Volgograd

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Volgograd
Волгоград
Volgograd Montage 2016.png
Counterclockwise (from top right): The Motherland Calls on Mamayev Kurgan, the railway station, Planetarium, The Metrotram, Panorama of the City, Gerhardt's Mill
FlagVolgograd.svg
Coat of arms of Volgograd city.svg
Anthem: none [2]
Location of Volgograd
Volgograd
Outline Map of Volgograd Oblast.svg
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Volgograd
Location of Volgograd
European Russia laea location map (Crimea disputed).svg
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Volgograd
Volgograd (European Russia)
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Volgograd
Volgograd (Europe)
Coordinates: 48°42′31″N44°30′53″E / 48.70861°N 44.51472°E / 48.70861; 44.51472 Coordinates: 48°42′31″N44°30′53″E / 48.70861°N 44.51472°E / 48.70861; 44.51472
Country Russia
Federal subject Volgograd Oblast [3]
Founded1589 [4]
City status sincethe end of the
18th century [1]
Government
  Body City Duma [5]
  Head [5] Alexander Chunakov [ citation needed ]
Elevation
80 m (260 ft)
Population
  Total1,021,215
  Estimate 
(2018) [7]
1,013,533 (−0.8%)
  Rank 12th in 2010
  Subordinated to city of oblast significance of Volgograd [3]
   Capital of Volgograd Oblast [3] , city of oblast significance of Volgograd [3]
  Urban okrugVolgograd Urban Okrug [8]
   Capital ofVolgograd Urban Okrug [8]
Time zone UTC+3 (MSK   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg [9] )
Postal code(s) [10]
400000–400002, 400005–400012, 400015–400017, 400019–400023, 400026, 400029, 400031–400034, 400036, 400038–400040, 400042, 400046, 400048–400055, 400057–400059, 400062–400067, 400069, 400071–400076, 400078–400082, 400084, 400086–400089, 400093, 400094, 400096–400098, 400105, 400107, 400108, 400110–400112, 400117, 400119–400125, 400127, 400131, 400136–400138, 400700, 400880, 400890, 400899, 400921–400942, 400960–400965, 400967, 400970–400979, 400990–400993
Dialing code(s) +7 8442
OKTMO ID18701000001
City DaySecond Sunday of September [1]
Website www.volgadmin.ru

Volgograd (Russian : Волгогра́д, romanized: Volgográd), formerly Tsaritsyn (Russian : Цари́цын, romanized: Tsarítsyn) (1589–1925), and Stalingrad (Russian : Сталингра́д, romanized: Stalingrád) (1925–1961), is the largest city and the administrative centre of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. The city lies on the western bank of the Volga, covering an area of 859.4 square kilometres (331.8 square miles), with a population of over 1 million residents. [11] Volgograd is the fifteenth-largest city in Russia, the second-largest city on the Southern Federal District, and the fourth-largest city on the Volga.

Contents

The city was founded as the fortress of Tsaritsyn in 1589. By the nineteenth century, Tsaritsyn had become an important river-port and commercial centre, leading to its population expanding rapidly.

Early in the Russian Civil War, in November 1917, Tsaritsyn came under Soviet control. It fell briefly to the White Army in mid-1919 but quickly returned to Soviet control in January 1920.

On April 10, 1925, the city was renamed Stalingrad in honor of Joseph Stalin. During World War II, the Axis forces attacked the city, leading to the Battle of Stalingrad, one of the largest and bloodiest battles in the history of warfare. On 10 November 1961, Nikita Khrushchev's administration changed the name of the city to Volgograd. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the city became the administrative centre of Volgograd Oblast.

Known locally as the "Hero City", Volgograd today is the site of The Motherland Calls , an 85-meter high statue dedicated to the heroes of the battle, which is the tallest statue in Europe, as well as the tallest statue of a woman in the world. The city has many tourist attractions, such as museums, sandy beaches, and a self-propelled floating church. Volgograd was one of the host cities of the 2018 FIFA World Cup.

