Violence Against Women Act

Last updated

The Violence Against Women Act of 1994 (VAWA) was a United States federal law (Title IV, sec. 40001-40703 of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act, H.R. 3355) signed as Pub.L.   103–322 by President Bill Clinton on September 13, 1994 (codified in part at 42 U.S.C. sections 13701 through 14040). The Act provided $1.6 billion toward investigation and prosecution of violent crimes against women, imposed automatic and mandatory restitution on those convicted, and allowed civil redress in cases prosecutors chose to leave un-prosecuted. The Act also established the Office on Violence Against Women within the Department of Justice.

Contents

VAWA was cosponsored by Senator Joe Biden (D-DE) and Senator Orrin Hatch (R-UT) in 1994 and gained support from a broad coalition of advocacy groups. [1] The Act passed through Congress with bipartisan support in 1994, clearing the United States House of Representatives by a vote of 235–195 and the Senate by a vote of 61–38, although the following year House Republicans attempted to cut the Act's funding. [2] In the 2000 Supreme Court case United States v. Morrison , a sharply divided Court struck down the VAWA provision allowing women the right to sue their attackers in federal court. By a 5–4 majority, the Court overturned the provision as exceeding the federal government's powers under the Commerce Clause. [3] [4]

VAWA was reauthorized by bipartisan majorities in Congress in 2000 and again in December 2005. The Act's 2012 renewal was opposed by conservative Republicans, who objected to extending the Act's protections to same-sex couples and to provisions allowing battered undocumented immigrants to claim temporary visas, but it was reauthorized in 2013, after a long legislative battle. As a result of the United States federal government shutdown of 2018–2019, the Violence Against Women Act expired on December 21, 2018. It was temporarily reinstated via a short-term spending bill on January 25, 2019, but expired again on February 15, 2019. The House of Representatives passed a bill reauthorizing VAWA in April 2019 that includes new provisions protecting transgender victims and banning individuals convicted of domestic abuse from purchasing firearms. [5] In an attempt to reach a bipartisan agreement, Senators Joni Ernst (R-IA) and Dianne Feinstein (D-CA) led months of negotiation talks that came to a halt in November 2019. Senator Joni Ernst has said she plans to introduce a new version of the bill and hopes it will pass in the U.S. Senate. [6]

The House version of VAWA, H.R. 1585, currently does not include any federal penalties for female genital mutilation (FGM). [7] According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, an estimated 513,000 women and girls in the U.S. are at risk of FGM or have already undergone the operation. [8] Independent Women's Forum has urged Congress to include provisions enhancing penalties for female genital mutilation as well as funding to combat FGM. [9] The House version also does not include measures to deter honor killings, sex trafficking or forced child marriages. [7]

Background

The World Conference on Human Rights, held in Vienna, Austria, in 1993, and the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women in the same year, concluded that civil society and governments have acknowledged that domestic violence is a public health policy and human rights concern. In the United States, according to the National Intimate Partner Sexual Violence Survey of 2010 1 in 6 women suffered some kind of sexual violence induced by their intimate partner during the course of their lives. [10]

The Violence Against Women Act was developed and passed as a result of extensive grassroots efforts in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Advocates for the battered women's movement included sexual assault advocates, individuals from victim services, law enforcement agencies, prosecutors' offices, the courts, and the private bar. They urged Congress to adopt significant legislation to address domestic and sexual violence.[ citation needed ] One of the greatest successes of VAWA is its emphasis on a coordinated community response to domestic violence, sex dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking; courts, law enforcement, prosecutors, victim services, and the private bar currently work together in a coordinated effort that did not exist before at the state and local levels.[ citation needed ] VAWA also supports the work of community-based organizations that are engaged in work to end domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking; particularly those groups that provide culturally and linguistically specific services. Additionally, VAWA provides specific support for work with tribes and tribal organizations to end domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking against Native American women.

