Virginia pound

Last updated
A PS3 Colonial banknote from the Colony of Virginia. Signed by Peyton Randolph and John Blair Jr. US-Colonial (VA-69)-Virginia-4 Mar 1773 OBV.jpg
A £3 Colonial banknote from the Colony of Virginia. Signed by Peyton Randolph and John Blair Jr.
A 1776 banknote issued by Virginia worth seven shillings and pence. Recto Virginia 7 shillings 6 pence 1776 urn-3 HBS.Baker.AC 1104504.jpeg
A 1776 banknote issued by Virginia worth seven shillings and pence.

The pound was the currency of Virginia until 1793. Initially, sterling coin circulated along with foreign currencies, supplemented from 1755 by local paper money. [1] Although these notes were denominated in £sd, they were worth less than sterling, so 1 Virginia shilling was equal to 9d sterling

Contents

Colonial legislation

In 1645 the legislature of the Colony of Virginia prohibited barter, and valued the Spanish dollar or piece of eight at 6/–. The 1655 legislature officially devalued the Spanish dollar to 5/-.

Virginia coinage

The first "official" coinage in British North America was issued by the Province of Virginia in 1775, although they were dated 1773. The reason was that the Virginia House of Burgesses had been requesting the coinage for several years and King George III finally consented in that year.

Five tons of coins were sent to the colony on the clipper ship Virginia and most of the coins were distributed just before the breakout of the American Revolution in April 1775. They are considered to be the most affordable Colonial American coinage.

Continental currency

The State of Virginia issued Continental currency denominated in £sd and Spanish dollars, with 1 dollar = 6/–. The continental currency was replaced by the U.S. dollar at a rate of 1000 continental dollars = 1 U.S. dollar.

Related Research Articles

Guyanese dollar Currency used in Guyana

The Guyanese dollar has been the unit of account in Guyana since 29 January 1839. Originally it was intended as a transitional unit to facilitate the changeover from the Dutch guilder system of currency to the British pound sterling system. The Spanish dollar was already prevalent throughout the West Indies in general, and from 1839, the Spanish dollar unit operated in British Guiana in conjunction with British sterling coins at a standard conversion rate of one dollar for every four shillings and twopence. In 1951 the British sterling coinage was replaced with a new decimal coinage which was simultaneously introduced through all the British territories in the Eastern Caribbean. When sterling began to depreciate in the early 1970s, a switch to a US dollar peg became increasingly attractive as an anti-inflationary measure and the Eastern Caribbean Currency Authority made the switch in October 1975. The Guyanese dollar is normally abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or alternatively G$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies.

Early American currency Paper money issued by the United States during the American Revolution

Early American currency went through several stages of development during the colonial and post-Revolutionary history of the United States. John Hull was authorized by the Massachusetts legislature to make the earliest coinage of the colony, the willow, the oak, and the pine tree shilling in 1652.

Canadian pound Currency used in Canada (1841–1858)

The pound was the currency of the Canadas until 1858. It was subdivided into 20 shillings (s), each of 12 pence (d). In Lower Canada, the sou was used, worth 12 penny. Although the £sd accounting system had its origins in sterling, the Canadian pound was never at par with sterling's pound.

Connecticut pound

The pound was the currency of Connecticut until 1793. Initially, sterling coin circulated along with foreign currencies. This was supplemented by local paper money from 1709. Although the local currency was denominated in £sd, it was worth less than sterling, with 1 Connecticut shilling = 9 pence sterling. This rated the Spanish dollar at 6 Connecticut shillings. The first issue of notes is known as the "Old Tenor" issue.

Delaware pound

The pound was the currency of Delaware until 1793. Initially, sterling coin circulated along with foreign currencies. This was supplemented by local paper money from 1723. Although the local currency was denominated in £sd, it was worth less than sterling, with 1 Delaware shilling = 9 pence sterling.

Maryland pound Early currency of Maryland

The pound was the currency of Maryland from 1733 until its gradual replacement with the Continental currency and later the United States dollar between the American Revolution and the early 1800s. Initially, the coins of the Pound sterling circulated along with foreign coins. From 1733, this was supplemented by paper money, known as "Proclamation Money", denominated in £sd, but worth less than sterling, with 1 Maryland shilling = 9 pence sterling. A second "New" issue of notes was introduced in 1751, replacing the earlier notes at a rate of 1 New shilling = 1¼ Proclamation shillings.

Massachusetts pound

The pound was the currency of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and its colonial predecessors until 1793. The Massachusetts pound used the £sd currency system of 1 pound divided into 20 shillings, each of 12 pence. Initially, sterling coin and foreign currencies circulated in Massachusetts, supplemented by the pine tree shilling produced by the "Hull Mint" between 1652 and 1682 and by local paper money from 1690.