History

Tsaritsyn

Coat of Arms of Tsaritsyn (1857) Tsaritsyn COA (Saratov Governorate) (1857).png
Coat of Arms of Tsaritsyn (1857)
City map of Tsaritsyn (1909) Map Tsaritsyn 1909.jpg
City map of Tsaritsyn (1909)
City tram on Gogolya Street in 1914 Gogolya str., Tsaritsyn (1914).jpg
City tram on Gogolya Street in 1914
General Pyotr Wrangel in Tsaritsyn, 15 October 1919 Wrangel after worship Tsaritsyn 1919.jpg
General Pyotr Wrangel in Tsaritsyn, 15 October 1919

Although the city may have originated in 1555, documented evidence of Tsaritsyn at the confluence of the Tsaritsa  [ ru ] and Volga rivers dates from 1589. [4] Grigori Zasekin established the fortress Sary Su (the local Tatar-language name means "yellow water" or "yellow river") as part of the defenses of the unstable southern border of the Tsardom of Russia. The structure stood slightly above the mouth of the Tsaritsa River on the right bank. It soon became the nucleus of a trading settlement.

At the beginning of the 17th century, the garrison consisted of 350 to 400 people. In 1607 the fortress garrison rebelled for six months against the troops of Tsar Vasili Shuisky. In 1608 the first stone church was built in the city and was dedicated to St. John the Baptist.

In 1670 troops of Stepan Razin captured the fortress; they left after a month. In 1708 the insurgent Cossack Kondraty Bulavin (died July 1708) held the fortress. In 1717 in the Kuban pogrom  [ ru ], raiders from the Kuban under the command of the Crimean Tatar Bakhti Gerai  [ ru ] blockaded the town and enslaved thousands in the area. In August 1774 Yemelyan Pugachev unsuccessfully attempted to storm the city.

In 1691 Moscow established a customs-post at Tsaritsyn. In 1708 Tsaritsyn was assigned to the Kazan Governorate; in 1719 [ citation needed ] to the Astrakhan Governorate. According to the census in 1720, the city had a population of 408 people. In 1773 the settlement was designated as a provincial and district town. From 1779 it belonged to the Saratov Viceroyalty. In 1780 the city came under the newly established Saratov Governorate.

In the nineteenth century, Tsaritsyn became an important river-port and commercial center. The population expanded rapidly, increasing from fewer than 3,000 people in 1807 to about 84,000 in 1900. The first railway reached the town in 1862. The first theatre opened in 1872, the first cinema in 1907. In 1913 Tsaritsyn got its first tram-line, and the city's first electric lights were installed in the city center.

During the Russian Civil War of 1917–1923, Tsaritsyn came under Soviet control from November 1917. In 1918 White Movement troops under Pyotr Krasnov, the Ataman of the Don Cossack Host, besieged Tsaritsyn. The Reds repulsed three assaults by the Whites. However, in June 1919 the White Armed Forces of South Russia, under the command of General Denikin, captured Tsaritsyn, and held it until January 1920. The fighting from July 1918 to January 1920 became known as the Battle for Tsaritsyn.

Stalingrad

On April 10, 1925, the city was renamed Stalingrad, in honor of Joseph Stalin, General Secretary of the Communist Party. [12] [13] This was officially to recognize the city and Stalin's role in its defense against the Whites between 1918 and 1920. [14] In 1931, the German settlement-colony Old Sarepta (founded in 1765) became a district of Stalingrad. Renamed Krasnoarmeysky Rayon (or "Red Army District"), it was the largest area of the city.

The first higher education institute was opened in 1930. A year later, the Stalingrad Industrial Pedagogical Institute, now Volgograd State Pedagogical University, was opened. Under Stalin, the city became a center of heavy industry and transshipment by rail and river.