Many grant programs authorized in VAWA have been funded by the U.S. Congress. The following grant programs, which are administered primarily through the Office on Violence Against Women in the U.S. Department of Justice have received appropriations from Congress:

The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) had originally expressed concerns about the Act, saying that the increased penalties were rash, that the increased pretrial detention was "repugnant" to the U.S. Constitution, that the mandatory HIV testing of those only charged but not convicted was an infringement of a citizen’s right to privacy, and that the edict for automatic payment of full restitution was non-judicious (see their paper: "Analysis of Major Civil Liberties Abuses in the Crime Bill Conference Report as Passed by the House and the Senate", dated September 29, 1994). In 2005, the ACLU had, however, enthusiastically supported reauthorization of VAWA on the condition that the "unconstitutional DNA provision" be removed. That provision would have allowed law enforcement to take DNA samples from arrestees or even from those who had simply been stopped by police without the permission of a court. [11]

The ACLU, in its July 27, 2005 'Letter to the Senate Judiciary Committee Regarding the Violence Against Women Act of 2005, S. 1197' stated that "VAWA is one of the most effective pieces of legislation enacted to end domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking. It has dramatically improved the law enforcement response to violence against women and has provided critical services necessary to support women in their struggle to overcome abusive situations". [12]

Some activists opposed the bill. Janice Shaw Crouse, a senior fellow at the conservative, evangelistic Christian Concerned Women for America's Beverly LaHaye Institute, [13] called the Act a "boondoggle" which "ends up creating a climate of suspicion where all men are feared or viewed as violent and all women are viewed as victims". She described the Act in 2012 as creating a "climate of false accusations, rush to judgment and hidden agendas" and criticized it for failing to address the factors identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as leading to violent, abusive behavior. [14] Conservative activist Phyllis Schlafly denounced VAWA as a tool to "fill feminist coffers" and argued that the Act promoted "divorce, breakup of marriage and hatred of men". [15]

In 2000, the Supreme Court of the United States held part of VAWA unconstitutional on federalism grounds in United States v. Morrison . That decision invalidated only the civil remedy provision of VAWA. The provisions providing program funding were unaffected. [16]

In 2005, the reauthorization of VAWA (as HR3402) defined what population benefited under the term of "Underserved Populations" described as " Populations underserved because of geographic location, underserved racial and ethnic populations, populations underserved because of special needs (such as language barriers, disabilities, alienage status, or age) and any other population determined to be underserved by the Attorney General or by the Secretary of Health and Human Services as appropriate". [17] The reauthorization also "Amends the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968" to "prohibit officials from requiring sex offense victims to submit to a polygraph examination as a condition for proceeding with an investigation or prosecution of a sex offense." [18] [19]

In 2011, the law expired. [20] In 2012 the law was up for reauthorization in Congress. [21] Different versions of the legislation were passed along party lines in the Senate and House, with the Republican-sponsored House version favoring the reduction of services to undocumented immigrants and LGBT individuals. Another area of contention was the provision of the law giving Native American tribal authorities jurisdiction over sex crimes involving non-Native Americans on tribal lands. By repealing a portion of the 1978 Oliphant v. Suquamish ruling, such a provision could alter the constitutional balance between federal, state, and tribal power. Historically Congress has not allowed tribal governments to exercise criminal jurisdiction over non-tribal members. The two bills were pending reconciliation, and a final bill did not reach the President's desk before the end of the year, temporarily ending the coverage of the Act after 18 years, as the 112th Congress adjourned.

