|Vileyka VLF transmitter|
43-й узел связи ВМФ России
|Height||3×305 metres (1,001 ft)|
15×270 metres (890 ft)
|Built by||Soviet Union|
The "Vileyka" VLF transmitter is the site of the 43rd Communications Center of the Russian Navy (Russian : 43-й узел связи ВМФ России), situated west of the town of Vileyka in Belarus ( ). The "Vileyka" VLF transmitter is an important facility for transmitting orders to submarines in the very low frequency range. Beside this, it is used for transmitting the time signal RJH69 at certain times.
Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.
Vileyka is a city in Belarus and the administrative center of the Vileyka Raion in the Minsk Region. It is located on the River Viliya, 100 km northwest of Minsk. The first documentary record dates from 16 November 1460.
Belarus, officially the Republic of Belarus, formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest. Its capital and most populous city is Minsk. Over 40% of its 207,600 square kilometres (80,200 sq mi) is forested. Its major economic sectors are service industries and manufacturing. Until the 20th century, different states at various times controlled the lands of modern-day Belarus, including the Principality of Polotsk, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and the Russian Empire.
In common with the former Goliath transmitter of the Kriegsmarine in World War II, the antenna system of the "Vileyka" VLF transmitter consists of three antenna systems with a central mast insulated against ground from which antenna wires run to six grounded ring masts, where they are fixed by insulators. As at former Goliath transmitter, three ring masts carry two antenna systems, so there are only 15 ring masts on the site. A further common ground to former Goliath transmitter is, that the ring masts of the Goliath transmitter are masts of lattice steel with triangular cross section, while the central masts are steel tube masts.
Goliath transmitter was a very low frequency (VLF) transmitter for communicating with submarines, built by Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine navy near Kalbe an der Milde in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, which was in service from 1943 to 1945. It was capable of transmission power of between 100 and 1000 kW and was the most powerful transmitter of its time.
The Kriegsmarine was the navy of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. It superseded the Imperial German Navy of the German Empire (1871–1918) and the inter-war Reichsmarine (1919–1935) of the Weimar Republic. The Kriegsmarine was one of three official branches, along with the Heer (Army) and the Luftwaffe of the Wehrmacht, the German armed forces from 1933 to 1945.
World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from more than 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 70 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.
The 15 ring masts of the "Vileyka" VLF transmitter are 270 metres (890 ft), and the three central masts of VLF transmitter are 305 metres (1,001 ft) tall. Their height surpasses therefore the height of the masts of former Goliath transmitter nearly exactly of 100 metres (330 ft).
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Very low frequency or VLF is the ITU designation for radio frequencies (RF) in the range of 3 to 30 kilohertz (kHz), corresponding to wavelengths from 100 to 10 kilometers, respectively. The band is also known as the myriameter band or myriameter wave as the wavelengths range from one to ten myriameters. Due to its limited bandwidth, audio (voice) transmission is highly impractical in this band, and therefore only low data rate coded signals are used. The VLF band is used for a few radio navigation services, government time radio stations and for secure military communication. Since VLF waves can penetrate at least 40 meters (120 ft) into saltwater, they are used for military communication with submarines.
The Warsaw Radio Mast was a telecommunications tower located near the town of Gąbin, central Poland, and the world's tallest structure at 646.38 metres (2,120.7 ft) from 1974 until its collapse on 8 August 1991. It was the second tallest structure ever built, being surpassed as tallest by the Burj Khalifa, completed in 2009.
Sender Zehlendorf is a radio transmission facility which has been in service since 1936, when a short wave transmitter was built in Zehlendorf as part of the establishment of permanent radio services. This Zehlendorf site, which until the end of World War II was referred to as the Rehmate Radio Transmission Centre, had 26 different antennas.
The AM transmitter in Burg, near Magdeburg, Germany, is a huge facility for longwave and mediumwave broadcasting. Its most dominant constructions are a 324-metre guyed radio mast and two 210 metre guyed steel tube masts.
The Transmitter Ismaning was a large radio transmitting station near Ismaning, Bavaria, Germany. It was inaugurated in 1932. From 1932 to 1934 this transmitter used a T-antenna as transmitting antenna, which was spun between two 115-metre-high free-standing wooden lattice towers, which were 240 metres apart. As this antenna had an unfavourable vertical radiation pattern, which produced much skywave resulting in a too small fading-free reception area at night, in 1934 a new antenna was installed. Therefore, one of the towers was dismantled and rebuilt on a 39-metre-high (128 ft) wooden lattice base. While this work took place, an L-Antenna was used, which was spun between the other tower and a small auxiliary wooden tower. It became defunct in 1977 and was destroyed in 1983.
The VLF transmitter DHO38 is a VLF transmitter used by the German Navy near Rhauderfehn, Saterland, Germany. It is used to transmit coded orders to submarines of the German Navy and navies of other NATO countries.
