|Bishop Emeritus of Macerata-Tolentino|
|Church||Roman Catholic Church|
|Appointed||20 July 1801|
|Term ended||11 November 1823|
|Successor||Francesco Ansaldo Teloni|
|Ordination||19 December 1767|
|Consecration||26 July 1801|
by Leonardo Antonelli
|Birth name||Vincenzo Domenico Salvatore Strambi|
|Born||1 January 1745|
Civitavecchia, Papal States
|Died||1 January 1824 79) (aged|
Rome, Papal States
|Feast day||24 September|
|Venerated in||Roman Catholic Church|
|Beatified||26 April 1925|
Saint Peter's Basilica, Kingdom of Italy
by Pope Pius XI
|Canonized||11 June 1950|
Saint Peter's Basilica, Vatican City
by Pope Pius XII
|Patronage||Diocese of Macerata-Tolentino|
|Shrines||Church of San Filippo, Macerata, Italy|
Saint Vincenzo Strambi (1 January 1745 - 1 January 1824) - in religious Vincenzo Maria di San Paolo - was an Italian Roman Catholic prelate who was a professed member from the Passionists and served as the Bishop of Macerata-Tolentino from 1801 until his resignation in 1823.Strambi became a Passionist despite its founder Saint Paul of the Cross refusing him several times due to Strambi's frail constitution. But he practiced Passionist austerities which continued after his appointment as a bishop that saw him favor his religious habit rather than the usual episcopal garb. He was known for his charitable projects that included the care of the poor and the reduction of diocesan expenditures in order to provide for them; he took special interests in the education and ongoing formation of priests.
Canonization is the act by which a Christian church declares that a person who has died was a saint, upon which declaration the person is included in the "canon", or list, of recognized saints. Originally, a person was recognized as a saint without any formal process. Later, different processes were developed, such as those used today in the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox Church and the Anglican Communion.
The Passionists are a Roman Catholic religious institute founded by Saint Paul of the Cross with a special emphasis on and devotion to the Passion of Jesus Christ. Professed members use the initials C.P. after their names. A known symbol of the congregation is the labeled emblem of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, surmounted by a cross and is often sewn into the clothing attire of its congregants.
Paul of the Cross was an Italian mystic, and founder of the Passionists.
Strambi was exiled from his diocese 1808 after he refused to take an oath of allegiance to the First French Empire under Napoleon who had annexed Macerata as part of his empire. He spent that time in Novara and Milan before he managed to return to his see in a triumphant return in 1814.He served as bishop for the remainder of the pontificate of Pope Pius VII before his successor Pope Leo XII accepted Strambi's resignation and summoned him to Rome as his advisor. But the sudden illness of the pope - which seemed to prove fatal - prompted Strambi to offer his own life to God so that the pope could live. Leo XII rallied to great surprise but Strambi died of a stroke within the week.
The First French Empire, officially the French Empire, was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. Although France had already established an overseas colonial empire beginning in the 17th century, the French state had remained a kingdom under the Bourbons and a republic after the Revolution. Historians refer to Napoleon's regime as the First Empire to distinguish it from the restorationist Second Empire (1852–1870) ruled by his nephew as Napoleon III.
Napoléon Bonaparte was a French statesman and military leader of Italian descent who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. He was Emperor of the French as Napoleon I from 1804 until 1814 and again briefly in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over much of continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. He is considered one of the greatest commanders in history, and his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleon's political and cultural legacy has endured as one of the most celebrated and controversial leaders in human history.
Macerata is a city and comune in central Italy, the county seat of the province of Macerata in the Marche region. It has a population of about 41,564.
His canonization cause opened after his death on 25 June 1845 and he was named as Venerable on 1 April 1894. Pope Pius XI beatified Bishop Strambi in 1925 while Pope Pius XII later canonized him a couple of decades later in 1950.
Pope Pius XI, born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, was head of the Catholic Church from 6 February 1922 to his death in 1939. He was the first sovereign of Vatican City from its creation as an independent state on 11 February 1929. He took as his papal motto, "Pax Christi in Regno Christi," translated "The Peace of Christ in the Kingdom of Christ."
Pope Pius XII, born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli, was head of the Catholic Church from 2 March 1939 to his death. Before his election to the papacy, he served as secretary of the Department of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, papal nuncio to Germany, and Cardinal Secretary of State, in which capacity he worked to conclude treaties with European and Latin American nations, most notably the Reichskonkordat with Nazi Germany.