2012–13 legislative battle and reauthorization

Senate vote on Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013
Both yes
One yes, one no
Both no S 47 - Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013 - Senate Vote.svg
Senate vote on Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013
  Both yes
  One yes, one no
  Both no

When a bill reauthorizing the act was introduced in 2012, it was opposed by conservative Republicans, who objected to extending the Act's protections to same-sex couples and to provisions allowing battered foreigners residing in the country illegally to claim temporary visas, also known as U visas. [15] The U visa is restricted to 10,000 applicants annually whereas the number of applicants far exceeds these 10,000 for each fiscal year. [17] In order to be considered for the U visa, one of the requirements for immigrant women is that they need to cooperate in the detention of the abuser. [22] Studies show that 30 to 50% of immigrant women are suffering from physical violence and 62% experience physical or psychological abuse in contrast to only 21% of citizens in the United States. [23]

In April 2012, the Senate voted to reauthorize the Violence Against Women Act, and the House subsequently passed its own measure (omitting provisions of the Senate bill that would protect gays, Native Americans living in reservations, and immigrants who are victims of domestic violence). Reconciliation of the two bills was stymied by procedural measures, leaving the re-authorization in question. [24] The Senate's 2012 re-authorization of VAWA was not brought up for a vote in the House.

In 2013, the question of jurisdiction over offenses in Native American country continued to be at issue over the question of whether defendants who are not tribal members would be treated fairly by tribal courts or afforded constitutional guarantees. [25]

On February 12, 2013, the Senate passed an extension of the Violence Against Women Act by a vote of 78–22. The measure went to the House of Representatives where jurisdiction of tribal courts and inclusion of same-sex couples were expected to be at issue. [26] Possible solutions advanced were permitting either removal or appeal to federal courts by non-tribal defendants. [20] The Senate had tacked on the Trafficking Victims Protection Act which is another bone of contention due to a clause which requires provision of reproductive health services to victims of sex trafficking. [27]

House vote on Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013
Democratic aye
Republican aye
Abstention or no representative seated
Republican no S 47 - Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013 - House of Representatives vote.svg
House vote on Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013
  Democratic aye
  Republican aye
  Abstention or no representative seated
  Republican no

On February 28, 2013, in a 286–138 vote, the House passed the Senate's all-inclusive version of the bill. House Republicans had previously hoped to pass their own version of the measure—one that substantially weakened the bill's protections for certain categories. The stripped down version, which allowed only limited protection for LGBT and Native Americans, was rejected 257 to 166. [28] The renewed act expanded federal protections to gay, lesbian, and transgender individuals, Native Americans and immigrants. [29] [30] [31]

On March 7, 2013, President Barack Obama signed the Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013. [32]

After passage

138 House Republicans voted against the version of the act that became law. [33] However, several, including Steve King (R-Iowa), Bill Johnson (R-Ohio), Tim Walberg (R-Michigan), Vicky Hartzler (R-Missouri), Keith Rothfus (R-Pennsylvania), and Tim Murphy (R-Pennsylvania), claimed to have voted in favor of the act. Some have called this claim disingenuous because the group only voted in favor of a GOP proposed alternative version of the bill that did not contain provisions intended to protect gays, lesbians and transgender individuals, Native Americans and undocumented immigrants. [34]

Reauthorizations

VAWA was reauthorized by bipartisan majorities in Congress in 2000 (H.R. 1248, Roll Call 415-3), and again in December 2005, and signed by President George W. Bush. [35] The Act's 2012 renewal was opposed by conservative Republicans, who objected to extending the Act's protections to same-sex couples and to provisions allowing battered undocumented immigrants to claim temporary visas. [15] Ultimately, VAWA was again reauthorized in 2013, after a long legislative battle throughout 2012–2013. [36]

On September 12, 2013, at an event marking the 19th anniversary of the bill, Vice President Joe Biden criticized the Republicans who slowed the passage of the reauthorization of the act as being "this sort of Neanderthal crowd". [37]

As a result of the United States federal government shutdown of 2018–2019, the Violence Against Women Act expired on December 21, 2018. [38] It was temporarily reauthorized by a short-term spending bill on January 25, 2019, but expired again on February 15, 2019. [39]

On April 4, 2019, the reauthorization act passed in the House by a vote of 263-158, this time including closing the boyfriend loophole. All Democrats voting joined by 33 Republicans voted for passage. New York Representative Elise Stefanik said Democrats, "...have refused to work with Republicans in a meaningful way," adding, the House bill will do nothing but "collect dust" in the GOP-controlled Senate.The bill has indeed been ignored by the Senate. [40]

