Virginia pound

Last updated
A PS3 Colonial banknote from the Colony of Virginia. Signed by Peyton Randolph and John Blair Jr.. US-Colonial (VA-69)-Virginia-4 Mar 1773 OBV.jpg
A £3 Colonial banknote from the Colony of Virginia. Signed by Peyton Randolph and John Blair Jr..

The pound was the currency of Virginia until 1793. Initially, the British pound sterling circulated along with foreign currencies, supplemented from 1755 by local paper money. [1] Although these notes were denominated in pounds, shillings and pence, they were worth less than sterling, usually discounted so 1 Virginia shilling was equal to 9 British pence, while 1 British shilling was equal to 12 British pence. In British pounds, shillings and pence (£sd), duodecimal coinage (12d (pence) = 1s (shilling), 20s = £1 (pound), 21s = 1 guinea), which was in use in the UK until the adoption of decimal coinage in 1971.

Virginia State of the United States of America

Virginia, officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U.S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna. The capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond; Virginia Beach is the most populous city, and Fairfax County is the most populous political subdivision. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million.

Pound sterling official currency of the United Kingdom and other territories

The pound sterling, commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha. It is subdivided into 100 pence. A number of nations that do not use sterling also have currencies called the pound.

Shilling unit of currency formerly used in the United Kingdom, Australia, United States, and other British Commonwealth countries

The shilling is a unit of currency formerly used in Austria, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, United States and other British Commonwealth countries. Currently the shilling is used as a currency in four east African countries: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Somalia. It is also the proposed currency that the east African community plans to introduce . The word shilling comes from old English "Scilling", a monetary term meaning twentieth of a pound, and from the Proto-Germanic root skiljaną meaning 'to separate, split, divide.' The word "Scilling" is mentioned in the earliest recorded Germanic law codes, those of Æthelberht of Kent.

Contents

In 1645 the legislature of the Colony of Virginia prohibited barter, and valued the Spanish dollar or piece of eight at 6 shillings. The 1655 legislature officially devalued the Spanish dollar to 5 shillings.

Colony of Virginia English/British possession in North America (1607–1776)

The Colony of Virginia, chartered in 1606 and settled in 1607, was the first enduring English colony in North America, following failed proprietary attempts at settlement on Newfoundland by Sir Humphrey Gilbert in 1583, and the subsequent further south Roanoke Island by Sir Walter Raleigh in the late 1580s.

Spanish dollar Former coin of the Spanish Empire

The Spanish dollar, also known as the piece of eight, is a silver coin, of approximately 38 mm diameter, worth eight Spanish reales, that was minted in the Spanish Empire following a monetary reform in 1497.

The first "official" coinage in British North America was issued by the Province of Virginia in 1775, although they were dated 1773. The reason was that the Virginia House of Burgesses had been requesting the coinage for several years and King George III finally consented in that year.

British North America Former British imperial territories

The term "British North America" refers to the former territories of the British Empire in North America, not including the Caribbean. The term was first used informally in 1783, but it was uncommon before the Report on the Affairs of British North America (1839), called the Durham Report. These territories today form modern-day Canada and the Pacific Northwest of the United States.

Five tons of coins were sent to the colony on the clipper ship Virginia and most of the coins were distributed just before the breakout of the American Revolution in April 1775. They are considered to be the most affordable Colonial American coinage.

American Revolution Colonial revolt in which the Thirteen Colonies won independence from Great Britain

The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783. The American Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies won independence from Great Britain, becoming the United States of America. They defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) in alliance with France and others.

The State of Virginia issued Continental currency denominated in £sd and Spanish dollars, with 1 dollar = 6 shillings. The continental currency was replaced by the U.S. dollar at a rate of 1000 continental dollars = 1 U.S. dollar.