Vincenzo Strambi was born in 1745 in Civitavecchia as the last of four children to Giuseppe Strambi and Eleonora Gori; his three elder siblings all died in childhood. His father served as a pharmacist known for his charitable works and his mother was noted for her piousness and holiness.
Civitavecchia is a city and comune of the Metropolitan City of Rome in the central Italian region of Lazio. A sea port on the Tyrrhenian Sea, it is located 60 kilometres west-north-west of the center of Rome. The harbour is formed by two piers and a breakwater, on which stands a lighthouse. Civitavecchia had a population of around 53,000 as of 2015.
Pharmacists, also known as chemists or druggists, are health professionals who practice in pharmacy, the field of health sciences focusing on safe and effective medication use. Pharmacists undergo university-level education to understand the biochemical mechanisms and actions of drugs, drug uses, therapeutic roles, side effects, potential drug interactions, and monitoring parameters. This is mated to anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology. Pharmacists interpret and communicate this specialized knowledge to patients, physicians, and other health care providers.
He was often a troublesome child who excelled in athletics and became more devout in his adolescence. The Friars Minor oversaw his education and he taught his fellow students the catechism. His desire to become a priest was met encouragement from his parents and he commenced his ecclesial studies in November 1762. It was at this time that he became quite attracted to the notion of the religious life though his frail health saw him refused admission into the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin and the Vincentians. Strambi was noted for his oratorical gifts and so was sent to Rome for studies in Sacred Eloquence and thereafter continued his theological studies with the Dominicans at Viterbo. While still a student he was appointed prefect of the seminarians in Montefiascone and thereafter acting-rector of seminarians at Bagnorea.
A catechism is a summary or exposition of doctrine and serves as a learning introduction to the Sacraments traditionally used in catechesis, or Christian religious teaching of children and adult converts. Catechisms are doctrinal manuals – often in the form of questions followed by answers to be memorised – a format that has been used in non-religious or secular contexts as well. The term catechumen refers to the designated recipient of the catechetical work or instruction. In the Catholic Church, catechumens are those who are preparing to receive the Sacrament of Baptism. Traditionally, they would be placed separately during Holy Mass from those who had been baptized, and would be dismissed from the liturgical assembly before the Profession of Faith (Creed) and General Intercessions.
The Order of Friars Minor Capuchin is an order of friars within the Catholic Church, among the chief offshoots of the Franciscans. The worldwide head of the Order, called the Minister General, is currently Friar Carlos Trovarelli.
The Vincentian Family comprises organizations inspired by the life and work of Vincent de Paul, a 17th-century priest who "transformed the face of France."
Before his ordination to the priesthood he made a retreat at the convent in Vetralla which belonged to the Passionists; it was here that he met the founder Saint Paul of the Cross. Strambi became impressed and enthralled with what he had seen and admired their ardent devotion. This made him ask the founder to be admitted into the order. But he was refused since Paul of the Cross believed that Strambi did not have the stamina for the Passionist life. Strambi left the convent on 18 December 1767 since he was to be ordained.
Ordination is the process by which individuals are consecrated, that is, set apart and elevated from the laity class to the clergy, who are thus then authorized to perform various religious rites and ceremonies. The process and ceremonies of ordination vary by religion and denomination. One who is in preparation for, or who is undergoing the process of ordination is sometimes called an ordinand. The liturgy used at an ordination is sometimes referred to as an ordination.
A convent is either a community of priests, religious brothers, religious sisters, monks or nuns; or the building used by the community, particularly in the Catholic Church, Lutheran Churches, and the Anglican Communion.
Vetralla is a town and comune in the province of Viterbo, in central Italy, 11 kilometres (7 mi) south of that city, located on a shoulder of Monte Fogliano.
He was received into the diaconate in Bagnoregio on 14 March 1767.Strambi was ordained to the priesthood on 19 December 1767 and then returned to Rome to further his theological studies. Here he was noted for his studies of the life and works of Saint Thomas Aquinas. He still felt called to the Passionists and made several trips to see Paul of the Cross to beg to be admitted into the order. In September 1768 the founder relented and Strambi commenced his novitiate assuming the name Vincenzo Maria di San Paolo. His parents were not too pleased with this and his father objected to the decision citing his son's frail health as a sign that Strambi would die due to the rigid penances. He made his profession on 24 September 1769 and continued with a particular emphasis on the Church Fathers and on Sacred Scripture.