On December 9, 2019, following the firearm murder of a Houston police officer on duty by a boyfriend who had been abusive towards his girlfriend, Houston Police Chief Art Acevedo criticized Senators Mitch McConnell (R-KY), Ted Cruz (R-TX) and John Cornyn (R-TX) for preventing a vote on the VAWA reauthorization. [41] Acevedo said "I don't want to hear about how much they care about lives and the sanctity of lives yet, we all know in law enforcement that one of the biggest reasons that the Senate and Mitch McConnell and John Cornyn and Ted Cruz and others are not getting into a room and having a conference committee with the House and getting the Violence Against Women's Act (passed) is because the NRA doesn't like the fact that we want to take firearms out of the hands of boyfriends that abuse their girlfriends. And who killed our sergeant? A boyfriend abusing his girlfriend. So you're either here for women and children and our daughters and our sisters and our aunts, or you're here for the NRA." [41]

In a follow-up interview with CNN, Acevedo said his criticism of Senators Cruz, Cornyn and McConnell was not political, because “death is not political — you see, death is final.” [42] He challenged Senator Cruz to directly answer whether he supports closing the boyfriend loophole, and said that failing to address it would put the Senators “on the wrong side of history”. [42] Senator Cornyn said that Acevedo was “mistaken” invoking the VAWA.

Programs and services

The Violence Against Women laws provided programs and services, including:

Restraining orders

Restraining order granted to a Wisconsin woman against her abuser, noting the nationwide applicability of the order under Full Faith and Credit Temporary Order of Protection.jpg
Restraining order granted to a Wisconsin woman against her abuser, noting the nationwide applicability of the order under Full Faith and Credit

When a woman—the Wisconsin Coalition Against Domestic Violence generally refers to petitioners as female as most are women [44] —is the beneficiary of an order of protection, per VAWA it was generally enforceable nationwide under the terms of full faith and credit. Although the order may be granted only in a specific state, full faith and credit requires that it be enforced in other states as though the order was granted in their states.18 U.S.C.   § 2265 [45]

Persons who were covered under VAWA immigration provisions

VAWA allowed for the possibility that certain individuals who might not otherwise be eligible for immigration benefits may petition for US permanent residency on the grounds of a close relationship with a US citizen or permanent resident who has been abusing them. The following persons are eligible to benefit from the immigration provisions of VAWA:

Coverage of male victims

Although the title of the Act and the titles of its sections refer to victims of domestic violence as women, the operative text is gender-neutral, providing coverage for male victims as well. [47] Individual organizations have not been successful in using VAWA to provide equal coverage for men. [48] The law has twice been amended in attempts to address this situation. The 2005 reauthorization added a non-exclusivity provision clarifying that the title should not be construed to prohibit male victims from receiving services under the Act. [49] The 2013 reauthorization added a non-discrimination provision that prohibits organizations receiving funding under the Act from discriminating on the basis of sex, although the law allows an exception for "sex segregation or sex-specific programming" when it is deemed to be "necessary to the essential operations of a program." [50] Jan Brown, the Founder and Executive Director of the Domestic Abuse Helpline for Men and Women contends that the Act may not be sufficient to ensure equal access to services. [51]

Official federal government groups that have developed, being established by President Barack Obama, in relation to the Violence Against Women Act include the White House Council on Women and Girls and the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault. [52] [53] The ultimate aims of both groups are to help improve and/or protect the well-being and safety of women and girls in the United States. [52] [53]

See also

Related Research Articles

Marsha Blackburn United States Senator from Tennessee

Marsha Blackburn is an American politician and businesswoman serving as the junior United States Senator from Tennessee. A member of the Republican Party, Blackburn previously served the U.S. House for Tennessee's 7th congressional district from 2003 to 2019. She was also a State Senator from 1999 to 2003. On November 6, 2018, she became the first woman to be elected to the U.S. Senate from Tennessee, defeating Democratic former Tennessee Governor Phil Bredesen.

