|Federal subject||Volgograd Oblast|
|City status since||the end of the|
|• Body||City Duma|
|• Head||Alexander Chunakov [ citation needed ]|
|Elevation||80 m (260 ft)|
|• Estimate||1,013,533 (−0.8%)|
|• Rank||12th in 2010|
|• Subordinated to||city of oblast significance of Volgograd|
|• Capital of||Volgograd Oblast , city of oblast significance of Volgograd|
|• Urban okrug||Volgograd Urban Okrug|
|• Capital of||Volgograd Urban Okrug|
|Time zone||UTC+3 (MSK )|
400000–400002, 400005–400012, 400015–400017, 400019–400023, 400026, 400029, 400031–400034, 400036, 400038–400040, 400042, 400046, 400048–400055, 400057–400059, 400062–400067, 400069, 400071–400076, 400078–400082, 400084, 400086–400089, 400093, 400094, 400096–400098, 400105, 400107, 400108, 400110–400112, 400117, 400119–400125, 400127, 400131, 400136–400138, 400700, 400880, 400890, 400899, 400921–400942, 400960–400965, 400967, 400970–400979, 400990–400993
|Dialing code(s)||+7 8442|
|City Day||Second Sunday of September|
Volgograd (Russian : Волгогра́д, romanized: Volgográd), formerly Tsaritsyn (Russian : Цари́цын, romanized: Tsarítsyn) (1589–1925), and Stalingrad (Russian : Сталингра́д, romanized: Stalingrád) (1925–1961), is the largest city and the administrative centre of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. The city lies on the western bank of the Volga, covering an area of 859.4 square kilometres (331.8 square miles), with a population of over 1 million residents. Volgograd is the fifteenth-largest city in Russia, the second-largest city on the Southern Federal District, and the fourth-largest city on the Volga.
The city was founded as the fortress of Tsaritsyn in 1589. By the nineteenth century, Tsaritsyn had become an important river-port and commercial centre, leading to its population expanding rapidly.
Early in the Russian Civil War, in November 1917, Tsaritsyn came under Soviet control. It fell briefly to the White Army in mid-1919 but quickly returned to Soviet control in January 1920.
On April 10, 1925, the city was renamed Stalingrad in honor of Joseph Stalin. During World War II, the Axis forces attacked the city, leading to the Battle of Stalingrad, one of the largest and bloodiest battles in the history of warfare. On 10 November 1961, Nikita Khrushchev's administration changed the name of the city to Volgograd. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the city became the administrative centre of Volgograd Oblast.
Known locally as the "Hero City", Volgograd today is the site of The Motherland Calls , an 85-meter high statue dedicated to the heroes of the battle, which is the tallest statue in Europe, as well as the tallest statue of a woman in the world. The city has many tourist attractions, such as museums, sandy beaches, and a self-propelled floating church. Volgograd was one of the host cities of the 2018 FIFA World Cup.
Although the city may have originated in 1555, documented evidence of Tsaritsyn at the confluence of the Tsaritsaand Volga rivers dates from 1589. Grigori Zasekin established the fortress Sary Su (the local Tatar-language name means "yellow water" or "yellow river") as part of the defenses of the unstable southern border of the Tsardom of Russia. The structure stood slightly above the mouth of the Tsaritsa River on the right bank. It soon became the nucleus of a trading settlement.
At the beginning of the 17th century, the garrison consisted of 350 to 400 people. In 1607 the fortress garrison rebelled for six months against the troops of Tsar Vasili Shuisky. In 1608 the first stone church was built in the city and was dedicated to St. John the Baptist.
In 1670 troops of Stepan Razin captured the fortress; they left after a month. In 1708 the insurgent Cossack Kondraty Bulavin (died July 1708) held the fortress. In 1717 in the Kuban pogrom, raiders from the Kuban under the command of the Crimean Tatar Bakhti Gerai blockaded the town and enslaved thousands in the area. In August 1774 Yemelyan Pugachev unsuccessfully attempted to storm the city.
In 1691 Moscow established a customs-post at Tsaritsyn. In 1708 Tsaritsyn was assigned to the Kazan Governorate; in 1719 [ citation needed ] to the Astrakhan Governorate. According to the census in 1720, the city had a population of 408 people. In 1773 the settlement was designated as a provincial and district town. From 1779 it belonged to the Saratov Viceroyalty. In 1780 the city came under the newly established Saratov Governorate.
In the nineteenth century, Tsaritsyn became an important river-port and commercial center. The population expanded rapidly, increasing from fewer than 3,000 people in 1807 to about 84,000 in 1900. The first railway reached the town in 1862. The first theatre opened in 1872, the first cinema in 1907. In 1913 Tsaritsyn got its first tram-line, and the city's first electric lights were installed in the city center.
