A voivodeship // is the area administered by a voivode (Governor) in several countries of central and eastern Europe. Voivodeships have existed since medieval times and the area of extent of voivodeship resembles that of a duchy in western medieval states, much as the title of voivode was equivalent to that of a duke. Other roughly equivalent titles and areas in medieval Eastern Europe included ban (bojan, vojin or bayan) and banate.
In a modern context, the word normally refers to one of the provinces (województwa) of Poland. As of 2022 [update] , Poland has 16 voivodeships.
A voi(e)vod(e) (literally, "leader of warriors" or "war leader", equivalent to the Latin "Dux Exercituum" and the German " Herzog ") was originally a military commander who stood, in a state's structure, next to the ruler. Later the word came to denote an administrative official.
Words for "voivodeship" in various languages include the Ukrainian : воєводство; the Polish : województwo; the Romanian : voievodat; the Bulgarian: voivoda (войвода); the Serbian: vojvodina (војводина), vojvodstvo (војводство) or vojvodovina (војводовина); the Hungarian : vajdaság; the Belarusian : ваяводства (vajаvodstva); the Lithuanian : vaivadija. Some of these words, or variants of them, may also be used in English.
Named for the word for "voivodeship" is the autonomous Serbian province of Vojvodina.
Though the word "voivodeship" (other spellings are "voievodship" and "voivodship") appears in English dictionaries such as the OED and Webster's, it is not in common general usage, and voivodeships in Poland and elsewhere are frequently referred to as "provinces".Depending on context, historic voivodeships may also be referred to as "duchies", "palatinates" (the Latin word "palatinatus" was used for a voivodeship in Poland), "administrative districts" or "regions".
In the territory of modern Romania and Moldova, the regions of Wallachia, Moldavia and Transylvania were formerly voivodeships. The region of Maramureș, now split between Romania and Ukraine, also used to be its own voivodeship, the Voivodeship of Maramureș.
Historical voivodeships in the territory of modern Serbia include the Voivodeship of Salan (9th–10th centuries), Voivodeship of Sermon (11th century), and Voivodeship of Syrmia of Radoslav Čelnik (1527–1530). A voivodeship called Serbian Vojvodina was established in 1848–1849; this was transformed into the Voivodeship of Serbia and Temes Banat, a land within the Austro-Hungarian Empire from 1849 to 1860. This is the origin of the name of the present-day Serbian autonomous province of Vojvodina.
For more information about the divisions of Polish lands in particular periods, see Administrative divisions of Poland ("Historical").
Voivodeships in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795):
Voivodeships of Poland, 1921–1939:
Voivodeships of Poland, 1945–1975:
Voivodeships of Poland, 1975–1998:
A voivodeship is the highest-level administrative division of Poland, corresponding to a province in many other countries. The term has been in use since the 14th century and is commonly translated into English as "province".
The Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, known also as the Polish Crown, is the common name for the historic Late Middle Ages territorial possessions of the King of Poland, including the Kingdom of Poland proper. The Polish Crown was at the helm of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569 to 1795.
In the summer of 1939, weeks ahead of the Nazi German and Soviet invasion of Poland the map of both Europe and Poland looked very different from today. The railway network of interwar Poland had little in common with the postwar reality of dramatically changing borders and political domination of the Soviet-style communism, as well as the pre-independence German, Austrian and Russian networks which the Second Polish Republic had partially inherited in 1918 after the end of World War I. The most important junctions in the Polish territory in summer of 1939 were:
Voivodes of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth were one of the highest ranking officials who could sit in the Senate of Poland. They were the officials in charge of the voivodeships (provinces/palatinates) of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The office first appears as Palatine (Palatinus) who held the foremost position after the King. As Poland broke up into separate principalities, each Prince had his court and his own Palatine. When the Kingdom was consolidated, the Palatines became heads of those former Principalities, which then became Palatinates. As such, the Palatines were members of the King's Council. The title merged with the Polish Voivode or Wojewoda. The difference between Voivode and Duke is that whereas the Duke began as a rank by appointment of the Monarch and later became a hereditary title of honour, the Voivode was appointed for life and maintained real authority as an official—before the Voivodes, too, lost significance to the Starostas. Polish historians, however, use Palatine (Palatyn) and Voivode (Wojewoda) synonymously.