United States v. Morrison, 529 U.S. 598 (2000), is a United States Supreme Court decision concerning the Commerce Clause. The Court held that parts of the Violence Against Women Act of 1994 were unconstitutional because they exceeded the powers granted to Congress under the Commerce Clause and the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection Clause. Along with United States v. Lopez (1995), it was part of a series of Rehnquist Court cases that limited Congress's powers under the Commerce Clause.

John Boozman United States Senator from Arkansas

John Nichols Boozman is the senior United States senator for Arkansas, and a member of the Republican Party. He served as the United States Representative for Arkansas's 3rd congressional district from 2001 to 2011.

Chris Smith (New Jersey politician) American politician

Christopher Henry Smith is an American politician currently serving in his 20th term as the U.S. Representative for New Jersey's 4th congressional district, having served since 1981. The district includes portions of Mercer, Monmouth, and Ocean counties. He is a member of the Republican Party.

Office on Violence Against Women

The United States Office on Violence Against Women (OVW) was created following the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) of 1994. The Act was renewed in 2005 and again in 2013. The Violence Against Women Act legislation requires the Office on Violence Against Women to work to respond to and reduce violence against women in many different areas, including on college campuses and in people's homes. VAWA requires Office on Violence Against Women to administer justice and strengthen services for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking.

Violence against women Violent acts committed primarily against women and girls

Violence against women (VAW), also known as gender-based violence and sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV), are violent acts the victims of which are primarily or exclusively women or girls. Such violence is often considered a form of hate crime, committed against women or girls specifically because they are female, and can take many forms.

Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act American hate crime legislation

The Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act, also known as the Matthew Shepard Act, is an American Act of Congress, passed on October 22, 2009, and signed into law by President Barack Obama on October 28, 2009, as a rider to the National Defense Authorization Act for 2010. Conceived as a response to the murders of Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr., both in 1998, the measure expands the 1969 United States federal hate-crime law to include crimes motivated by a victim's actual or perceived gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability.

Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000

The Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA) is a federal statute passed into law in 2000 by the U.S. Congress and signed by President Clinton. The law was later reauthorized by presidents Bush, Obama, and Trump. In addition to its applicability to US citizens, it has the ability to authorize protections for undocumented immigrants who are victims of severe forms of trafficking and violence.

Kimberly Teehee Cherokee political advisor from Oklahoma

Kimberly Teehee is an American advocate and lobbyist on Native American issues, and delegate-designate to the U.S. House of Representatives from the Cherokee Nation. She served as senior policy advisor for Native American affairs in the administration of U.S. President Barack Obama from 2009 to 2012.

The International Violence Against Women Act of 2015 (I-VAWA) is proposed legislation to address violence against women through United States foreign policy. The legislation was introduced in the 114th United States Congress in March, 2015. Similar legislation was introduced in the 110th and 111th United States Congress but was not passed into law.

The National Domestic Violence Hotline is a 24-hour confidential service for survivors, victims and those affected by domestic violence, intimate partner violence and relationship abuse. The Hotline advocates are available at 1-800-799-SAFE (7233) and through online chatting at www.TheHotline.org. All calls are free and confidential. The NDVH was created through the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) in the United States. The Domestic Violence Hotline offers a variety of help options. The website has different tabs to educate people on different topics such as domestic violence, financial abuse, LGBTQ relationship abuse, domestic violence policy updates, advocate information, what to expect when calling The Hotline, and life after abuse and domestic violence. The National Domestic Violence Hotline launched loveisrespect, the ultimate resource to empower youth to prevent and end dating abuse and promote healthy dating relationships. It is a project of the National Domestic Violence Hotline.

Political positions of Rand Paul Full coverage of the policies of a US politician

Rand Paul is a member of the Republican Party, a U.S. Senator representing the state of Kentucky, and a former candidate for President of the United States. He received a score of 100% from the American Conservative Union in 2012, and his voting record was rated 26% liberal in 2011 by National Journal.