The center of Stalingrad after liberation in 1943 RIAN archive 602161 Center of Stalingrad after liberation.jpg
The center of Stalingrad after liberation in 1943
Friedrich Paulus (left) and his aides Lt.-Gen. Arthur Schmidt (middle) and Col. Wilhelm Adam (right) after their surrender in Stalingrad. Bundesarchiv Bild 183-F0316-0204-005, Russland, Paulus in Kriegsgefangenschaft.jpg
Friedrich Paulus (left) and his aides Lt.-Gen. Arthur Schmidt (middle) and Col. Wilhelm Adam (right) after their surrender in Stalingrad.
The presentation of the Sword of Stalingrad at the Tehran Conference The Prime Minister in behalf of King George VI of Great Britain, presents The Sword of Stalingrad to Stalin, for the... - NARA - 195332.jpg
The presentation of the Sword of Stalingrad at the Tehran Conference

Battle of Stalingrad

During World War II, German and Axis forces attacked the city, and in 1942 it was the site of one of the pivotal battles of the war. The Battle of Stalingrad was the deadliest single battle in the history of warfare (casualties estimates vary between 1,250,000 [15] and 1,798,619 [16] ).

The battle began on August 23, 1942, and on the same day, the city suffered heavy aerial bombardment that reduced most of it to rubble. Martial law had already been declared in the city on July 14. By September, the fighting reached the city center. The fighting was of unprecedented intensity; the city's central railway station changed hands thirteen times, and the Mamayev Kurgan (one of the highest points of the city) was captured and recaptured eight times.

By early November, the German forces controlled 90 percent of the city and had cornered the Soviets in two narrow pockets, but they were unable to eliminate the last pockets of Soviet resistance before Soviet forces launched a huge counterattack on November 19. This resulted in the Soviet encirclement of the German Sixth Army and other Axis units. On January 31, 1943 the Sixth Army's commander, Field Marshal Friedrich Paulus, surrendered, and by February 2, with the elimination of straggling German troops, the Battle of Stalingrad was over.

In 1945 the Soviet Union awarded Stalingrad the title Hero City for its resistance. Great Britain's King George VI awarded the citizens of Stalingrad the jeweled "Sword of Stalingrad" in recognition of their bravery.

A number of cities around the world (especially those that had suffered similar wartime devastation) established sister, friendship, and twinning links (see list below) in the spirit of solidarity or reconciliation. One of the first "sister city" projects was that established during World War II between Stalingrad and Coventry in the United Kingdom; both had suffered extensive devastation from aerial bombardment.

Volgograd

Volga River in Volgograd Krasnoarmeiskii Raion - Volga.jpg
Volga River in Volgograd
Volgograd on a 1979 map Volgograd 1979.jpg
Volgograd on a 1979 map
Kazan Cathedral Kazanskiy Sobor.jpg
Kazan Cathedral
Building of the Oblast Duma Volgograd - Building of Regional Committee of KPSS and Executive Committee 002.jpg
Building of the Oblast Duma

On 10 November 1961, Nikita Khrushchev's administration changed the name of the city to Volgograd ("Volga City") as part of his programme of de-Stalinization following Stalin's death. He was trying to reduce the "cult of personality". This action was and remains somewhat controversial, because Stalingrad has such importance as a symbol of resistance during World War II.

During Konstantin Chernenko's brief administration in 1984, proposals were floated to revive the city's historic name for that reason. There is a strong degree of local support for a reversion, but the Russian government has not accepted such proposals.

On May 21, 2007, Roman Grebennikov of Communist Party was elected as mayor with 32.47% of the vote, a plurality. Grebennikov became Russia's youngest mayor of a federal subject administrative center at the time.

In 2010, Russian monarchists and leaders of the Orthodox organizations demanded that the city should take back its original name of Tsaritsyn, but the authorities rejected their proposal.

On January 30, 2013, the Volgograd City Council passed a measure to use the title "Hero City Stalingrad" in city statements on nine specific dates annually. [17] [18] [19] On the following dates the title "Hero City Stalingrad" can officially be used in celebrations:

In addition, 50,000 people signed a petition to Vladimir Putin, asking that the city's name be permanently changed to Stalingrad. [18] President Putin has replied that such a move should be preceded by a local referendum and that the Russian authorities will look into how to bring about such a referendum. [20]

Politics

In 2011, the City Duma canceled direct election of the mayor and confirmed the position of City Manager. This was short-lived, as in March 2012, Volgograd residents voted for relevant amendments to the city charter to reinstate the direct mayoral elections. [21]