Related Research Articles

Guyanese dollar currency

The Guyanese dollar has been the unit of account in Guyana since 29 January 1839. Originally it was intended as a transitional unit to facilitate the changeover from the Dutch guilder system of currency to the British pound sterling system. The Spanish dollar was already prevalent throughout the West Indies in general, and from 1839, the Spanish dollar unit operated in British Guiana in conjunction with British sterling coins at a standard conversion rate of one dollar for every four shillings and twopence. In 1951 the British sterling coinage was replaced with a new decimal coinage which was simultaneously introduced through all the British territories in the Eastern Caribbean. When sterling began to depreciate in the early 1970s, a switch to a US dollar peg became increasingly attractive as an anti-inflationary measure and the Eastern Caribbean Currency Authority made the switch in October 1975. The Guyanese dollar is normally abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or alternatively G$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies.

Barbadian dollar currency

The dollar has been the currency of Barbados since 1935. The present dollar has the ISO 4217 code BBD and is normally abbreviated with the dollar sign "$" or, alternatively, "Bds$" to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. It is divided into 100 cents.

Early American currency paper money issued by the United States during the American Revolution

Early American currency went through several stages of development during the colonial and post-Revolutionary history of the United States. Because few coins were minted in the thirteen colonies that became the United States, foreign coins like the Spanish dollar were widely circulated. Colonial governments sometimes issued paper money to facilitate economic activities. The British Parliament passed Currency Acts in 1751, 1764, and 1773 that regulated colonial paper money.

Canadian pound currency used in Canada (1841–1858)

The pound was the unit of account for currency of the Canadas until 1858. It was subdivided into 20 shillings (s), each of 12 pence (d). In Lower Canada, the sou was used, worth ​12 penny. Although the pounds, shillings, and pence accounting system had its origins in the British pound sterling, the Canadian pound was never formally linked to the British currency.

Connecticut pound

The pound was the currency of Connecticut until 1793. Initially, the British pound circulated along with foreign currencies. This was supplemented by local paper money from 1709. Although the local currency was denominated in pounds, shillings and pence, it was worth less than sterling, with 1 Connecticut shilling = 9 pence sterling. This rated the Spanish dollar at 6 Connecticut shillings. The first issue of notes is known as the "Old Tenor" issue.

The pound was the currency of Delaware until 1793. Initially, the British pound and foreign coins circulated. This was supplemented from 1723 by local paper money. Although this was denominated in pounds, shillings and pence, the notes were worth less than sterling, with 1 Delaware shilling = 9 pence sterling.

The pound was the currency of Georgia until 1793. Initially, the British pound circulated. This was supplemented from 1735 with local paper money denominated in sterling, with 1 pound = 20 shillings = 240 pence.

The pound was the currency of Maryland until 1793. Initially, the British pound circulated along with foreign coins. From 1733, this was supplemented by paper money, known as "Proclamation Money", denominated in pounds, shillings and pence, but worth less than sterling, with 1 Maryland shilling = 9 pence sterling. A second "New" issue of notes was introduced in 1751, replacing the earlier notes at a rate of 1 New shilling = 1¼ Proclamation shillings.

Massachusetts pound currency of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and its colonial predecessors until 1793

The pound was the currency of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and its colonial predecessors until 1793. Like the British pound sterling of that era, the Massachusetts pound was subdivided into 20 shillings, each of 12 pence, but the Massachusetts and British pounds were not equivalent in value. British and other foreign coins were widely circulated in Massachusetts, supplemented by locally produced coins between about 1652 and 1682 and by local paper money from 1690.

The pound was the currency of New Hampshire until 1793. Initially, the British pound circulated, supplemented from 1709 by local paper money. These notes were denominated in pounds, shillings and pence but were worth less than sterling, with 1 New Hampshire shilling = 9 pence sterling. This first issue of paper money was known as the "Old Tenor" issue.

