Violant of Hungary

Last updated

Violant of Hungary
Queen consort of Aragon
Tenure1235–1251
Bornc.1215
Diedc.1251 (aged 36)?
Burial
Spouse James I of Aragon
Issue Yolanda, Queen of Castile
Constance, Infanta of Castile
Peter III of Aragon
James II of Majorca
Isabella, Queen of France
House Árpád
Father Andrew II of Hungary
Mother Yolanda de Courtenay
Religion Roman Catholicism

Violant of Hungary (Hungarian : Jolán; Catalan : Iolanda or Violant d'Hongria; Spanish : Yolanda or Violante de Hungría; c. 1215 – c. 1251) was the queen of Aragon from 1235 until 1251 as the second wife of King James I of Aragon. A member of the Hungarian House of Árpád, Queen Violant was a valuable and influential advisor of her husband. She remains in folk memory in Catalonia and Valencia.

Contents

Family

Violant was born at Esztergom circa 1215, the only child of King Andrew II of Hungary and his second wife, Yolanda of Courtenay. [1] Violant married King James I of Aragon in 1235. [2] James had already been married to Eleanor of Castile, but he had this marriage annulled on the basis of consanguinity in 1229. He and Eleanor had a son, Alfonso, who was considered legitimate, but who died before James.

James and Violant had ten children:

  1. Violant (1236–1301), Queen of Castile by her marriage to Alfonso X of Castile [3]
  2. Constance (1239-1269) [4]
  3. Peter III of Aragon (1240–1285) [4]
  4. James II of Majorca (1243–1311) [4]
  5. Ferdinand (1245–1250) [4]
  6. Sancha (1246–1251)
  7. Isabella (1247–1271), Queen of France by her marriage to Philip III of France [4]
  8. Maria (1248–1267), nun
  9. Sancho (1250–1275), Archbishop of Toledo
  10. Eleanor (born 1251, died young)

Queenship

Queen Violant was a woman of talent and character. Next to King James I, she had an important political role in the Crown of Aragon. She was one of the most valuable advisors of the king, on whom she had a strong influence. She intervened decisively in international agreements as important as the Treaty of Almizra with Castile (1244). It was signed with the condition that Zayyan ibn Mardanish surrender of the city of Valencia, into which she triumphantly entered with her husband on 9 October 1238.

Death and burial

Violant reportedly died in September 1251. [5] Jerónimo Zurita, in his Anales de Aragon, mentions this discrepancy, and writes that while some annals state that Violant died in Santa María de Salas in 1251, others report that she lived for a few years after (the probable sources of the 1253 date), and that she only made her will and testament in Huesca in 1251. Zurita continues that her will stipulated her burial at Vallbona, bequeathed the county of Posana (Pozsony) to her sons Peter, James, and Sancho (Pozsony being in the possession of her half-brother Béla IV of Hungary, but apparently left to her by her mother Queen Yolanda), and mentioned that she had 5 daughters with the king.

Violant and her daughter Sancha's remains are at the Monastery of Santa Maria de Vallbona in Vallbona de les Monges, Catalonia. Violant chose burial in that monastery as she was a benefactor. Her tomb, placed along the wall on the right of the chancel, is fairly simple. It is raised on two pillars decorated with individual gold crosses inscribed in red (gules) circles, and has a gabled lid of white stone. In the center of the lid is a cross with the same characteristics as those on the pillars, but larger and without color. The only ornamentations on the box itself are three depictions of her husband's royal coat of arms - one on the visible side and one at each end. The Queen's remains were moved to the tomb in 1275, as indicated by the inscription on the visible side of the box: Fuit translata donna | Violán regina | Aragonum | anno 1275. In 2002, the Hungarian government financed a restoration of her tomb, costing 12,000 euros, but the monastic community denied permission to study its interior. Violant is the only member of the Árpád dynasty whose remains are undisturbed.

James I remarried one more time, to Teresa Gil de Vidaure, who was previously his mistress.

Posterity

Since the nineteenth century, streets have been dedicated to Queen Violant in Barcelona, Zaragoza, and other cities in the counties and kingdoms of the former Crown of Aragon. 9 October is the national day of the Valencian community, which commemorates the Christian reconquest and the day on which James I and Violant entered the city. The celebration is known as the Mocadorada of Sant Dionís, since 9 October is the feast day of Saint Denis of Paris. Men typically give their partners a scarf (mocador) containing candied fruits and vegetables made of marzipan; these candies represent the fruits and vegetables that Valencian Muslims offered James and Violant when they entered the city, according to legend.

Related Research Articles

James I of Aragon 13th-century King of Aragon

James I the Conqueror was King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona, and Lord of Montpellier from 1213 to 1276; King of Majorca from 1231 to 1276; and Valencia from 1238 to 1276. His long reign—the longest of any Iberian monarch—saw the expansion of the Crown of Aragon in three directions: Languedoc to the north, the Balearic Islands to the southeast, and Valencia to the south. By a treaty with Louis IX of France, he wrested the County of Barcelona from nominal French suzerainty and integrated it into his crown. He renounced northward expansion and taking back the once Catalan territories in Occitania and vassal counties loyal to the County of Barcelona, lands that were lost by his father Peter II of Aragon in the Battle of Muret during the Albigensian Crusade and annexed by the Kingdom of France, and then decided to turn south. His great part in the Reconquista was similar in Mediterranean Spain to that of his contemporary Ferdinand III of Castile in Andalusia. One of the main reasons for this formal renunciation of most of the once Catalan territories in Languedoc and Occitania and any expansion into them is the fact that he was raised by the Knights Templar crusaders, who had defeated his father fighting for the Pope alongside the French, so it was effectively forbidden for him to try to maintain the traditional influence of the Count of Barcelona that previously existed in Occitania and Languedoc.

