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Vilana (Greek : Βηλάνα) is a white Greek wine grape variety planted primarily in Crete. The grape is a difficult one to cultivate and produces delicate wines rarely seen outside Greece.
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.
Greece is one of the oldest wine-producing regions in the world and among the first wine-producing territories in Europe. The earliest evidence of Greek wine has been dated to 6,500 years ago where wine was produced on a household or communal basis. In ancient times, as trade in wine became extensive, it was transported from end to end of the Mediterranean; Greek wine had especially high prestige in Italy under the Roman Empire. In the medieval period, wines exported from Crete, Monemvasia and other Greek ports fetched high prices in northern Europe.
Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica. Crete and a number of surrounding islands and islets constitute the region of Crete, one of the 13 top-level administrative units of Greece. The capital and the largest city is Heraklion. As of 2011, the region had a population of 623,065.
Vilana is also known under the synonyms Belana and Velana.
Malvasia is a group of wine grape varieties grown historically in the Mediterranean region, Balearic Islands, Canary Islands and the island of Madeira, but now grown in many of the winemaking regions of the world. In the past, the names Malvasia, Malvazia, and Malmsey have been used interchangeably for Malvasia-based wines; however, in modern oenology, "Malmsey" is now used almost exclusively for a sweet variety of Madeira wine made from the Malvasia grape. Grape varieties in this family include Malvasia bianca, Malvasia di Schierano, Malvasia negra, Malvasia nera, Malvasia nera di Brindisi, Malvasia di Candia aromatica, Malvasia odorosissima, and a number of other varieties.
Aglianico is a black grape grown in the southern regions of Italy, mostly Basilicata and Campania.
Agiorgitiko is a red Greek wine grape variety that, as of 2012, was the most widely planted red grape variety in Greece, ahead of Xynomavro. The grape has traditionally been grown in the Nemea region of the Peloponnese but can be found throughout the country including Attikí (Attica) and Makedonía (Macedonia).
Assyrtiko or Asyrtiko is a white Greek wine grape indigenous to the island of Santorini. Assyrtiko is widely planted in the arid volcanic-ash-rich soil of Santorini and other Aegean islands, such as Paros. It is also found on other scattered regions of Greece such as Chalkidiki.
Xinomavro is the principal red wine grape of the uplands of Naousa in the regional unit of Imathia, and around Amyntaio, in Macedonia, Greece. This grape is primarily cultivated in Naousa, Goumenissa, Amyntaio, Rapsani, Trikomo, Siatista, Velventos, and, on a lesser scale, on Mount Athos, at Ossa, Ioannina, Magnesia, Kastoria and Trikala. In 2010, the total global cultivated area was 1,971 hectares and was entirely in Greece, but by 2013 this had grown to 2,239 hectares worldwide, with some initial plantings in Gansu, China.
Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains is a white wine grape of Greek origin that is a member of the Muscat family of Vitis vinifera. Its name comes from its characteristic small berry size and tight clusters. It is known under a variety of local names such as Moscato bianco, Muscat blanc, Muscat Canelli, Muscat de Frontignan, Muscat de Lunel, Muscat d'Alsace, Muskateller, Moscatel de Grano Menudo, Moscatel rosé and Sárgamuskotály .
Tibouren or Rossese di Dolceacqua is a red French wine grape variety that is primarily grown in Provence and Liguria but originated in Greece and possibly even the Middle East. Intensely aromatic, with an earthy bouquet that wine expert Jancis Robinson describes as garrigue, Tibouren is often used in the production of rosés.
Lesbos wine is wine made on the Greek island of Lesbos in the Aegean Sea. The island has a long history of winemaking dating back to at least the 7th century BC when it was mentioned in the works of Homer. During this time the area competed with the wines of Chios for the Greek market. An apocryphal account details one of the brothers of the poet Sappho as a merchant trading Lesbos wine with the Greek colony of Naucratis in Egypt. The most noted Lesbos wine was known as Pramnian which draws similarities today to the Hungarian wine Eszencia. The popularity of Lesbos wine continued into Roman times where it was highly valued along with other Aegean wines of Chios, Thasos and Kos.