Strambi preached missions - a focal point of the Passionist charism - and drew large crowds due to the effectiveness of his preaching. There were even several occasions where he preached before bishops and cardinals. In 1773 he was made a professor of theological studies at the order's house in Rome - at Santi Giovanni e Paolo - and it was here that he was present at the death of Paul of the Cross. The founder said to Strambi on his deathbed: "You will do great things! You will do great good!"It was after this that he occupied several high offices in the order such as the rector of the Roman house and the provincial for the Roman province. In 1784 he was relieved of these duties in order to write a biographical account of Paul of the Cross which was later published in London (the Blessed Dominic Barberi wrote the preface). The Napoleonic invasion in the Papal States and the anti-religious decrees forced Strambi to flee Rome in 1798 though was in vain when French forces - in May 1799 - took him as their prisoner though he managed to return to Rome not long after this.
The death of Pope Pius VI saw his friend Cardinal Leonardo Antonelli nominate him for the papal see and he even received five votes in the conclave.The new Pope Pius VII - in mid-1801 - appointed Strambi as the Bishop of Macerata-Tolentino and he became the first bishop to come from the Passionists. This news - before it was made public - surprised and frightened him and he rushed to Rome in an effort to get the appointment cancelled before it was publicized. Even his good friend Cardinal Antonelli counselled him to accept the nomination for the welfare of the Church. Strambi even took his case to the pope who listened and told Strambi the decision to name him a bishop was "a divine inspiration" he was firm on. Cardinal Antonelli presided over his episcopal consecration at Santi Giovanni e Paolo. But he continued to wear his Passionist habit in private despite his higher office. His episcopate was marked with a concern for the poor and he even begged on their behalf on occasion. He took great care in the education of diocesan priests and paid close attention to the teaching standards in the diocesan seminaries. His charitable works included the establishment of orphanages and homes for the aged. He still practiced the frugalities the Passionists advocated and this applied to his living and eating habits: he never did permit more than two dishes for his meals.
Napoleon - in 1809 - issued a decree that annexed Macerata as part of the French Empire. The French ordered that this decree be read in all churches but Strambi refused to do so. He also refused to provide the French with a list of all the men in his diocese who would be suitable for service in the armed forces. The French arrested him in September 1808 for refusing to take the oath of allegiance to the French invaders and was then exiled and cut off from his diocese. He was first sent to Novara but was sent in October 1809 to Milan where he spent the remainder of his exile as a guest of the Barnabites.He returned to his see in 1814 with vast crowds lining the route of his return. Pius VII had returned from his own exile and remarked:
"This holy man overwhelms me".
The invaders had left much damage in their wake - not just destruction to infrastructure - but a lax sense of morals and values which Strambi worked hard to rebuild. He instituted strict reforms that ended corruption to the point where he received some death threats. Strambi was also the spiritual director of Blessed Anna Maria Taigi - a friend - as well as Saint Gaspare del Bufalo and Saint Vincenzo Pallotti.
But the French returned to Macerata in 1817, to set up their headquarters aiming to use that location to attack the Austrian forces. The people turned to Bishop Strambi for fear of what the French would do. His response was to gather priests and seminarians in his private chapel to beg for God's intercession and after one and a half hours he rose and declared that Macerata would be saved through the intercession of the Mother of God. The French were indeed defeated though the local people feared what would happen during their retreat. Strambi met with the leader of the French forces and begged him not to enter the town to which General Murat agreed. Strambi then secured the assurances of the Austrian generals that the French soldiers would not be slaughtered.
He was a close friend of Carlo Odescalchi and was pleased to learn that the pope named him as a cardinal on 10 March 1823. Strambi tried several times to secure his resignation from Pius VII but on one occasion the pope reprimanded him for using ill health as a vain excuse and dismissed him. Strambi tried once again in 1823 in a letter to Cardinal Ercole Consalvi to the pope but the letter arrived in Rome when the pontiff broke his thigh in a fall and died soon after.