During the Russian Civil War of 1917–1923, Tsaritsyn came under Soviet control from November 1917. In 1918 White Movement troops under Pyotr Krasnov, the Ataman of the Don Cossack Host, besieged Tsaritsyn. The Reds repulsed three assaults by the Whites. However, in June 1919 the White Armed Forces of South Russia, under the command of General Denikin, captured Tsaritsyn, and held it until January 1920. The fighting from July 1918 to January 1920 became known as the Battle for Tsaritsyn.
On April 10, 1925, the city was renamed Stalingrad, in honor of Joseph Stalin, General Secretary of the Communist Party. This was officially to recognize the city and Stalin's role in its defense against the Whites between 1918 and 1920. In 1931, the German settlement-colony Old Sarepta (founded in 1765) became a district of Stalingrad. Renamed Krasnoarmeysky Rayon (or "Red Army District"), it was the largest area of the city.
The first higher education institute was opened in 1930. A year later, the Stalingrad Industrial Pedagogical Institute, now Volgograd State Pedagogical University, was opened. Under Stalin, the city became a center of heavy industry and transshipment by rail and river.
During World War II, German and Axis forces attacked the city, and in 1942 it was the site of one of the pivotal battles of the war. The Battle of Stalingrad was the deadliest single battle in the history of warfare (casualties estimates vary between 1,250,000and 1,798,619 ).
The battle began on August 23, 1942, and on the same day, the city suffered heavy aerial bombardment that reduced most of it to rubble. Martial law had already been declared in the city on July 14. By September, the fighting reached the city center. The fighting was of unprecedented intensity; the city's central railway station changed hands thirteen times, and the Mamayev Kurgan (one of the highest points of the city) was captured and recaptured eight times.
By early November, the German forces controlled 90 percent of the city and had cornered the Soviets in two narrow pockets, but they were unable to eliminate the last pockets of Soviet resistance before Soviet forces launched a huge counterattack on November 19. This resulted in the Soviet encirclement of the German Sixth Army and other Axis units. On January 31, 1943 the Sixth Army's commander, Field Marshal Friedrich Paulus, surrendered, and by February 2, with the elimination of straggling German troops, the Battle of Stalingrad was over.
In 1945 the Soviet Union awarded Stalingrad the title Hero City for its resistance. Great Britain's King George VI awarded the citizens of Stalingrad the jeweled "Sword of Stalingrad" in recognition of their bravery.
A number of cities around the world (especially those that had suffered similar wartime devastation) established sister, friendship, and twinning links (see list below) in the spirit of solidarity or reconciliation. One of the first "sister city" projects was that established during World War II between Stalingrad and Coventry in the United Kingdom; both had suffered extensive devastation from aerial bombardment.
On 10 November 1961, Nikita Khrushchev's administration changed the name of the city to Volgograd ("Volga City") as part of his programme of de-Stalinization following Stalin's death. He was trying to reduce the "cult of personality". This action was and remains somewhat controversial, because Stalingrad has such importance as a symbol of resistance during World War II.
During Konstantin Chernenko's brief administration in 1984, proposals were floated to revive the city's historic name for that reason. There is a strong degree of local support for a reversion, but the Russian government has not accepted such proposals.
On May 21, 2007, Roman Grebennikov of Communist Party was elected as mayor with 32.47% of the vote, a plurality. Grebennikov became Russia's youngest mayor of a federal subject administrative center at the time.
In 2010, Russian monarchists and leaders of the Orthodox organizations demanded that the city should take back its original name of Tsaritsyn, but the authorities rejected their proposal.
On January 30, 2013, the Volgograd City Council passed a measure to use the title "Hero City Stalingrad" in city statements on nine specific dates annually.On the following dates the title "Hero City Stalingrad" can officially be used in celebrations:
In addition, 50,000 people signed a petition to Vladimir Putin, asking that the city's name be permanently changed to Stalingrad.President Putin has replied that such a move should be preceded by a local referendum and that the Russian authorities will look into how to bring about such a referendum.
In 2011, the City Duma canceled direct election of the mayor and confirmed the position of City Manager. This was short-lived, as in March 2012, Volgograd residents voted for relevant amendments to the city charter to reinstate the direct mayoral elections.
Volgograd is the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast.Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the city of oblast significance of Volgograd—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Volgograd is incorporated as Volgograd Urban Okrug.
Modern Volgograd remains an important industrial city. Industries include shipbuilding, oil refining, steel and aluminum production, manufacture of heavy machinery and vehicles, and chemical production. The large Volgograd Hydroelectric Plant is a short distance to the north of Volgograd.