New Jersey pound

The pound was the money of account of New Jersey until 1793. Initially, the British pound and some foreign currencies circulated, supplemented from 1709 by local paper money. However, although the notes were denominated in pounds, shillings and pence, they did not have the same value as the British pound sterling or of other colonial currencies with denominations in pounds. A proclamation of Queen Anne, issued in 1704 and legislated by parliament in 1707, standardized the value of all colonial currencies at 6 colonial schillings to a full weight Spanish Milled Dollar, which was in turn equivalent to 4 shillings 6 pence sterling. This made a colonial schilling equivalent to nine pence sterling and a colonial pound equivalent to 2 troy oz 18 dwt 8 gr of silver. Currency issued at this rate was referred to as “Proclamation Money”.

New York pound currency of the province and state of New York until 1793

The pound was the currency of the province and state of New York until 1793. Initially, the British pound and some foreign currencies circulated, supplemented by local paper money from 1709. Although these were denominated in pounds, shillings and pence, they were worth one third less than sterling, with one New York shilling worth the same as eight pence sterling.

North Carolina pound

The pound was the currency of North Carolina until 1793. Initially, the British pound circulated, supplemented from 1709 by local paper money and the introduction of Colonial currency and the Pound denominations in 1712. Although these notes were denominated in pounds, shillings and pence, they were worth less than sterling, with 1 North Carolina shilling = 9 pence sterling. The first issue of paper money was known as "Old Tenor" money. In 1748, "New Tenor" paper money was introduced, worth 7½ times the Old Tenor notes.

Pennsylvania pound currency of Pennsylvania until 1793

The pound was the currency of Pennsylvania until 1793. It was created as a response to the global economic downturn caused by the collapse of the South Sea Company. Initially, the British pound and certain foreign coins circulated, supplemented from 1723 by local paper money, called Colonial Scrip. Although these notes were denominated in pounds, shillings and pence, they were worth less than sterling, with 1 Pennsylvanian shilling equalling 9 pence sterling.

Rhode Island pound currency of Rhode Island until 1793

The pound was the currency of Rhode Island until 1793. Initially, the British pound and foreign coins circulated, supplemented by local paper money from 1710. These notes were denominated in pounds, shillings, and pence, but they were worth less than sterling, with 1 Rhode Island shilling = 9 pence sterling. The first issue of notes was known as the "Old Tenor" issue. This fell in value and "New Tenor" notes were introduced in 1740, worth four times the Old Tenor notes. Both Old and New Tenor notes were replaced in 1763 by "Lawful money" at a rate of 1 Lawful shilling = 6⅔ New Tenor shillings = 26⅔ old Tenor shills.

South Carolina pound currency of South Carolina until 1793

The pound was the currency of South Carolina until 1793. Initially, the British pound circulated, supplemented from 1703 by local paper money. Although these notes were denominated in pounds, shillings and pence, they were worth less than sterling, with 1 South Carolina shilling = 8 pence sterling. The first issues were known as "Proclamation Money". They were replaced by the "Lawful Money" issue in 1748, with 1 Lawful shilling = 4⅔ Proclamation shillings.

The history of currency in the British colony of Grenada closely follows that of the British Eastern Caribbean territories in general. Even though Queen Anne's proclamation of 1704 brought the gold standard to the West Indies, silver pieces of eight continued to form a major portion of the circulating currency right into the latter half of the nineteenth century.

The history of currency in the British colony of St. Kitts closely follows that of the British Eastern Caribbean territories in general. Even though Queen Anne's proclamation of 1704 brought the gold standard to the West Indies, silver pieces of eight continued to form a major portion of the circulating currency right into the latter half of the nineteenth century.

The history of currency in the British colony of Saint Vincent closely follows that of the British Eastern Caribbean territories in general. As such, it should not be considered in isolation. In order to get a broad overview of currency in the region, see the article British West Indies dollar.

The history of currency in the British colony of Saint Lucia closely follows that of the British Eastern Caribbean territories in general. Even though Queen Anne's proclamation of 1704 brought the gold standard to the West Indies, silver pieces of eight continued to form a major portion of the circulating currency right into the latter half of the nineteenth century.

References

Notes

  1. Newman, 2008, p. 437.

Bibliography

International Standard Book Number Unique numeric book identifier

The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.

Further reading