John II of Aragon King of Aragon, Majorca, Valencia, and Sardinia

John II, called the Great or the Faithless (29 June 1398 – 20 January 1479), was the King of Navarre through his wife from 1425 and the King of Aragon in his own right from 1458 until his death. He was the son of Ferdinand I and his wife Eleanor of Alburquerque. John was also King of Sicily from 1458-1468.

Sancha of Castile, Queen of Aragon Queen consort of Aragon

Sancha of Castile was the only surviving child of King Alfonso VII of Castile by his second wife, Richeza of Poland. On January 18, 1174, she married King Alfonso II of Aragon at Zaragoza; they had at least eight children who survived into adulthood.

Isabella of Aragon, Queen of France Queen consort of France

Isabella of Aragon was Queen of France from 1270 to 1271 by marriage to Philip III of France.

Alfonso II, Count of Provence Count of Provence

Alfonso II was the second son of Alfonso II of Aragon and Sancha of Castile. His father transferred the County of Provence from his uncle Sancho to him in 1185. Alfonso II was born in Barcelona.

Alfonso of Molina Son of King Alfonso IX of León

Alfonso of León, Lord of Molina was an infante (prince) of León and Castile, the son of King Alfonso IX of León and his second wife Queen Berengaria of Castile. He was the brother of King Ferdinand III of Castile and León, and father of Queen Maria of Molina, wife of King Sancho IV. He became Lord of Molina and Mesa after his first marriage to Mafalda González de Lara, the heiress of those lands.

Eleanor of Portugal, Queen of Aragon Queen consort of Aragon

Eleanor of Portugal, was a Portuguese infanta and queen consort of Aragon from 1347 to 1348.

Eleanor of Castile, Queen of Navarre Queen consort of Navarre

Eleanor of Castile was an infanta of Castile and the Queen consort of Navarre.

Blanche I of Navarre Queen regnant of Navarre

Blanche I was Queen of Navarre from her father King Charles III of Navarre's death in 1425 until her own death. She served as Regent of Sicily in 1404–05 and in 1408–15.

Beatrice of Provence Countess of Provence and Forcalquier

Beatrice of Provence, was ruling Countess of Provence and Forcalquier from 1245 until her death, as well as Countess of Anjou and Maine, Queen of Sicily and Naples by marriage to Charles I of Naples.

Violant of Aragon Queen consort of Castile and León

Violant or Violante of Aragon, also known as Yolanda of Aragon, was Queen consort of Castile and León from 1252 to 1284 as the wife of King Alfonso X of Castile.

Joan of Dammartin was queen of Castile and León by marriage to Ferdinand III of Castile. She also ruled as Countess of Ponthieu (1251–1279) and Aumale (1237–1279). Her daughter, the English queen Eleanor of Castile, was her successor in Ponthieu. Ferdinand II, Count of Aumale, her son and co-ruler in Aumale, predeceased her, thus she was succeeded by her grandson John I, Count of Aumale.

Violant of Bar Queen consort of Aragon, Valencia, Majorca, and Sardinia and Corsica

Violant of Bar was queen consort of Aragon by marriage to John I of Aragon. She served as "Queen-Lieutenant" (regent) of Aragon as proxy of her spouse from 1388 until 1395.

Blanche of France, Infanta of Castile Infanta of Castile

Blanche of France (1253–1323) was a daughter of King Louis IX of France and Margaret of Provence, and sister of King Philip III of France and Queen Isabella of Navarre.

Eleanor of Castile (1307–1359) Queen consort of Aragon

Eleanor of Castile (1307–1359) was Queen of Aragon as the wife of King Alfonso IV from 1329 until 1336.

Beatrice of Castile was a daughter of Alfonso X of Castile and his wife Violant of Aragon. She was Marchioness of Montferrat by her marriage and was mother of Irene of Montferrat.

John I, Count of Foix also known as Jean de Foix-Grailly was Count of Foix from 1428 until his death in 1436. He succeeded his mother Isabella, Countess of Foix. His father was Archambaud de Grailly.

Blanche of Castile was by birth a member of the Castilian House of Burgundy. She was the only child of Infante Peter of Castile, Lord of Los Cameros and Infanta Maria of Aragon.

Sancha Raimúndez of León was a Leonese infanta, the daughter of Queen Urraca and Raymond of Burgundy and the older sister of Alfonso VII of León.

Teresa Gil de Vidaure was the common law wife of King James I of Aragon, but never a queen. Claiming that she was a leper, James left her in order to pursue an incestuous relationship with Berenguela Alfonso. Teresa Gil died in seclusion in a monastery she had founded.

References

  1. Martin 2012, p. 1089.
  2. Laszlovzky 2016, p. 91.
  3. Woodacre 2013, p. 52.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 Smith & Buffery 2010, p. 139.
  5. Widmayer 1994, p. 249.

Sources

Violant of Hungary
Born: circa 1215 Died: 12 October 1251
Royal titles
Preceded by
Eleanor of Castile
Queen consort of Aragon
12351253
Succeeded by
Constance of Sicily
New title Queen consort of Majorca
12351253
Succeeded by
Esclaramunda of Foix
Queen consort of Valencia
12381253
Succeeded by
Constance of Sicily