The pound was the currency of New Hampshire until 1793. Initially, sterling coin circulated, supplemented from 1709 by local paper money. These notes were denominated in £sd but were worth less than sterling, with 1 New Hampshire shilling = 9 pence sterling. This first issue of paper money was known as the "Old Tenor" issue.

New Jersey pound

The pound was the currency of New Jersey until 1793. Initially, sterling coin and some foreign currencies circulated, supplemented from 1709 by local paper money. Although the notes were denominated in £sd, they were worth less than sterling. A proclamation of Queen Anne, issued in 1704 and legislated by parliament in 1707, standardized the value of all colonial currencies at 6 colonial shillings to a full weight Spanish dollar, which was in turn equivalent to 4s.6d. sterling. This made a colonial shilling equivalent to 9d sterling and a colonial pound equivalent to 2 troy oz 18 dwt 8 gr of silver. Currency issued at this rate was referred to as “Proclamation Money”.

New York pound

The pound was the currency of the province and state of New York until 1793. Initially, sterling coin circulated along with foreign currencies. This was supplemented by local paper money from 1709. Although these were denominated in £sd, they were worth one third less than sterling, with one New York shilling worth 8d sterling.

North Carolina pound

The pound was the currency of North Carolina until 1793. Initially, sterling coin circulated, supplemented from 1709 by the introduction of colonial currency denominated in pounds, shillings and pence in 1712. The North Carolina currency was worth less than sterling, with a rating of 1 North Carolina shilling = 9 pence sterling. The first issue of paper money was known as "Old Tenor" money. In 1748, "New Tenor" paper money was introduced, worth 7½ times the Old Tenor notes.

Pennsylvania pound

The pound was the currency of Pennsylvania until 1793. It was created as a response to the global economic downturn caused by the collapse of the South Sea Company. Initially, sterling and certain foreign coins circulated, supplemented from 1723 by local paper money, colonial scrip. Although these notes were denominated in £sd, they were worth less than sterling, with 1 Pennsylvanian shilling equalling 9d sterling.

Rhode Island pound

The pound was the currency of Rhode Island until 1793. Initially, sterling coin and foreign coins circulated, supplemented by local paper money from 1710. These notes were denominated in £sd, but they were worth less than sterling, with 1 Rhode Island shilling = 9d sterling. The first issue of notes was known as the "Old Tenor" issue. This fell in value and "New Tenor" notes were introduced in 1740, worth four times the Old Tenor notes. Both Old and New Tenor notes were replaced in 1763 by "Lawful money" at a rate of 1 Lawful shilling = 6⅔ New Tenor shillings = 26⅔ old Tenor shills.

South Carolina pound

The pound was the currency of South Carolina until 1793. Initially, sterling coin circulated, supplemented from 1703 by local paper money. Although these notes were denominated in £sd, they were worth less than sterling, with 1 South Carolina shilling = 8d sterling. The first issues were known as "Proclamation Money". They were replaced by the "Lawful Money" issue in 1748, with 1 Lawful shilling = 4⅔ Proclamation shillings.

The history of currency in the British colony of Dominica closely follows that of the British Eastern Caribbean territories in general. Even though Queen Anne's proclamation of 1704 brought the gold standard to the West Indies, silver pieces of eight continued to form a major portion of the circulating currency right into the latter half of the nineteenth century.

The history of currency in the British colony of Grenada closely follows that of the British Eastern Caribbean territories in general. Even though Queen Anne's proclamation of 1704 brought the gold standard to the West Indies, silver pieces of eight continued to form a major portion of the circulating currency right into the latter half of the nineteenth century.

The history of currency in the British colony of St. Kitts closely follows that of the British Eastern Caribbean territories in general. Even though Queen Anne's proclamation of 1704 brought the gold standard to the West Indies, silver pieces of eight continued to form a major portion of the circulating currency right into the latter half of the nineteenth century.

The history of currency in the British colony of Saint Vincent closely follows that of the British Eastern Caribbean territories in general. As such, it should not be considered in isolation. In order to get a broad overview of currency in the region, see the article British West Indies dollar.

The history of currency in the British colony of Saint Lucia closely follows that of the British Eastern Caribbean territories in general. Even though Queen Anne's proclamation of 1704 brought the gold standard to the West Indies, silver pieces of eight continued to form a major portion of the circulating currency right into the latter half of the nineteenth century.

United States dollar Official currency of the United States

The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and several other countries. The Coinage Act of 1792 introduced the U.S. dollar at par with the Spanish silver dollar, divided it into 100 cents, and authorized the minting of coins denominated in dollars and cents. U.S. banknotes are issued in the form of Federal Reserve Notes, popularly called greenbacks due to their predominantly green color.

References

Notes

  1. Newman, 2008, p. 437.

Bibliography

Further reading