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|Born||14 April 1860|
Belgrade, Principality of Serbia
|Died||21 January 1894 33) (aged|
Belgrade, Kingdom of Serbia
|Resting place||Belgrade New Cemetery|
Vojislav Ilić (Serbian Cyrillic: Војислав Илић; 14 April 1860 – 21 January 1894) was a Serbian poet, known for his finely chiseled verse.
The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script for Serbo-Croatian, developed in 1818 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić. It is one of the two alphabets used to write standard modern Serbian, Bosnian and Montenegrin, the other being Latin.
The Serbs are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group that formed in the Balkans. The majority of Serbs inhabit the nation state of Serbia, as well as the disputed territory of Kosovo, and the neighboring countries of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Montenegro. They form significant minorities in North Macedonia and Slovenia. There is a large Serb diaspora in Western Europe, and outside Europe there are significant communities in North America and Australia.
A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may describe themselves as such or be described as such by others. A poet may simply be a writer of poetry, or may perform their art to an audience.
Ilić failed to complete his college education and was forced to take various clerical positions of minor importance. Living for the most part in poverty, he wrote poetry extensively and soon became the leading Serbian poet in the last decades of the nineteenth century. As many Serbian artists of that era, he died young, of tuberculosis, in 1894.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) bacteria. Tuberculosis generally affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. Most infections do not have symptoms, in which case it is known as latent tuberculosis. About 10% of latent infections progress to active disease which, if left untreated, kills about half of those affected. The classic symptoms of active TB are a chronic cough with blood-containing mucus, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. It was historically called "consumption" due to the weight loss. Infection of other organs can cause a wide range of symptoms.
His poetry exemplifies a classic example of modern Serbian language and features the standard Decadent motifs of the epoch: cruel nature (e.g. cold wind blowing across empty fields), and the times of Elagabalus.
Serbian is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs. It is the official language of Serbia, co-official in the territory of Kosovo, and one of the three official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In addition, it is a recognized minority language in Montenegro, where it is spoken by the relative majority of the population, as well as in Croatia, North Macedonia, Romania, Hungary, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic.
Elagabalus, also known as Heliogabalus, was Roman emperor from 218 to 222. A member of the Severan dynasty, he was Syrian, the second son of Julia Soaemias and Sextus Varius Marcellus. In his early youth he served the god Elagabalus as a priest in Emesa, the hometown of his mother's family. As a private citizen, he was probably named Sextus Varius Avitus Bassianus. Upon becoming emperor he took the name Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus. He was called Elagabalus only after his death.
Vojislav J. Ilić, Serbian poet, was born in Belgrade on 14 April 1860, the youngest son of poet and politician Jovan Ilić . On both sides of the family was of the highest provincial middle class, but was not noble; his father was fairly wealthy after retiring from the Privy Council in 1882, and living quietly as the patriarch of a literary dynasty which he helped create. Jovan Ilić, together with politicians-historians Jevrem Grujić and Milovan Janković, played a critical role in the St. Andrew Day National Assembly in 1858 when the call for a parliamentary check on Alexander Karađorđević's monastic power for the first time gained popular support. Vojislav was educated at various grade schools and high schools and at the end of his school days he enrolled in the Faculty of Philosophy at Belgrade's Grande école (Velika Škola), but did not graduate. The hub of literary activity was his home, where he befriended Jovan Jovanović Zmaj and Đura Jakšić and even married one of Jakšić's daughters. In certain aspects Vojislav does belong somewhat to all the four main periods of European literary style that he passed through in a period of less than 15 years, a unique phenomenon, but his great merit as a poet is that he emancipated himself from the affectations and puerilities of his masters. Literary critic Jovan Skerlić said one of the most striking aspects of Vojislav's activity is the attention he drew to the form and technique of poetic creation: Vojislav Ilić ima veliko čisto pesnički talenat, više čiste umetnosti, no i jedan srpski pesnik pre njega.
Belgrade is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers and the crossroads of the Pannonian Plain and the Balkan Peninsula. The urban area of Belgrade has a population of 1.23 million, while nearly 1.7 million people live within the administrative limits of the City of Belgrade, a quarter of total population of Serbia.