Victims of Child Abuse Act Reauthorization Act of 2013

The Victims of Child Abuse Act Reauthorization Act of 2013 is a bill that would reauthorize the Victims of Child Abuse Act of 1990 and would authorize funding through 2018 to help child abuse victims. The funding is directed to Children's Advocacy Centers (CACs).

Justice for Victims of Trafficking Act of 2013

The Justice for Victims of Trafficking Act of 2013 is a bill that would authorize the appropriation of $25 million annually over the 2015-2019 period for the United States Department of Justice (DOJ) to provide grants to states and other recipients aimed at improving the enforcement of laws against human trafficking and to assist victims of such crimes. According to newspaper The Hill, the bill would "impose an additional fine of $5,000 on any person convicted of crimes related to sex trafficking, sexual abuse, sexual exploitation of children or human smuggling."

Sliver of a Full Moon is a play by Mary Kathryn Nagle. The play was written in 2013 following the re-authorization of the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA). Mary Kathryn Nagle is an enrolled member of the Cherokee Nation, and has written and produced several plays involving law and Indian affairs.

Many people migrating from Latin America to the United States are victims of sexual assault. People who migrate through or from Mexico without legal permission must enter into dealings with smugglers and, often, criminal gangs. Perpetrators may be smugglers or gang members, but can also be government officials, bandits, or other migrants. Sexual assault is sometimes part of the "price" of smuggling, and some women have reported preparing for it in advance by taking contraception.

Violence against women in the United States is the use of domestic abuse, murder, sex-trafficking, rape and assault against women in the United States. It has been recognized as a public health concern. Culture in the United States has led towards the trivialization of violence towards women, with media in the United States possibly contributing to making women-directed violence appear unimportant to the public.

Deborah Parker, also known by her native name Tsi-Cy-Altsa, is an activist and indigenous leader in the United States. A member of the Tulalip Tribes of Washington, she served as its vice-chairwoman from 2012 to 2015 and is, as of July 2018, a board member for Our Revolution and the National Indigenous Women's Resource Center. She is also a co-founder of Indigenous Women Rise.

The term boyfriend loophole refers to a gap in American gun legislation that allows access to guns by physically abusive ex-boyfriends and stalkers with previous convictions. While individuals who have been convicted of, or are under a restraining order for, domestic violence are prohibited from owning a firearm, the prohibition only applies if the victim was the perpetrator's spouse, cohabitant, or had a child with the victim. The boyfriend loophole has had a direct effect on people, particularly women, who experience domestic abuse or stalking by former or current intimate partners. The Lautenberg Amendment of 1996 made stricter restrictions on gun control in the US, however, definitions for intimate partner brought reasons for this loophole. The different states in the US have tried closing this loophole by more legislation. This loophole has left many authoritative bodies, such as the police, powerless when it came to protecting individuals who fear that their intimate partner may cause them harm. Constitutional challenges came about because of this inaction but were not successful.