Administrative and municipal status

View of Voroshilovsky City District of Volgograd Voroshilovskiy district of Volgograd 001.jpg
View of Voroshilovsky City District of Volgograd

Volgograd is the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast. [22] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the city of oblast significance of Volgograd—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. [3] As a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Volgograd is incorporated as Volgograd Urban Okrug. [8]

Economy

Modern Volgograd remains an important industrial city. Industries include shipbuilding, oil refining, steel and aluminum production, manufacture of heavy machinery and vehicles, and chemical production. The large Volgograd Hydroelectric Plant is a short distance to the north of Volgograd.

Transportation

Volgograd is a major railway junction served by the Privolzhskaya Railway. Rail links from the Volgograd railway station include Moscow; Saratov; Astrakhan; the Donbas region of Ukraine; the Caucasus and Siberia. It stands at the east end of the Volga–Don Canal, opened in 1952 to link the two great rivers of Southern Russia. European route E40, the longest European route connecting Calais in France with Ridder in Kazakhstan, passes through Volgograd. The M6 highway between Moscow and the Caspian Sea also passes through the city. The Volgograd Bridge, under construction since 1995, was inaugurated in October 2009. [23] The city river terminal is the center for local passenger shipping along the Volga River.

The Volgograd International Airport provides air links to major Russian cities as well as Antalya, Yerevan and Aktau.

Volgograd's public transport system includes a light rail service known as the Volgograd metrotram. Local public transport is provided by buses, trolleybuses and trams.

The Volga River still is a very important communication channel.

Climate

Volgograd has a hot-summer humid continental climate (Köppen: Dfa). [24] Despite being located further north, the city is slightly warmer than Minneapolis although only slightly (both in summer and winter, but transitional seasons are almost identical) at the same time that despite being taxed "moist" is drier than most of the climate of group D due to proximity to the Middle East and Central Asia. [25]

Climate data for Volgograd
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)12.3
(54.1)
15.8
(60.4)
20.5
(68.9)
29.2
(84.6)
37.2
(99.0)
39.4
(102.9)
41.8
(107.2)
42.6
(108.7)
37.8
(100.0)
31.0
(87.8)
21.0
(69.8)
12.3
(54.1)
42.6
(108.7)
Average high °C (°F)−3.3
(26.1)
−3.1
(26.4)
3.6
(38.5)
14.9
(58.8)
21.9
(71.4)
27.0
(80.6)
29.6
(85.3)
28.6
(83.5)
21.6
(70.9)
13.0
(55.4)
3.6
(38.5)
−1.9
(28.6)
13.0
(55.4)
Daily mean °C (°F)−5.7
(21.7)
−5.9
(21.4)
0.1
(32.2)
9.9
(49.8)
16.7
(62.1)
21.6
(70.9)
24.2
(75.6)
23.0
(73.4)
16.4
(61.5)
8.8
(47.8)
0.8
(33.4)
−4.2
(24.4)
8.8
(47.8)
Average low °C (°F)−9.0
(15.8)
−9.7
(14.5)
−3.9
(25.0)
4.2
(39.6)
10.1
(50.2)
15.1
(59.2)
17.5
(63.5)
16.2
(61.2)
10.4
(50.7)
4.1
(39.4)
−2.4
(27.7)
−7.3
(18.9)
3.8
(38.8)
Record low °C (°F)−33.0
(−27.4)
−32.5
(−26.5)
−25.8
(−14.4)
−12.8
(9.0)
−1.1
(30.0)
2.0
(35.6)
7.4
(45.3)
4.5
(40.1)
−1.0
(30.2)
−12.2
(10.0)
−25.8
(−14.4)
−27.8
(−18.0)
−33.0
(−27.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches)38
(1.5)
30
(1.2)
28
(1.1)
28
(1.1)
39
(1.5)
41
(1.6)
35
(1.4)
30
(1.2)
29
(1.1)
29
(1.1)
34
(1.3)
45
(1.8)
406
(16.0)
Average snowfall cm (inches)11
(4.3)
18
(7.1)
10
(3.9)
1
(0.4)
trace0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.1
(0.0)
1
(0.4)
1
(0.4)
6
(2.4)
48.1
(18.9)
Average rainy days97812121211810111211123
Average snowy days20181120.030000.1191879
Average relative humidity (%)88868164575653516173868970
Mean monthly sunshine hours 66.196.9138.4204.2290.8308.4329.3300.2228.9155.863.642.52,225.1
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net [26]
Source 2: Weatherbase (sun only) [27]

