raid on the border town of Columbus, New Mexico to goad the U.S. to invade Mexico in 1916–17. Despite a major contingent of soldiers and the latest military technology, the U.S. failed to capture Villa. When President Carranza was ousted from power in 1920, Villa negotiated an amnesty with interim President Adolfo de la Huerta and was given a landed estate, on the condition he retire from politics. He was assassinated in 1923. Although his faction did not prevail in the Revolution, he is one of its most charismatic and prominent figures.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mexican Revolution</span> Nationwide armed struggle in Mexico (1910–1920)

The Mexican Revolution was an extended sequence of armed regional conflicts in Mexico from approximately 1910 to 1920. It has been called "the defining event of modern Mexican history". It resulted in the destruction of the Federal Army and its replacement by a revolutionary army, and the transformation of Mexican culture and government. The northern Constitutionalist faction prevailed on the battlefield and drafted the present-day Constitution of Mexico, which aimed to create a strong central government. Revolutionary generals held power from 1920 to 1940. The revolutionary conflict was primarily a civil war, but foreign powers, having important economic and strategic interests in Mexico, figured in the outcome of Mexico's power struggles. The United States played an especially significant role.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pascual Orozco</span> Mexican politician

Pascual Orozco Vázquez, Jr. was a Mexican revolutionary leader who rose up to support Francisco I. Madero in late 1910 to depose long-time president Porfirio Díaz (1876-1911). Orozco was a natural military leader whose victory over the Federal Army at Ciudad Juárez was a key factor in forcing Díaz to resign in May 1911. Following Díaz's resignation and the democratic election of Madero in November 1911, Orozco served Madero as leader of the state militia in Chihuahua, a paltry reward for his service in the Mexican Revolution. Orozco revolted against the Madero government 16 months later, issuing the Plan Orozquista in March 1912. It was a serious revolt which the Federal Army struggled to suppress. When Victoriano Huerta led a coup d'état against Madero in February 1913 during which Madero was murdered, Orozco joined the Huerta regime. Orozco's revolt against Madero somewhat tarnished his revolutionary reputation, but his subsequent support of Huerta compounded the repugnance against him.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Venustiano Carranza</span> President of Mexico from 1917 to 1920

José Venustiano Carranza de la Garza was a Mexican wealthy land owner and politician who was Governor of Coahuila when the constitutionally elected president Francisco I. Madero was overthrown in a February 1913 right-wing military coup.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Plan of Ayala</span> Revolutionary document by Emiliano Zapata

The Plan of Ayala was a document drafted by revolutionary leader Emiliano Zapata during the Mexican Revolution. In it, Zapata denounced President Francisco Madero for his perceived betrayal of the revolutionary ideals embodied in Madero's Plan de San Luis Potosí, and set out his vision of land reform. The Plan was first proclaimed on November 28, 1911 in the town of Ayala, Morelos, and was later amended on June 19, 1914. The Plan of Ayala was a key document during the revolution and influenced land reform in Mexico during the 1920s and 1930s. It was the fundamental text of the Zapatistas.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Liberation Army of the South</span> Armed group during the Mexican Revolution

The Liberation Army of the South was a guerrilla force led for most of its existence by Emiliano Zapata that took part in the Mexican Revolution from 1911 to 1920. During that time, the Zapatistas fought against the national governments of Porfirio Díaz, Francisco Madero, Victoriano Huerta, and Venustiano Carranza. Their goal was rural land reform, specifically reclaiming communal lands stolen by hacendados in the period before the revolution. Although rarely active outside their base in Morelos, they allied with Pancho Villa to support the Conventionists against the Carrancistas. After Villa's defeat, the Zapatistas remained in open rebellion. It was only after Zapata's 1919 assassination and the overthrow of the Carranza government that Zapata's successor, Gildardo Magaña, negotiated peace with President Álvaro Obregón.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Plan of Guadalupe</span> Political manifesto