In the Second Polish Republic, there was not a national, Second Division, as we know it today, although the creation of the second division was proposed on several occasions. On Sunday, September 26, 1937 in Częstochowa, a conference of regional teams from across the nation took place, to discuss the creation of the league. Officials of several clubs arrived, such as Brygada Częstochowa, Gryf Toruń, Śmigły Wilno, Rewera Stanisławów, Dąb Katowice, Unia Sosnowiec, Strzelec Janowa Dolina, and WKS Grodno. Also, invited were officials of HCP Poznań, Podgorze Kraków, Naprzód Lipiny and Union Touring Łódź, but for unknown reasons they did not show up. The officials talked about creation of a National B-League, but nothing came out of this project. Instead, in the years 1921-1939, several Voivodeships held their own games and those leagues were known as A-Classes. In 1927, the elite Polish Football League was created, which by the late 1930s consisted of 10 teams. The teams that did not make it to the Ekstraklasa, played in the A-Classes.
Football Junior Championships of Poland Under-19 is a competition with a long, 71-year history, which started in the summer of 1936.
This is a list of coats of arms of Poland.
Castellans of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth were the lowest rank of territorial official who could sit in the Senate of Poland. Their numbers varied over time and with the shifting borders of the Commonwealth.
A Dowództwo Okręgu Korpusu was a military district of the Ministry of Military Affairs of the Second Polish Republic. It served as an organizational, mobilisational, and administrative body of the Polish Army and all local military units of the country were subject to the Corps commands. Also, the DOKs ran all Military Draft Offices of Poland. The system of DOKs was modeled after the French Army, and according to Polish planners, each district located along either Soviet or German border was supposed to field one army. It meant that all districts except for District X, were subject to this rule. The borders of the DOKs did not reflect the Administrative division of Second Polish Republic.
According to the 1935 Polish Constitution, the country was divided into 104 electoral districts, and the Sejm consisted of 208 members. The districts were described in a July 8, 1935, edition of the Journal of Laws of the Republic of Poland, and were:
Szczecin Główny is the principal railway station of the city of Szczecin, in the West Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland. The station opened on 15 August 1843 and is located on the Berlin-Szczecin railway, Wrocław–Szczecin railway, Poznań–Szczecin railway, Bützow-Szczecin railway and Szczecin-Trzebież Szczeciński railway. The train services are operated by PKP Intercity, Polregio and Deutsche Bahn.
Kalisz railway station is a railway station in Kalisz, in the Greater Poland Voivodeship, Poland. The station opened in 1902 and is located on the Łódź–Forst (Lausitz) railway. The train services are operated by PKP and Polregio.
The Central Junior League is the highest level in Polish Under-19 football. Created in mid-2013, it replaced Mloda Ekstraklasa. The winner of the CLJ advances to the UEFA Youth League.
Stargard railway station is a railway station serving the town of Stargard, in the West Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland. The station is located on the Poznań–Szczecin railway, Gdańsk–Stargard railway and Stargard–Godków railway. The train services are operated by PKP and Polregio.
The 1982–83 Polish Cup was the 29th edition of the annual Polish football knockout tournament. It started on the 23 July 1982 and finished on 22 June 1983. The finalists were 2nd division Piast Gliwice and 3rd division Lechia Gdańsk, with Lechia Gdańsk winning the Polish Cup for the first time after winning the final 2–1.
Lotnicze Pogotowie Ratunkowe is an air ambulance service subordinate to the Minister of Health of Poland. The Independent Public Health Care Institution Aviation Rescue Service was established in 2000.