Population

At the time of the official 2010 Census, the ethnic makeup of the city's population whose ethnicity was known (999,785) was: [28]

EthnicityPopulationPercentage
Russians 922,32192.3%
Armenians 15,2001.5%
Ukrainians 12,2161.2%
Tatars 9,7601.0%
Azerbaijanis 6,6790.7%
Kazakhs 3,8310.4%
Belarusians 2,6390.3%
Koreans 2,3890.2%
Others24,7502.5%

Culture

All Saints' Church Memorial area and All Saints Church, Volgograd (2007).jpg
All Saints' Church
The Volgograd Synagogue (1911), Port-Said Street Volgograd Synagogue.jpg
The Volgograd Synagogue (1911), Port-Said Street

A memorial complex commemorating the battle of Stalingrad, dominated by an immense allegorical sculpture The Motherland Calls , was erected on the Mamayev Kurgan, the hill that saw some of the most intense fighting during the battle.

The Panorama Museum (Museum-reserve "The Battle of Stalingrad") sited on the Volga contains artifacts from World War II. It is located on the site of the "Penza Defense Junction" - a group of buildings along Penzenskaya Street (now - Sovetskaya Street), which was defended by the 13th Guards Division. Includes Gerhardt's Mill, the panoramic painting of the battlefield from the location of the monument on Mamayev Kurgan - the largest painting of Russia, an exposition of Soviet military equipment 1940s, a stele of the cities of heroes, numerous exhibits of weapons and decorations (include a rifle of the famous sniper Vasily Zaytsev is also on display), personal belongings of military life of generals and ordinary soldiers. Nearby is the Pavlov's House, which survived the battles.

The Musical Instrument Museum is a branch of the Volgograd regional Museum of local lore.

Volgograd hosts one of the few floating churches in the world: the floating church of Saint Vladimir of Volgograd. [29]

Education

Higher education facilities include:

Sports

Aerial view of the Volgograd Arena in 2018 Volgograd arena aerial view 1.jpg
Aerial view of the Volgograd Arena in 2018
ClubSportFoundedCurrent LeagueLeague
Tier
Stadium
Rotor Volgograd Football 1929 Russian Professional Football League 1st Central Stadium
Olimpia Volgograd Football 1989 Volgograd Oblast Football Championship 5thOlimpia Stadium
Kaustik Volgograd Handball 1929 Handball Super League 1stDynamo Sports Complex
Dynamo Volgograd Handball 1929 Women's Handball Super League 1stDynamo Sports Complex
Krasny Oktyabr Volgograd Basketball 2012 VTB United League 2nd Trade Unions Sports Palace
Spartak Volgograd Water Polo 1994 Russian Water Polo Championship 1stCVVS

Volgograd was a host city to four matches of the FIFA World Cup in 2018. A new modern stadium, Volgograd Arena, was built for this occasion on the bank of the Volga River to serve as the venue. The stadium has a seating capacity for 45,000 people, including a press box, a VIP box and seats for people with limited mobility.

Notable people

International relations

Volgograd is twinned with: [33]

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Mikhaylovka Urban Okrug is a municipal formation in Volgograd Oblast, Russia, one of the six urban okrugs in the oblast. Its territory comprises the territories of two administrative divisions of Volgograd Oblast—Mikhaylovsky District and the town of oblast significance of Mikhaylovka.

Krasnoslobodsk, Volgograd Oblast Town in Volgograd Oblast, Russia

Krasnoslobodsk is a town in Sredneakhtubinsky District of Volgograd Oblast, Russia, located on the east bank of the Volga River across from Volgograd, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 15,998 (2010 Census); 14,359 (2002 Census); 13,533 (1989 Census).