The Plan of Guadalupe was a political manifesto which was proclaimed on March 26, 1913, by the Governor of Coahuila Venustiano Carranza in response to the reactionary coup d'etat and execution of President Francisco I. Madero, which had occurred during the Ten Tragic Days of February 1913. The manifesto was released from the Hacienda De Guadalupe, which is where the Plan derives its name, nearly a month after the assassination of Madero. The initial plan was limited in scope, denouncing Victoriano Huerta's usurpation of power and advocating the restoration of a constitutional government. In 1914, Carranza issued "Additions to the Plan of Guadalupe", which broadened its scope and "endowed la Revolución with its social and economic content." In 1916, he further revised the Plan now that the Constitutionalist Army was victorious and revolutionaries sought changes to the 1857 Constitution of Mexico. Carranza sought to set the terms of the constitutional convention.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Constitutional Army</span> Military unit

The Constitutional Army was the army that fought against the Federal Army, and later, against the Villistas and Zapatistas during the Mexican Revolution. It was formed in March 1913 by Venustiano Carranza, so-called "First-Chief" of the army, as a response to the murder of President Francisco I. Madero and Vice President José María Pino Suárez by Victoriano Huerta during La Decena Trágica of 1913, and the resulting usurpation of presidential power by Huerta.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Federal Army</span> Military unit

The Mexican Federal Army, also known as the Federales in popular culture, was the military of Mexico from 1876 to 1914 during the Porfiriato, the long rule of President Porfirio Díaz, and during the presidencies of Francisco I. Madero and Victoriano Huerta. Under President Díaz, a military hero against the French Intervention in Mexico, the Federal Army was composed of senior officers who had served in long ago conflicts. At the time of the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution most were old men and incapable of leading men on the battlefield. When the rebellions broke out against Díaz following fraudulent elections of 1910, the Federal Army was incapable of responding. Although revolutionary fighters helped bring Francisco I. Madero to power, Madero retained the Federal Army rather than the revolutionaries. Madero used the Federal Army to suppress rebellions against his government by Pascual Orozco and Emiliano Zapata. Madero placed General Victoriano Huerta as interim commander of the military during the Ten Tragic Days of February 1913 to defend his government. Huerta changed sides and ousted Madero's government. Rebellions broke out against Huerta's regime. When revolutionary armies succeeded in ousting Huerta in July 1914, the Federal Army ceased to exist as an entity, with the signing of the Teoloyucan Treaties.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">United States involvement in the Mexican Revolution</span>

The United States involvement in the Mexican Revolution was varied and seemingly contradictory, first supporting and then repudiating Mexican regimes during the period 1910–1920. For both economic and political reasons, the U.S. government generally supported those who occupied the seats of power, but could withhold official recognition. The U.S. supported the regime of Porfirio Díaz after initially withholding recognition since he came to power by coup. In 1909, Díaz and U.S. President Taft met in Ciudad Juárez, across the border from El Paso, Texas. Prior to Woodrow Wilson's inauguration on March 4, 1913, the U.S. Government focused on just warning the Mexican military that decisive action from the U.S. military would take place if lives and property of U.S. nationals living in the country were endangered. President William Howard Taft sent more troops to the US-Mexico border but did not allow them to intervene directly in the conflict, a move which Congress opposed. Twice during the Revolution, the U.S. sent troops into Mexico, to occupy Veracruz in 1914 and to northern Mexico in 1916 in a failed attempt to capture Pancho Villa. U.S. foreign policy toward Latin America was to assume the region was the sphere of influence of the U.S., articulated in the Monroe Doctrine. However the U.S. role in the Mexican Revolution has been exaggerated. It did not directly intervene in the Mexican Revolution in a sustained manner.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lucio Blanco</span>

Lucio Blanco was a Mexican military officer and revolutionary, noteworthy for his participation in the Mexican Revolution of 1910 to 1920.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Constitutionalists in the Mexican Revolution</span> Faction of the Mexican Revolution (1910-20) which followed Pres. Venustiano Carranza