Jovan "Jova" Ilić was a Serbian poet and politician.
Jevrem Grujić ; was a Serbian lawyer, politician, diplomat, and Member of the Academy of Sciences and Arts.
In 1885 he joined the Serbian Army as a volunteer and accompanied his detachment to Bulgaria but did not encounter the enemy. The short-lived Serbo-Bulgarian War gave Ilić another direction than the military. From 1887 until 1892 he was an editor at the Government Printing Press. In 1892 he taught at a Serbian grammar school in Turnu Severin, in Romania. That same year he was appointed press secretary at the Ministry of Internal Affairs, and afterwards vice-consul in Priština, then under Turkish rule. He died in Belgrade on 21 January 1894.
The Serbo-Bulgarian War or Serbian–Bulgarian War was a war between the Kingdom of Serbia and Principality of Bulgaria that erupted on 14 November [O.S. 2 November] 1885 and lasted until 28 November [O.S. 16 November] 1885. Serbia took the initiative in starting the war but was decisively defeated. Austria demanded Bulgaria stop its invasion, and a truce resulted. Final peace was signed on 3 March [O.S. 19 February] 1886 in Bucharest. The old boundaries were not changed. As a result of the war, European powers acknowledged the act of Unification of Bulgaria which happened on 18 September [O.S. 6 September] 1885.
His first publication was a book simply entitled Pesme (Poems) which appeared in Belgrade in 1887 and this was followed at other intervals by other volumes of more verse. As a poet he soon made a reputation as one of the ablest and most versatile writers of his day. His influence was infectious, young aspiring poets would gather around him and in that period the term Vojislavism became a coined word in Serbian literature. In the 1890s a true Vojislavism reigned among young Serbian poets; no wonder he was proclaimed "the greatest Serbian poet" by Skerlić and other critics. Of the best known Serbian poets who looked up to him during that period were Milorad Mitrović, Mileta Jakšić, Aleksa Šantić, Danica Marković, and for a short while even Jovan Dučić, who soon went on to abandon Vojislavism for a new literary wave that Dučić and Milan Rakić would ultimately espouse, influenced by the French poets. This independence Dučić and Rakić owed in part perhaps to their studies and frequent travels abroad, both were in the diplomatic service. It was Jovan Dučić who put it best in perspective, Even if Vojislav did not succeed in becoming our greatest poet, he is certainly our most beautiful poet. [ citation needed ]But nothing diminishes Vojislav J. Ilić's standing in Serbian literature which remains on a firm foundation more than a century later.
Milorad J. Mitrović was a Serbian lyrical poet.
Mileta Jakšić was a Serbian poet. He had a great love of nature which is reflected in all his works.
Aleksa Šantić was a poet from Bosnia and Herzegovina. A Herzegovinian Serb, his poetry reflecting both the urban culture of the region and the growing national awareness. The most common themes of his poems are social injustice, nostalgic love, suffering of the Serb people, and the unity of the South Slavs. He was the editor-in-chief of the magazine Zora (1896–1901). Šantić was one of the leading persons of Serbian literary and national movement in Mostar. In 1914 Šantić became a member of the Serbian Royal Academy.
Undoubtedly, Ilić achieved much for a poet who died young (he had not reached 34 years of age). Jovan Skerlić wrote: What Lukijan Mušicki meant to Serbian literature in the 1830s, Sima Milutinović Sarajlija in the 1840s, Đura Jakšić and Jovan Jovanović Zmaj in the 1860s, so too, did Vojislav J. Ilić make his imprint in the 1890s. He brought Romanticism to its conclusion and ushered in a new direction – Vojislavism.
Critics say he was an ardent follower of Alexander Pushkin: "As far as Vojislav Ilić is concerned Pushkin's influence is beyond question: everything in Ilić's verses, their rhythm and power of expression remind one of Pushkin." Jovan Skerlić reproached him for that, but Ilić himself never made a secret of it and openly avowed in one of his poems that he was a pupil of Vasily Zhukovsky and Pushkin.
Ilić was also an ardent follower of Vuk Karadžić's reforms. He displays richness of fancy and aptness of language, and his work has even stood the test of time. Various editions of his Collected Works have been published after his death, one in 1907 and 1909, in two volumes.