Ilovlya Urban locality in Volgograd Oblast, Russia

Ilovlya is an urban-type settlement and the administrative center of Ilovlinsky District, Volgograd Oblast, Russia. Population: 11,255 (2010 Census); 11,904 (2002 Census); 10,295 (1989 Census).

References

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 Charter of Volgograd, Preamble
  2. Official website of Volgograd. Конкурс на создание гимна Волгограда будет проведен повторно (in Russian)
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 Law #139-OD
  4. 1 2 Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. pp. 81–83. ISBN   5-7107-7399-9.
  5. 1 2 Charter of Volgograd, Article 22
  6. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  7. "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  8. 1 2 3 Law #1031-OD
  9. "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  10. Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  11. "RUSSIA: Južnyj Federal'nyj Okrug: Southern Federal District". City Population.de. August 4, 2020. Retrieved October 18, 2020.
  12. Lutz-Auras, Ludmilla (2012). "Auf Stalin, Sieg Und Vaterland!": Politisierung Der Kollektiven Erinnerung an Den Zweiten Weltkrieg in Russland (in German). Springer-Verlag. p. 189. ISBN   978-3658008215.
  13. Mccauley, Martin (2013). Stalin and Stalinism (3 ed.). Routledge. ISBN   978-1317863687. 10 April 1925: Tsaritsyn is renamed Stalingrad.
  14. Brewer's Dictionary of 20th Century Phrase and Fable
  15. Grant, R. G. (2005). Battle: A Visual Journey Through 5,000 Years of Combat. Dorling Kindersley. ISBN   0-7566-1360-4.
  16. Wagner, Margaret; et al. (2007). The Library of Congress World War II Companion . Simon & Schuster. ISBN   978-0-7432-5219-5.
  17. 1 2 Decision #72/2149
  18. 1 2 "Russia revives Stalingrad city name". The Daily Telegraph . January 31, 2013. Archived from the original on February 3, 2013. Retrieved February 7, 2013.
  19. "Stalingrad name to be revived for anniversaries". BBC News Online . February 1, 2013. Retrieved February 7, 2013.
  20. "Putin says Russian city Volgograd can become Stalingrad again". TASS.
  21. "Волгоград сдался выборам". www.gazeta.ru. 2012.
  22. Europa Publications (February 26, 2004). "Southern Federal Okrug". The Territories of the Russian Federation 2004. Taylor & Francis Group. p. 174. ISBN   9781857432480 . Retrieved March 4, 2017. The Oblast's administrative center is at Volgograd.
  23. Иванов открыл в Волгограде самый большой мост в Европе (in Russian). Vesti . Retrieved February 9, 2011.
  24. "Volgograd, Russia Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  25. "Average Weather in Volgograd, Russia, Year Round - Weather Spark". weatherspark.com. Retrieved May 23, 2019.
  26. "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved July 7, 2016.
  27. "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Volgograd, Russia". Weatherbase. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
  28. "Национальный состав городских округов и муниципальных районов" (PDF). Итоги Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года по Волгоградской области. Территориальный орган Федеральной службы государственной статистики по Волгоградской области. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 13, 2013. Retrieved August 5, 2013.
  29. Lata, Iulian Barba; Minca, Claudio (2018). "The floating churches of Volgograd: River topologies and warped spatialities of faith". Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. pp. 122–136. doi:10.1111/tran.12208 . Retrieved October 8, 2021.
  30. "Volgograd State Technical University – Main page". Vstu.ru. August 21, 2011. Archived from the original on September 3, 2011. Retrieved September 15, 2011.
  31. Россия. "Volgograd State Medical University (VolSMU)". Volgmed.ru. Retrieved September 15, 2011.
  32. . June 27, 2007 https://web.archive.org/web/20070627081652/http://www.vags.ru/. Archived from the original on June 27, 2007. Retrieved September 15, 2011.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  33. "Города-побратимы". volgadmin.ru (in Russian). Volgograd. Retrieved February 1, 2020.

Sources

Bibliography