Constitutionalists were the third faction in the Mexican Revolution (1910–1920). Also known as Carrancistas, they were followers of Mexican president Venustiano Carranza, and consisted of mainly middle-class urbanites, liberals, and intellectuals who desired a constitution under the guidelines "Mexico for Mexicans". After the revolution they would dominate Mexican politics as the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) until the early 1980s.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">José Inés Salazar</span>

José Inés Salazar was a leading Orozquista General in the Mexican Revolution who later fought with Pancho Villa. He was a native of Casas Grandes, Chihuahua.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Juan Andreu Almazán</span> Mexican politician

Juan Andreu Almazán was a Mexican revolutionary general, politician and businessman. He held high posts in the Mexican Army in the 1920s and ran for the presidency of Mexico in 1940 in a highly disputed election, having accumulated great wealth from construction. General Almazán became one of Mexico's wealthiest citizens in the early 1940s.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Amador Salazar</span> Mexican military leader (1868–1916)

Amador Salazar Jiménez was a Mexican military leader who participated in the Mexican Revolution.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Treaty of Ciudad Juárez</span> 1911 treaty during the Mexican Revolution

The Treaty of Ciudad Juárez was a peace treaty signed between the President of Mexico, Porfirio Díaz, and the revolutionary Francisco Madero on May 21, 1911. The treaty put an end to the fighting between forces supporting Madero and those of Díaz and thus concluded the initial phase of the Mexican Revolution.

The Plan Orozquista was issued by Mexican revolutionary General Pascual Orozco on 25 March 1912. It is sometimes called the Plan of the Empacadora, since it was signed in a cotton factory. In it, Orozco repudiated the government of Francisco I. Madero, which he charged had betrayed the Mexican Revolution.