In 1823 his health started to decline and Pope Leo XII gave him his permission to retire. He was then appointed as Leo XII's personal advisor and took up residence at the Quirinal Palace in Rome. It was during his time in this office that Napoleon's sister Pauline returned to the faith with Strambi's guidance. Strambi's last private aide around this stage was Monsignor Catervo Serrani.When the pope fell ill he asked God that his life should be taken rather than that of the pope. The pope recovered on 24 December 1823 and Strambi died in 1824 within the week due to a stroke he had suffered on the previous 27 December. His remains were placed at the Quirinal Palace for mourners to see and was then buried in the Santi Giovanni e Paolo church. Mourners who viewed his mortal remains included Cardinal Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari - future pope - who took Strambi's right hand in his own and formed it with the greatest of ease into the sign of the cross. His remains were later transferred on 12 November 1957 to the Chiesa di San Filippo in Macerata.
The cause for Strambi's canonization opened on a diocesan level for the collection of testimonies and documents in relation to his life and his episcopal works. The formal introduction did not come until 25 June 1845 when he was named as a Servant of God. The recognition of his life of heroic virtue led Pope Leo XIII to name him as Venerable on 1 April 1894.
Pope Pius XI presided over the beatification rites on 26 April 1925 and signed a decree on 25 November that allowed the cause to continue. Pope Pius XII canonized Strambi in Saint Peter's Basilica on 11 June 1950.
Pope Leo XI, born Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici, was Pope from 1 to 27 April 1605. His pontificate is one of the briefest in history having lasted under a month. He was from the prominent House of Medici originating from Florence. Medici's mother opposed his entering the priesthood and sought to prevent it by having him given secular honours, but after her death he eventually was ordained a priest in 1567. In his career he served as Florence's ambassador to the pope, Bishop of Pistoia, Archbishop of Florence, papal legate to France, and as the cardinal Prefect for the Congregation of the Bishops and Religious. He was elected to the papacy in the March 1605 papal conclave and served as pope for 27 days.
Pope Leo XII, born Annibale Francesco Clemente Melchiorre Girolamo Nicola Sermattei della Genga,
Pope Pius VII, born Barnaba Niccolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 14 March 1800 to his death in 1823. Chiaramonti was also a monk of the Order of Saint Benedict in addition to being a well-known theologian and bishop throughout his life.
Pope Pius VIII, born Francesco Saverio Castiglioni, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 31 March 1829 to his death in 1830.
Carlo Odescalchi, was an Italian prince and priest, archbishop of Ferrara, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and Vicar of the Diocese of Rome. Close collaborator of popes Pius VII and Gregory XVI, he renounced his titles in order to become a Jesuit in 1838.
Saint Giuseppe Marello was an Italian Roman Catholic prelate who served as the Bishop of Acqui from 1889 until his death and was also the founder of the Oblates of Saint Joseph. Marello served as an aide to the Bishop of Asti prior to his episcopal appointment after Pope Leo XIII named him to head the Acqui diocese; the pope had known Marello while a cardinal when the pair participated in the First Vatican Council more than a decade before. He became a proponent for the poor and destitute and never stopped to render his assistance to those who needed it the most; this was something he undertook even in his childhood. Bishop Marello issued several pastoral letters that dealt with a range of issues such as catechism and organized one big pastoral visitation to visit all parishes in his diocese.
The Diocese of Macerata-Tolentino-Recanati-Cingoli-Treia is a Roman Catholic diocese in Italy. It is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Fermo.
Giuseppe Pecci was a Jesuit Thomist theologian whose younger brother, Vincenzo, became Pope Leo XIII and appointed him a cardinal. The Neo-Thomist revival, which Leo XIII and his brother Giuseppe, Cardinal Pecci originated in 1879, remained the leading papal philosophy until Vatican II.
Saint Gaspar Melchior Balthazar del Bufalo, also known as Gaspare del Bufalo, was a Roman Catholic priest and the founder of the Missionaries of the Precious Blood.
Saint Bernardino Realino was an Italian Roman Catholic priest and a professed member of the Jesuits. His entire career was devoted to the areas of Naples and Lecce. Realino pursued a career in law and served in several municipal capacities before feeling called to the Jesuit life and being ordained to the priesthood in Naples. He is often dubbed as the "Apostle of Lecce" for his commitment to the poor and for his preaching abilities.