Criggion Radio Station was a transmitter site latterly operated by BT on behalf of the UK Ministry of Defence. It was located near the village of Criggion in the parish of Bausley with Criggion, which lies in the county of Powys, Wales.
Anthorn Radio Station is located near Anthorn, Cumbria, England, overlooking the Solway Firth, and is operated by Babcock International. It has three transmitters: one VLF; one LF; and an eLORAN transmitter.
The Aspects for Antenna heights considerations are depending upon the wave range and economical reasons.
Radio masts and towers are, typically, tall structures designed to support antennas for telecommunications and broadcasting, including television. There are two main types: guyed and self-supporting structures. They are among the tallest human-made structures. Masts are often named after the broadcasting organizations that originally built them or currently use them.
A mast radiator is a radio mast or tower in which the entire structure functions as an antenna. This design, first used in radiotelegraphy stations in the early 1900s, is commonly used for transmitting antennas operating at low frequencies, in the VLF, LF and MF ranges, in particular those used for AM broadcasting. The metal mast is electrically connected to the transmitter. Its base is usually mounted on a nonconductive support to insulate it from the ground. A mast radiator is a form of monopole antenna.
Eilvese transmitter was an early long-distance radiotelegraphy station at Eilvese, Germany owned by Transradio AG, used for transmission of telegrams. It went into service in 1913, exchanging commercial and diplomatic Morse code traffic on VLF frequencies with Germany's colonies, and a similar station at Tuckerton, New Jersey, USA. During World War 1 when the allies cut Germany's submarine telegraph cables it was one of two long-distance radiotelegraphy stations which maintained Germany's contact with the rest of the world, and was used for diplomatic negotiations between Woodrow Wilson and Kaiser Wilhelm II leading to the 1918 Armistice which ended World War 1.
An umbrella antenna is a top-loaded electrically lengthened monopole antenna, consisting in most cases of a mast fed at the ground end, to which a number of radial wires are connected at the top, sloping downwards. They are used as transmitting antennas below 1 MHz, in the LF and particularly the VLF bands, at frequencies sufficiently low that it is impractical or infeasible to build a full size quarter-wave monopole antenna. The outer end of each radial wire, sloping down from the top of the antenna, is connected by an insulator to a supporting rope or (usually) insulated cable anchored to the ground; the radial wires can also support the mast as guy wires. The radial wires make the antenna look like the frame of a giant umbrella – without the cloth – hence the name.
VLF transmitter Lualualei is a facility of the United States Navy near Lualualei, Hawaii transmitting orders to submerged submarines in the very low frequency (VLF) range.
Nauen Transmitter Station in Nauen, Havelland district, Brandenburg, Germany, is the oldest continuously operating radio transmitting installation in the world. It was founded on 1 April 1906 by Telefunken engineer R. Hirsch on a 40-hectare property north of Nauen, leased from Fideikommissar Fritz Stotze. It operated as a longwave radiotelegraphy station through the end of World War 2, when invading Russian troops dismantled and removed the transmitting equipment. Since then it has been used as an international shortwave station. The original 1920 transmitter building remains.
The VLF Transmitter Cutler is the United States Navy's very low frequency (VLF) shore radio station at Cutler, Maine. The station provides one-way communication to submarines in the Navy's Atlantic Fleet, both on the surface and submerged. It transmits with call sign NAA, at a frequency of 24 kHz and input power of up to 1.8 megawatts, and is one of the most powerful radio transmitters in the world.
Aguada transmission station is a tall guyed radio mast erected by the US Navy. It is used as a facility of the US Navy for transmitting orders to submerged submarines near Aguada, Puerto Rico atby using radio waves in the very low frequency range.
In electronics and radio communication a counterpoise is a network of suspended horizontal wires or cables, used as a substitute for an earth (ground) connection in a radio antenna system. It is used with radio transmitters or receivers when a normal earth ground cannot be used because of high soil resistance or when an antenna is mounted above ground level, for example, on a building. It usually consists of a single wire or network of horizontal wires, parallel to the ground, suspended above the ground under the antenna, connected to the receiver or transmitter's "ground" wire. The counterpoise functions as one plate of a large capacitor, with the conductive layers of the earth acting as the other plate.
Emley Moor transmitting station is a telecommunications and broadcasting facility on Emley Moor, 1 mile (1.6 km) west of the village centre of Emley, mid-way between the villages of Kirkburton and West Bretton, in turn between Huddersfield and Wakefield, West Yorkshire, England. It is made up of a 1,084-foot-tall (330.4 m) concrete tower and apparatus which began transmitting in 1971. It is protected under UK law as a Grade II listed building. It is the tallest freestanding structure in the United Kingdom, seventh-tallest freestanding structure and fourth-tallest tower in Europe outside Russia, and 24th-tallest tower in the world.