Ribolla Gialla is a white Italian wine grape grown most prominently in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region of northeast Italy. The grape is also found in Slovenia where it is known as Rebula. In Friuli, the grape thrives in the region around Rosazzo and Gorizia. In Slovenia, the grape is grown prominently in the Brda region. The grape is not related to the Friuli red wine grape Schioppettino, which is also known as Ribolla Nera. The obscure, lower quality Ribola Verde grape is a mutated version that is not widely used.
Robola is a white Greek wine grape variety that is grown primarily on the Ionian island of Cephalonia. Historically the vine was thought to be the same variety as the Friuli wine grape Ribolla and was thought to have been brought to northeast Italy by Venetian merchants trading with Cephalonia in the 13th century. However, DNA profiling in the 21st century has cast doubt on that theory and today Robola is classified by the Vitis International Variety Catalogue (VIVC) as a separate variety.
Savatiano is a white Greek wine grape used primarily in the wine Retsina. It is one of Greece's most widely planted grape varieties and is known for its resistance to drought condition. It is mostly planted throughout central Greece, particularly in Attica near Athens. In Retsina, the naturally low acidity of the grape is sometimes compensated for by the addition of Assyrtiko and Rhoditis in the blend.
Athiri or Athiri Aspro is a white Greek wine grape used to make Retsina on the island of Rhodes.
Dimyat is a white Bulgarian wine grape. It is one of Bulgaria's most widely planted white grape varieties, second only to Rkatsiteli. Wines made from this variety are noted for their perfume aromas. While some ampelographers believe that the variety is indigenous to Bulgaria, legends have developed around Dimiat being named after a town in the Nile Delta and was brought back to Europe by Crusaders in the Middle Ages.
Limnio (LIM-nee-oh) is a red Greek wine grape variety that is indigenous to the Greek island of Lemnos. The grape has had a long history of wine production that may extend back to Ancient Greece with wine historians widely believing it was the grape variety, Lemnia, that was described by Aristotle as producing the famous red Lemnian wine. According to wine expert Oz Clarke, Limnio is "One of Greece's most important red vines."
Mandilaria is a red Greek wine grape variety that is grown throughout the Greek Isles. The grape is often used as a blending component, producing deeply colored wines that are light bodied.
Aidini is a white Greek wine grape variety that is grown primarily on the island of Santorini but it can also be found on other Greek isles in the Aegean Sea. The grape is known for its floral aroma and is used mainly in winemaking as a blending partner with grapes such as Athiri to make dry wines.
Liatiko is an old red Greek wine grape variety that is grown on the island of Crete. While the name suggests a relationship with the Italian variety Aleatico, ampelographers currently discount a connection. Liatiko grapes have a pale red color, are moderate in acidity and rich in aromas and sugars. Liatiko matures in July, a fact that according to one explanation derives its name from Ιουλιάτικο, literally "of July". Historically, the grape has been used in blends with Mandilaria and Kotsifali to produce Malvasia, a very alcoholic, sweet red wine. Malvasia was widely exported by Venetian traders during the Middle Ages and was highly regarded throughout western Europe.
Vilana is a white Greek wine grape variety. Vilana may also refer to
Vidiano is a white Greek wine grape variety indigenous to Crete, considered as an emerging star of the island's wines. It is a high-quality wine with moderate acidity, and complex aromas reminiscent of peach, apricot, melon honey and herbs. The grape is difficult to cultivate and is grown in small scale, primarily in Rethymno and secondarily around Heraklion. It thrives in modest fertility, dry, calcareous and well-drained soils. The berries rippen early and have thick skin. Vidiano is moderately resistant to downy mildew and sensitive to powdery mildew. It is genetically close to thrapsathiri and vilana.
Thrapsathiri is a white Greek wine grape variety that abounds in Crete. The grape is highly resistant to drought, ripens late and produces very aromatic wines with soft acidity. In the past, trapsathiri used to be blended with vilana, but nowadays it is increasingly vinified on its own.
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