References

  1. "Report: 1 Is Too Many: Twenty Years Fighting Violence Against Women and Girls from The White House" (PDF). whitehouse.gov. Retrieved May 6, 2018.
  2. Cooper, Kenneth (July 15, 1995). "House GOP Budget Cutters Try to Limit Domestic Violence Programs". Washington Post . Archived from the original on July 24, 2012. Retrieved April 19, 2012.
  3. Bierbauer, Charles (May 18, 2000). "Supreme Court strikes down Violence Against Women Act". CNN. Archived from the original on February 13, 2008. Retrieved April 19, 2012.
  4. Greenhouse, Linda (May 16, 2000). "Women lose right to sue attackers in federal court". New York Times . Archived from the original on February 5, 2012. Retrieved April 19, 2012.
  5. "House passes reauthorization of Violence Against Women Act". CNN. April 4, 2019.
  6. "Senate talks on crafting bipartisan Violence Against Women Act break down". RollCall. November 7, 2019.
  7. 1 2 "H.R.1585 - Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2019". US Congress. April 10, 2019.
  8. "FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION/CUTTING:Existing Federal Efforts to Increase Awareness Should Be Improved". US GAO. August 1, 2016.
  9. "Female Genital Mutilation is Violence Against Women". IWF.
  10. Black, M. C. et al. The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 Summary Report . Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011.
  11. "Tell Congress to Support the Violence Against Women Act". American Civil Liberties Union. Archived from the original on November 16, 2005.
  12. "ACLU Letter to the Senate Judiciary Committee Regarding the Violence Against Women Act of 2005, S. 1197". ACLU. July 27, 2005. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015.
  13. Butler, Jennifer S. (2006). Born Again: The Christian Right Globalized. New York: Pluto Press. pp. 39, 46, 120–1 via ProQuest eBrary.
  14. Crouse, Janice Shaw (March 19, 2012). "The Violence Against Women Act Should Outrage Decent People". U.S. News and World Report (Opinion). Archived from the original on November 3, 2017.
  15. 1 2 3 Weisman, Jonathan (March 14, 2012). "Women Figure Anew in Senate's Latest Battle". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 30, 2012. Retrieved April 19, 2012.
  16. United States v. Morrison Archived August 9, 2011, at the Wayback Machine , 529 U.S. 598, 627; "For these reasons, we conclude that Congress' power under § 5 does not extend to the enactment of § 13981.... The judgment of the Court of Appeals is Affirmed." (at end of opinion section III)
  17. 1 2 Olivares, Mariela. 2014. "Battered by Law: The Political Subordination of Immigrant Women." American University Law Review 64(2):231-283
  18. F., Sensenbrenner (January 5, 2006). "H.R.3402 - 109th Congress (2005-2006): Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005". www.congress.gov. Archived from the original on May 5, 2018. Retrieved May 6, 2018.
  19. "42 U.S. Code § 3796gg–8 - Transferred". LII / Legal Information Institute. Archived from the original on July 17, 2017. Retrieved May 6, 2018.
  20. 1 2 "Senate votes to reauthorize Violence Against Women Act". USA Today. February 12, 2013. Archived from the original on February 13, 2013. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
  21. Bolduan, Kate (May 16, 2012). "House passes GOP version of Violence Against Women Act renewal". CNN. Washington. Archived from the original on June 23, 2012.
  22. Berger, Susan. 2009. "(Un) Worthy: Latina Battered Immigrants Under VAWA and the Construction of Neoliberal Subjects." Citizenship Studies 13(3):201-217
  23. Levine, Helisse and Shelly Peffer. 2012. "Quiet Casualties: An Analysis of U Non- Immigrant Status of Undocumented Immigrant Victims of Intimate Partner Violence." International Journal of Public Administration 35(9):634. pg 635
  24. Steinhauer, Jennifer (July 31, 2012). "THE CAUCUS; G.O.P. Push on Domestic Violence Act". New York Times. Retrieved October 13, 2012.
  25. Jonathan Weisman (February 10, 2013). "Measure to Protect Women Stuck on Tribal Land Issue". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 11, 2013. Retrieved February 10, 2013. If a Native American is raped or assaulted by a non-Indian, she must plead for justice to already overburdened United States attorneys who are often hundreds of miles away.
  26. Jonathan Weisman (February 12, 2013). "Senate Votes Overwhelmingly to Expand Domestic Violence Act". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 13, 2013. Retrieved February 13, 2013.
