Vladimir Fock | |
---|---|

Born | |

Died | December 27, 1974 76) | (aged

Nationality | Russian |

Alma mater | Petrograd University |

Known for | Klein-Fock-Gordon equation Fock space Fock state Fock matrix Hartree–Fock method Mehler–Fock transform Fock–Lorentz symmetry Fock–Schwinger gauge Adiabatic theorem Creeping wave Relativistic dynamics |

Scientific career | |

Fields | Physicist and mathematician |

Institutions | Petrograd University State Institute of Optics Leningrad Institute of Physics and Technology Lebedev Physical Institute |

Notable students | A. D. Aleksandrov F. I. Fedorov Yu. A. Yappa |

**Vladimir Aleksandrovich Fock** (or **Fok**; Russian : Влади́мир Алекса́ндрович Фок) (December 22, 1898 – December 27, 1974) was a Soviet physicist, who did foundational work on quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics.

He was born in St. Petersburg, Russia. In 1922 he graduated from Petrograd University, then continued postgraduate studies there. He became a professor there in 1932. In 1919–1923 and 1928–1941 he collaborated with the Vavilov State Optical Institute, in 1924–1936 with the Leningrad Institute of Physics and Technology, in 1934–1941 and 1944–1953 with the Lebedev Physical Institute.

His primary scientific contribution lies in the development of quantum physics and the theory of gravitation, although he also contributed significantly to the fields of mechanics, theoretical optics, physics of continuous media. In 1926, he derived the Klein–Gordon equation. He gave his name to Fock space, the Fock representation and Fock state, and developed the Hartree–Fock method in 1930. He made many subsequent scientific contributions during the rest of his life. Fock developed the electromagnetic methods for geophysical exploration in a book *The theory of the study of the rocks resistance by the carottage method* (1933), the methods are called the well logging in modern literature.

Fock made significant contributions to general relativity theory, specifically for the many-body problems. Fock criticised on scientific grounds both Einstein's general principle of relativity, as being devoid of physical substance, and the equivalence principle, as interpreted as the equivalence of gravitation and acceleration, as having only a local validity.

In Leningrad, Fock created a scientific school in theoretical physics and raised the physics education in the USSR through his books. He wrote the first textbook on quantum mechanics *Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics* (1931, 1978) and a very influential monograph *The Theory of Space, Time and Gravitation* (1955).

Historians of science, such as Loren Graham, see Fock as a representative and proponent of Einstein's theory of relativity within the Soviet world. At a time when most Marxist philosophers objected to relativity theory, Fock emphasized a materialistic understanding of relativity that coincided philosophically with Marxism.

He was a full member (academician) of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1939) and a member of the International Academy of Quantum Molecular Science.

The **theory of relativity** usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity, proposed and published in 1905 and 1915, respectively. Special relativity applies to all physical phenomena in the absence of gravity. General relativity explains the law of gravitation and its relation to other forces of nature. It applies to the cosmological and astrophysical realm, including astronomy.

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**Mathematical physics** refers to the development of mathematical methods for application to problems in physics. The *Journal of Mathematical Physics* defines the field as "the application of mathematics to problems in physics and the development of mathematical methods suitable for such applications and for the formulation of physical theories".

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**Boris Yakovlevich Podolsky** was a Russian-American physicist of Russian Jewish descent, noted for his work with Albert Einstein and Nathan Rosen on entangled wave functions and the EPR paradox.

In the theory of general relativity, the **equivalence principle** is the equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass, and Albert Einstein's observation that the gravitational "force" as experienced locally while standing on a massive body is the same as the *pseudo-force* experienced by an observer in a non-inertial (accelerated) frame of reference.

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**Nikolay Nikolayevich Bogolyubov**, also transliterated as **Bogoliubov** and **Bogolubov**, was a Soviet mathematician and theoretical physicist known for a significant contribution to quantum field theory, classical and quantum statistical mechanics, and the theory of dynamical systems; he was the recipient of the 1992 Dirac Prize.

**Dmitri Dmitrievich Ivanenko** was a Soviet-Ukrainian theoretical physicist who made great contributions to the physical science of the twentieth century, especially to nuclear physics, field theory, and gravitation theory. He worked in the Poltava Gravimetric Observatory of the Institute of Geophysics of NAS of Ukraine, was the head of the Theoretical Department Ukrainian Physico-Technical Institute in Kharkiv, Head of the Department of Theoretical Physics of the Kharkiv Institute of Mechanical Engineering. Professor of University of Kharkiv, Professor of Moscow State University.

**Nikolay Sergeevich Krylov** was a Soviet theoretical physicist known for his work on the problems of classical mechanics, statistical physics, and quantum mechanics. He showed that a sufficient condition for a dynamical system to relax to equilibrium is for it to be mixing.

**Ludvig Dmitrievich Faddeev** was a Soviet and Russian mathematical physicist. He is known for the discovery of the Faddeev equations in the theory of the quantum mechanical three-body problem and for the development of path integral methods in the quantization of non-abelian gauge field theories, including the introduction of Faddeev–Popov ghosts. He led the Leningrad School, in which he along with many of his students developed the quantum inverse scattering method for studying quantum integrable systems in one space and one time dimension. This work led to the invention of quantum groups by Drinfeld and Jimbo.

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**Theoretical physics** is a branch of physics that employs mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena. This is in contrast to experimental physics, which uses experimental tools to probe these phenomena.

Physics is a scientific discipline that seeks to construct and experimentally test theories of the physical universe. These theories vary in their scope and can be organized into several distinct branches, which are outlined in this article.

**Anatoly Alekseyevich Logunov** was a Soviet and Russian theoretical physicist, academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences and Russian Academy of Sciences. He was awarded the Bogolyubov Prize in 1996.

**Yuri Andreevich Yappa** was a Soviet and Russian theoretical physicist. He is known for publications on particle physics, quantum field theory, General Relativity, philosophy of science, and for his graduate texts on classical electrodynamics and theory of spinors.

A hallmark of Albert Einstein's career was his use of visualized thought experiments as a fundamental tool for understanding physical issues and for elucidating his concepts to others. **Einstein's thought experiments** took diverse forms. In his youth, he mentally chased beams of light. For special relativity, he employed moving trains and flashes of lightning to explain his most penetrating insights. For general relativity, he considered a person falling off a roof, accelerating elevators, blind beetles crawling on curved surfaces and the like. In his debates with Niels Bohr on the nature of reality, he proposed imaginary devices intended to show, at least in concept, how the Heisenberg uncertainty principle might be evaded. In a profound contribution to the literature on quantum mechanics, Einstein considered two particles briefly interacting and then flying apart so that their states are correlated, anticipating the phenomenon known as quantum entanglement.

- Graham, L. (1982). "The reception of Einstein's ideas: Two examples from contrasting political cultures". In Holton, G. and Elkana, Y. (Eds.)
*Albert Einstein: Historical and cultural perspectives*. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, pp. 107–136 - Fock, V. A. (1964). "The Theory of Space, Time and Gravitation". Macmillan.

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