  1. John Eisenhower, “Intervention!: The United States and the Mexican Revolution, 1913–1917” 1993, p150
  2. McCartney, Laton. The Teapot Dome Scandal: How Big Oil Bought the Harding White House and Tried to Steal the Country, Random House, Inc., 2008, p. 1901.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Richmond, Douglas W. "Victoriano Huerta" in Encyclopedia of Mexico, vol. 1, p. 655, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn 1997.
  4. Rausch, George "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" pages 136-145 from The Americas, Volume 21, No. 2 October 1964 page 136.
  5. Rausch, "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" p. 136.
  6. Rausch, "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" p.136.
  7. 1 2 Coerver, Don M. (2004). Mexico: An Encyclopedia of Contemporary Culture and History. ABC-CLIO. ISBN   1-57607-132-4.
  8. Rausch, "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" p.137.
  9. Rausch, Georgre "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta". The Americas, Volume 21, No. 2 October 1964 p. 137.
  10. 1 2 Rausch, "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" pp. 136-145
  11. Rausch, "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta", pp. 136-45.
  12. Genealogical Society of Utah, Film 0035853
  13. El Paso Times obituary
  14. Rausch, "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" p. 138.
  15. 1 2 Rausch, "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" p.138.
  16. 1 2 Rausch, "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" p.139.
  17. Rausch, "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta", p.139.
  18. Rausch, "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" p. 139.
  19. Rausch, "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" p. 140.
  20. Rausch, Georgre "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" p.140.
  21. Rausch, Georgre "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" p. 140.
  22. 1 2 Rausch, "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" pp. 140-141.
  23. Rausch, "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" p.141.
  24. Rausch, Georgre "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" p. 141.
  25. Rausch, "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" p. 141.
  26. 1 2 Rausch, "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" p.142.
  27. Joseph Hefter, page 80 Cronica del Traje Militar en Mexico del Siglo XVI al XX, Artes de Mexico No. 102, 1968
  28. Hart, John Mason. Revolutionary Mexico, p. 252.
  29. 1 2 3 Katz, The Secret War in Mexico, p. 96.
  30. Meyer, Michael C. Mexican Rebel: Pascual Orozco and the Mexican Revolution, 1910–1915. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press 1967, p. 82.
  31. Knight, Alan (1990). The Mexican Revolution. Volume 1. Porfirians, Liberals and Peasants. p.  483. ISBN   0-8032-7770-9.
  32. Katz, The Secret War, p. 97.
  33. McLynn, Frank (2002P). Villa and Zapata . Carroll & Graf. ISBN   0-7867-1088-8.
  34. Katz, The Secret War in Mexico, p. 98.
  35. Richards, Michael D. Revolutions in world history, Routledge, 2004, p. 26.
  36. Knight, The Mexican Revolution, p. 68.
  37. Knight, The Mexican Revolution p. 69.
  38. 1 2 Knight, The Mexican Revolution, p. 64.
  39. Richmond, Douglas W. "Victoriano Huerta" in Encyclopedia of Mexico , vol. 1, p. 656.
  40. Meyer, Pascual Orozco, pp. 97-98.
  41. quoted in Meyer, Pascual Orozco, p. 101.
  42. Hart, John Mason. Revolutionary Mexico: The Coming Process of the Mexican Revolution. Berkeley: University of California Press 1987, pp. 271-72.
  43. Shadle, Stanley F. Andrés Molina Enríquez: Mexican Land Reformer of the Revolutionary Era. Tucson: University of Arizona Press 1994, pp. 62-63.
  44. Knight, The Mexican Revolution, p. 67.
  45. Knight, The Mexican Revolution, p.67.
  46. Knight, The Mexican Revolution, p. 71.
  47. Knight, Alan The Mexican Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Reconstruction, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 page 62.
  48. Knight, The Mexican Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Reconstruction, p. 62.
  49. 1 2 Knight, The Mexican Revolution, p. 63.
  50. Knight,The Mexican Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Reconstruction, p. 63.
  51. Richmond, "Victoriano Huerta", p. 657.
  52. Knight, The Mexican Revolution, p. 72.
  53. Knight, The Mexican Revolution p. 77.
  54. Knight, The Mexican Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Reconstruction, p.77.
  55. Knight, The Mexican Revolution, p. 77.
  56. Knight, The Mexican Revolution, p.77.
  57. Knight, The Mexican Revolution page 78.
  58. Knight, The Mexican Revolution, p. 78.
  59. Lieuwen, Edwin, Mexican Militarism: The Rise and Fall of the Revolutionary Army. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press 1968, 4-5
  60. Knight, The Mexican Revolution p. 79.
  61. 1 2 Knight,The Mexican Revolution, p. 79.
  62. Knight, The Mexican Revolution, p. 79.
  63. Knight, The Mexican Revolution, pp. 79-80.
  64. 1 2 Knight, The Mexican Revolution, p.80.
  65. Knight, The Mexican Revolution, p. 80.
  66. Knight, The Mexican Revolution, pp. 81-82.
  67. "Huerta's Final Message to the Mexican Congress". The Independent. July 27, 1914. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
  68. Russell, Thomas Herbert. America's War for Humanity, BiblioBazaar, LLC, 2009, p. 500.
  69. Tuchman, Barbara W. The Zimmermann Telegram (New York: NEL Mentor, 1967), pp. 73-4.
  70. 1 2 Tuchman, p. 73.
  71. Blum, Howard. Dark Invasion: 1915 - Germany's Secret War, Harper, 2014, p. 228.
  72. The Exile and Death of Victoriano Huerta
  73. Stacy, Lee. Mexico and the United States, Marshall Cavendish, 2002, p. 405
  74. LaFrance, David. "Victoriano Huerta" in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. 3, p. 216. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons 1996
  75. Katz, The Secret War in Mexico, p. 566.
  76. Meyer, Michael C. Huerta: A Political Portrait. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press 1972, pp. 369-70
  77. Shadle, Andrés Molina Enríquez, p.4.

17 - "Temporada de Zopilotes" (Buzzard's Season) Paco Ignacio Taibo II, Editorial Planeta, 2000 ISBN   978-6070701160. Narrative of the Decena Tragica (The tragic 10 days)

Victoriano Huerta
Victoriano Huerta.(cropped).jpg
39th President of Mexico
In office
19 February 1913 15 July 1914
Political offices
Preceded by President of Mexico
19 February 1913 – 15 July 1914
Succeeded by