  27. Editors, The New York Times (February 15, 2013). "Renew the Violence Against Women Act" (editorial). The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 16, 2013. Retrieved February 16, 2013. What should be an uncontroversial bill has been held up by Republicans over the Obama administration’s proper insistence that contractors under the act afford victims access to a full range of reproductive health services.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  28. "VAWA victory shows that House GOP needs Democrats". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on March 1, 2013. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
  29. Camia, Catalina (February 28, 2013). "Congress sends Violence Against Women Act to Obama". USA Today. Archived from the original on January 8, 2015. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
  30. LeTrent, Sarah (March 14, 2013). "Violence Against Women Act shines a light on same-sex abuse". CNN. Archived from the original on May 4, 2013. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
  31. "Nondiscrimination Grant Condition in the Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013" (PDF). justice.gov. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 29, 2018. Retrieved May 6, 2018.
  32. Pub. L. No. 113-4, 127 Stat. 54 (March 7, 2013).
  33. "S. 47 (113th): Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013 -- House Vote #55 -- Feb 28, 2013". GovTrack.us. Archived from the original on January 27, 2018. Retrieved May 6, 2018.
  34. Bendery, Jennifer (March 7, 2013). "Violence Against Women Act Now Touted By Republicans Who Voted Against Bill". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on October 25, 2013. Retrieved September 17, 2013.
  35. "President Signs H.R. 3402, the "Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005"" (Press release). George W. Bush White House archives. January 5, 2006. Archived from the original on September 10, 2017.
  36. "President signs Violence Against Women Act - CNN.com". CNN. March 7, 2013. Archived from the original on March 12, 2013.
  37. "Biden: 'Neanderthal crowd' slowed VAWA renewal". Politico. Archived from the original on September 16, 2013. Retrieved September 17, 2013.
  38. "Violence Against Women Act Expires Because Of Government Shutdown - NPR.org". NPR.
  39. Snell, Kelsey [@kelsey_snell] (January 25, 2019). "...the short-term spending bill (CR) includes a reauthorization/extension of the Violence Against Women Act per McConnell spox" (Tweet) via Twitter.
  40. https://www.cnn.com/2019/04/04/politics/house-passes-violence-against-women-act-reauthorization/index.html House passes reauthorization of Violence Against Women Act CNN , Ashley Killough, April 4, 2019.
  41. 1 2 Duster, Chandelis. "Houston police chief criticizes McConnell and Senate Republicans over guns: 'Whose side are you on?'". CNN. Retrieved December 9, 2019.
  42. 1 2 Duster, Chandelis; Kafanov, Lucy; Killough, Ashley (December 12, 2019). "Houston police chief says criticism of GOP lawmakers over guns is 'not political' — CNN Politics". CNN. Retrieved December 12, 2019.
  43. Factsheet: The Violence Against Women Act Archived January 31, 2013, at the Wayback Machine from The White House.
  44. "Process for Obtaining a Restraining Order in Wisconsin" (PDF). WCADV. Wisconsin Coalition Against Domestic Violence. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved November 20, 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  45. "National Center on Protection Orders and Full Faith and Credit". Protection Orders. Battered Women's Justice Project. Archived from the original on June 9, 2016. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
  46. "VAWA: VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN ACT". Givi Kutidze. November 2, 2016. Archived from the original on December 6, 2016.
  47. "Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994". Act No. H.R. 3355 of 1994. Archived from the original on January 11, 2014.
  48. Franklin, Robert (February 4, 2013). "VAWA must be reformed for domestic violence rates to come down". The Hill. Capitol Hill Publishing Corp. Archived from the original on February 2, 2014.
  49. "Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005". Article Sec. 3(b)(8), Act No. H.R. 3402 of 2005. Archived from the original on January 11, 2014.
  50. "Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013". Article Sec. 3(b)(4), Act No. S. 47 of 2013. Archived from the original on July 16, 2016.
  51. "Saving Our Men - The Domestic Abuse Helpline for Men and Women". Laws.com. June 13, 2013. Archived from the original on August 5, 2013.
  52. 1 2 A renewed call to action to end rape and sexual assault Archived August 17, 2014, at the Wayback Machine , The White House Blog, Washington, DC: Valerie Jarrett, January 22, 2014, Retrieved January 24, 2014.
  53. 1 2 Memorandum: Establishing White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault Archived September 13, 2014, at the Wayback Machine , WhiteHouse.gov, Washington, DC: The White House, January 22, 2014, Retrieved June 10, 2014.