Blessed Andrea Ferrari - later adopting the middle name "Carlo" - was an Italian Roman Catholic prelate who served as a cardinal and as the Archbishop of Milan from 1894 until his death. Ferrari was a well-regarded pastor and theologian who led two dioceses before being appointed to the prestigious Milanese archdiocese which he led until his death. But he was later accused of Modernism which led to a strained relationship with Pope Pius X who later reconciled with Ferrari in 1912.
Blessed Eugene Bossilkov, born Vincent Bossilkov, was a member of the Passionist Congregation, Roman Catholic bishop of Nicopolis and martyr in the Communist campaign in Bulgaria against religion. He had studied in Rome for his doctorate at the Pontifical Oriental Institute and became a parish priest in the Danube Valley. After becoming bishop, in 1952 he was arrested, together with many other religious, and executed for ostensible crimes against the state. He was beatified by Pope John Paul II in 1998.
Blessed Lorenzo Maria of Saint Francis Xavier – born Lorenzo Salvi – was an Italian Roman Catholic priest and a professed member of the Passionists. Salvi became friends with Saint Gaspare del Bufalo and Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari – future pope – during the course of his studies prior to his ordination. He was forced out of the Passionist house due to anti-clerical laws from Napoleon Bonaparte but later returned when safe to do so in order to preach and spread the charism of the Child Jesus.
Blessed Bernardo Maria di Gesù, born as Cesare Silvestrelli, was an Italian Roman Catholic priest and a professed member from the Passionists. He entered the novitiate for a brief period under a different religious name though ill health forced him to leave but did not hinder him from still training and living alongside the Passionists. He re-entered the order after his ordination and went on to hold several positions of leadership within his own order; he was even likened to Saint Paul of the Cross while Pope Leo XIII and Pope Pius X held him in high esteem.
Blessed Anna Maria Taigi - born Anna Maria Giannetti - was an Italian Roman Catholic professed member from the Secular Trinitarians. Taigi married Domenico Taigi who was a brash and impulsive individual though devoted to his wife who experienced a series of ecstasies during her life and was known to have heard the voices of God and Jesus Christ on several occasions. Taigi became a Secular Trinitarian after experiencing a sudden religious conversion in winter 1790 while at Saint Peter's Basilica and came into contact with a range of cardinals and luminaries which included Saint Vincenzo Strambi and Bishop Benedict Joseph Flaget amongst others.
Blessed Angelo Paoli - born Francesco - was an Italian Roman Catholic priest and a professed member from the Carmelites. Paoli became known as the "father of the poor" due to his strong charitable outreach towards those who were poor and sick and he even received praise from a number of cardinals and other prelates while living in Rome. This extended to his friend Cardinal Saint Giuseppe Maria Tomasi and Paoli even received praise from Pope Innocent XII and Pope Clement XI who both offered him the cardinalate despite refusals.
Saint Vincenzo Romano – born Vincenzo Dominico Romano – was an Italian Roman Catholic priest born in Torre del Greco in Naples. Romano was a parish priest of the village of Herulano who was noted for his simplistic and frugal manner of living and for his great care of orphans. But the French invaders in his area in addition to some of the Italian political groups oppressed him and his work. The people of Torre del Greco granted him the nickname "The Worker Priest" due to Romano's tireless work with the poor and for his commitment to the social needs of all people in the Neapolitan region. He was also noted for his efforts in rebuilding much of Naples following the 1794 eruption of Mount Vesuvius in which he himself cleared rubble and organized rebuilding efforts.
Saint Josep Manyanet i Vives was a Spanish Roman Catholic priest and the founder of the Sons of the Holy Family and the Missionary Daughters of the Holy Family. He served in a range of capacities as a parish priest before establishing both religious orders in order to spread devotion to the Holy Family to whom he fostered an intense devotion.
Blessed Giuseppe Benedetto Dusmet - born Giuseppe Dusmet - was an Italian Roman Catholic cardinal who served as the Archbishop of Catania from 1867 until his death. He became professed into the Order of Saint Benedict where he took "Benedetto" as his religious name. He studied under the Benedictines prior to joining them before serving as a professor in addition to prior and abbot. His elevation to the episcopate saw him distinguish himself in cholera epidemics when he tended to the ill while also remaining a strong advocate for the poor of his archdiocese. He remained a Benedictine and was known to continue to don the Benedictine habit instead of the red cardinal's regalia.
September 24: Feast of Saint Vincent Mary Strambi, Priest and Bishop