He has been credited for having influenced many poets that came after him, thereby paving the way for higher achievements in Serbian poetry in the first two decades of the twentieth century.
He is included in The 100 most prominent Serbs.
Jovan "Jova" Jovanović, also known as Jovan Jovanović Zmaj(Јован Јовановић Змај) or Zmaj(Змај), was a Serbian poet.
Georgije "Đura" Jakšić was a Serbian poet, painter, writer, dramatist, bohemian and patriot.
Jovan Dučić was a Herzegovinian Serb poet-diplomat.
Aleksije "Branko" Radičević was an influential Serbian poet and the founder of modern Serbian lyric poetry.
Serbian literature refers to literature written in Serbian and/or in Serbia. The history of Serbian literature begins with the independent theological works from the Nemanjić era. With the fall of Serbia and neighbouring countries in the 15th century, there is a gap in the literary history in the occupied land, however, Serbian literature continued uninterrupted in lands under European rule and saw a revival in the 18th century in Vojvodina, then under Habsburg rule. Serbia gained independence following the Serbian Revolution (1804–1815) and Serbian literature has since prospered.
Sima Pandurović was a Serbian poet, part of the Symbolist movement in European poetry at the time. He was one of the founders of the Moderna movement in Serbian poetry. Young Pandurović was educated at Belgrade's Grande École, and after a brief experience at teaching determined to devote himself to literature, writing poetry and criticism for literary magazines, particularly Misao, which he founded shortly after the war. At the beginning of the 20th century, he joined "the poets of pessimism" – Milan Rakić and Vladislav Petković Dis – then under the influences of Charles Baudelaire and Edgar Allan Poe.
Vladislav Petković Dis was a Serbian poet, part of the impressionism movement in European poetry, known as Moderna/Symbolism in Serbia. He was born in 1880 in Zablaće, near Čačak in Serbia and died in 1917 on a boat on the Ionian Sea after being hit by a torpedo. He was also known as a war poet.
Milan Rakić was a Serbian poet-diplomat.
Veljko Petrović was a Serbian poet, writer, art and literary critic, and theoretician.
Jovan Skerlić was a Serbian writer and critic. He is regarded as one of the most influential Serbian literary critics of the early 20th century, after Bogdan Popović, his professor and early mentor.
Đorđe Marković Koder was a Serbian poet born in Austrian Empire. Misunderstood, largely forgotten and often considered a marginal figure in Serbian poetry, criticized for his cryptic style littered with incomprehensible words and obscure metaphors, Koder was nevertheless a unique phenomenon in the 19th century Serbian literature, sometimes cited as the first Serbian modernist.
Anthology of Modern Serbian Lyric is an anthology published in 1911 by Matica hrvatska in Zagreb, Austria-Hungary. The foreword for this book was written by Bogdan Popović. It was the first attempt to create a literary canon of the most significant poems down the ages. The book contains poems by authors including Jovan Jovanović Zmaj, Laza Kostić, Petar I Petrović-Njegoš, Vojislav Ilić, Jovan Grčić Milenko, Aleksa Šantić, Jovan Dučić, Milan Rakić, Sima Pandurović and Veljko Petrović. The book has undergone several editions, including translations into the Slovene language in 1965. In 2011, Srpska književna zadruga, a member of the Board for Standardization of the Serbian Language, published the 100th anniversary edition.
Milorad Popović Šapčanin was a Serbian poet, writer, dramatist, pedagogue and educational reformer who exemplified Realism in his approach. He was also artistic director of the National Theatre in Belgrade, a member of the Serbian Learned Society and Serbian Royal Academy.
Stevan M. Luković was a Serbian lyric poet.
The 100 most prominent Serbs is a book containing the biographies of the hundred most important Serbs compiled by a committee of academicians at the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. The committee members were Sava Vuković, Pavle Ivić, Dragoslav Srejović, Dejan Medaković, Dragomir Vitorović, Zvonimir Kostić, Vasilije Krestić, Miroslav Pantić and Danica Petrović. The book was first published in 1993 on 20+617 pages, reprinted in 2001, and the third extended edition was printed in 2009.
Dragutin Ilić was a Serbian playwright, poet, novelist, journalist and politician.
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