Voivodeship

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Polish voivodeships since 1999 Voivodeships of Poland.svg
Polish voivodeships since 1999
Map of Serbian Vojvodina Vojvodina map02.png
Map of Serbian Vojvodina

A voivodeship /ˈvɔɪˌvdˌʃɪp/ is the area administered by a voivode (Governor) in several countries of central and eastern Europe. Voivodeships have existed since medieval times in Bulgaria, Poland, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Ukraine, Russia and Serbia. The area of extent of voivodeship resembles that of a duchy in western medieval states, much as the title of voivode was equivalent to that of a duke. Other roughly equivalent titles and areas in medieval Eastern Europe included ban (bojan, vojin or bayan) and banate.

Voivode, Vojvoda or Wojewoda is a Slavic term for a military commander in Central, Eastern and Southern Europe during the Early Middle Ages, or a governor of a territorial voivodeship.

Bulgarian Empire Medieval empire in South-Eastern Europe

In the medieval history of Europe, Bulgaria's status as the Bulgarian Empire, wherein it acted as a key regional power occurred in two distinct periods: between the seventh and eleventh centuries, and again between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries. The two "Bulgarian Empires" are not treated as separate entities, but rather as one state restored after a period of Byzantine rule over its territory. Bulgaria is one of the few historic states and nations whose economy and society were never based on slavery, and slavery never played an important role in Bulgarian statehood development and wealth.

Poland Republic in Central Europe

Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres (120,733 sq mi), and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With a population of approximately 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, and Szczecin.

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In a modern context, the word normally refers to one of the provinces (województwa) of Poland. Poland as of 2017 has 16 voivodeships.

A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman provincia, which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Roman Empire's territorial possessions outside Italy. The term province has since been adopted by many countries. In some countries with no actual provinces, "the provinces" is a metaphorical term meaning "outside the capital city".

Voivodeships of Poland highest-level administrative division (province) in Poland

A województwo is the highest-level administrative subdivision of Poland, corresponding to a "province" in many other countries. The term "województwo" has been in use since the 14th century, and is commonly translated in English as "province". Województwo is also rendered in English by "voivodeship" or a variant spelling.

Terminology

A voi(e)vod(e) (literally, "leader of warriors" or "war leader", equivalent to the Latin "Dux Exercituum" and the German " Herzog ") was originally a military commander who stood, in a state's structure, next to the ruler. Later the word came to denote an administrative official.

Latin Indo-European language of the Italic family

Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet.

German language West Germanic language

German is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol (Italy), the German-speaking Community of Belgium, and Liechtenstein. It is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are also strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English.

<i>Herzog</i> hereditary title in the German language

Herzog is a German hereditary title held by one who rules a territorial duchy, exercises feudal authority over an estate called a duchy, or possesses a right by law or tradition to be referred to by the ducal title. The word is usually translated by the English duke and the Latin dux. Generally, a Herzog ranks below a king and above a count. Whether the title is deemed higher or lower than titles translated into English as "prince" (Fürst) has depended upon the language, country and era in which the titles co-existed.

Words for "voivodeship" in various languages include the Polish : województwo; the Romanian : voievodat; the Serbian: vojvodina (војводина), vojvodstvo (војводство) or vojvodovina (војводовина); the Hungarian : vajdaság; the Belarusian : ваяводства (vajаvodstva); the Lithuanian : vaivadija. Some of these words, or variants of them, may also be used in English.

Polish language West Slavic language spoken in Poland

Polish is a West Slavic language of the Lechitic group. It is spoken primarily in Poland and serves as the native language of the Poles. In addition to being an official language of Poland, it is also used by Polish minorities in other countries. There are over 50 million Polish language speakers around the world and it is one of the official languages of the European Union.

Romanian language Romance language

Romanian is an Eastern Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language. It is an official and national language of Romania and Moldova. In addition, it is also one of the official languages of the European Union.

Serbian language South Slavic language

Serbian is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs. It is the official language of Serbia, co-official in the territory of Kosovo, and one of the three official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In addition, it is a recognized minority language in Montenegro where it is spoken by the relative majority of the population, as well as in Croatia, North Macedonia, Romania, Hungary, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic.

Named for the word for "voivodeship" is the autonomous Serbian province of Vojvodina.

Vojvodina Autonomous province of Serbia

Vojvodina, officially the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, is an autonomous province of Serbia, located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonian Plain.

Though the word "voivodeship" (other spellings are "voievodship" and "voivodship") appears in English dictionaries such as the OED and Webster's, it is not in common general usage, and voivodeships in Poland and elsewhere are frequently referred to as "provinces". [1] Depending on context, historic voivodeships may also be referred to as "duchies", "palatinates" (the Latin word "palatinatus" was used for a voivodeship in Poland), "administrative districts" or "regions".

<i>Websters Third New International Dictionary</i> unabridged English dictionary

Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged was published in September 1961. It was edited by Philip Babcock Gove and a team of lexicographers who spent 757 editor-years and $3.5 million. It contained more than 450,000 entries, including more than 100,000 new entries and as many new senses for entries carried over from previous editions.

Current Polish Voivodeships

The Office of West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Szczecin PolandSzczecinProvincialOffice2.JPG
The Office of West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Szczecin

Since 1999, Poland has been divided into the following 16 voivodeships or provinces (for more information see Administrative divisions of Poland and Voivodeships of Poland):

Historical voivodeships

Outside Poland

Principality of Transylvania and the voivodeships of Wallachia and Moldavia ruled by Mihai Viteazul in 1600 Romania 1600-mod.png
Principality of Transylvania and the voivodeships of Wallachia and Moldavia ruled by Mihai Viteazul in 1600
Serbian Voivodina (1848-1849) Vojvodina03.png
Serbian Voivodina (1848–1849)
Voivodeship of Serbia and Temes Banat (1849-1860) Map of Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar (1849-1860).png
Voivodeship of Serbia and Temes Banat (1849-1860)

In the territory of modern Romania and Moldova, the regions of Wallachia, Moldavia and Transylvania were formerly voivodeships.

Historical voivodeships in the territory of modern Serbia include the Voivodeship of Salan (9th–10th centuries), Voivodeship of Sermon (11th century) and Voivodeship of Syrmia of Radoslav Čelnik (1527–1530). A voivodeship called Serbian Vojvodina was established in 1848–1849; this was transformed into the Voivodeship of Serbia and Temes Banat, a land within the Austro-Hungarian Empire from 1849 to 1860. This is the origin of the name of the present-day Serbian autonomous province of Vojvodina.

Historical voivodeships in the territory of modern Romania and Serbia include the Voivodeship of Glad (9th–10th centuries) and the Voivodeship of Ahtum (11th centuries).

In Poland and Lithuania

For more information about the divisions of Polish lands in particular periods, see Administrative divisions of Poland ("Historical").

Voivodeships in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795):

Voivodeships of Poland, 1921-1939 Poland administrative division 1922 literki.png
Voivodeships of Poland, 1921–1939

Voivodeships of Poland, 1921–1939:

Voivodeships of Poland, 1945–1975:

Voivodeships of Poland, 1975–1998:

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Ostrów may refer to:

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Rudniki may refer to:

Lower Level Football Leagues in Interwar Poland

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Zawada may refer to:

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References

  1. "Jednostki podziału administracyjnego Polski tłumaczymy tak: województwo—province..." ("Polish administrative units are translated as follows: województwoprovince..."). Arkadiusz Belczyk,"Tłumaczenie polskich nazw geograficznych na język angielski" ("Translation of Polish Geographical Names into English"), 2002-2006. For examples see New Provinces of Poland (1998); Map of Poland; English names of Polish provinces.