Volgograd is a major railway junction served by the Privolzhskaya Railway. Rail links from the Volgograd railway station include Moscow; Saratov; Astrakhan; the Donbas region of Ukraine; the Caucasus and Siberia. It stands at the east end of the Volga–Don Canal, opened in 1952 to link the two great rivers of Southern Russia. European route E40, the longest European route connecting Calais in France with Ridder in Kazakhstan, passes through Volgograd. The M6 highway between Moscow and the Caspian Sea also passes through the city. The Volgograd Bridge, under construction since 1995, was inaugurated in October 2009.The city river terminal is the center for local passenger shipping along the Volga River.
The Volgograd International Airport provides air links to major Russian cities as well as Antalya, Yerevan and Aktau.
Volgograd's public transport system includes a light rail service known as the Volgograd metrotram. Local public transport is provided by buses, trolleybuses and trams.
The Volga River still is a very important communication channel.
Volgograd has a hot-summer humid continental climate (Köppen: Dfa).Despite being located further north, the city is slightly warmer than Minneapolis although only slightly (both in summer and winter, but transitional seasons are almost identical) at the same time that despite being taxed "moist" is drier than most of the climate of group D due to proximity to the Middle East and Central Asia.
|Climate data for Volgograd|
|Record high °C (°F)||12.3|
|Average high °C (°F)||−3.3|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−5.7|
|Average low °C (°F)||−9.0|
|Record low °C (°F)||−33.0|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||38|
|Average snowfall cm (inches)||11|
|Average rainy days||9||7||8||12||12||12||11||8||10||11||12||11||123|
|Average snowy days||20||18||11||2||0.03||0||0||0||0.1||1||9||18||79|
|Average relative humidity (%)||88||86||81||64||57||56||53||51||61||73||86||89||70|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||66.1||96.9||138.4||204.2||290.8||308.4||329.3||300.2||228.9||155.8||63.6||42.5||2,225.1|
|Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net|
|Source 2: Weatherbase (sun only)|
At the time of the official 2010 Census, the ethnic makeup of the city's population whose ethnicity was known (999,785) was:
A memorial complex commemorating the battle of Stalingrad, dominated by an immense allegorical sculpture The Motherland Calls , was erected on the Mamayev Kurgan, the hill that saw some of the most intense fighting during the battle.
The Panorama Museum (Museum-reserve "The Battle of Stalingrad") sited on the Volga contains artifacts from World War II. It is located on the site of the "Penza Defense Junction" - a group of buildings along Penzenskaya Street (now - Sovetskaya Street), which was defended by the 13th Guards Division. Includes Gerhardt's Mill, the panoramic painting of the battlefield from the location of the monument on Mamayev Kurgan - the largest painting of Russia, an exposition of Soviet military equipment 1940s, a stele of the cities of heroes, numerous exhibits of weapons and decorations (include a rifle of the famous sniper Vasily Zaytsev is also on display), personal belongings of military life of generals and ordinary soldiers. Nearby is the Pavlov's House, which survived the battles.
The Musical Instrument Museum is a branch of the Volgograd regional Museum of local lore.
Volgograd hosts one of the few floating churches in the world: the floating church of Saint Vladimir of Volgograd.
Higher education facilities include:
|Rotor Volgograd||Football||1929||Russian Professional Football League||1st||Central Stadium|
|Olimpia Volgograd||Football||1989||Volgograd Oblast Football Championship||5th||Olimpia Stadium|
|Kaustik Volgograd||Handball||1929||Handball Super League||1st||Dynamo Sports Complex|
|Dynamo Volgograd||Handball||1929||Women's Handball Super League||1st||Dynamo Sports Complex|
|Krasny Oktyabr Volgograd||Basketball||2012||VTB United League||2nd||Trade Unions Sports Palace|
|Spartak Volgograd||Water Polo||1994||Russian Water Polo Championship||1st||CVVS|
Volgograd was a host city to four matches of the FIFA World Cup in 2018. A new modern stadium, Volgograd Arena, was built for this occasion on the bank of the Volga River to serve as the venue. The stadium has a seating capacity for 45,000 people, including a press box, a VIP box and seats for people with limited mobility.
Volgograd is twinned with:
Volgograd Oblast is a federal subject of Russia, located in the Volga region of Southern Russia. Its administrative center is Volgograd. The population of the oblast was 2,610,161 in the 2010 Census. Formerly known as Stalingrad Oblast, it was given its present name in 1961, when the city of Stalingrad was renamed Volgograd as part of de-Stalinization. Volgograd Oblast borders Rostov Oblast in the southwest, Voronezh Oblast in the northwest, Saratov Oblast in the north, Astrakhan Oblast and the Republic of Kalmykia in the southeast, and has an international border with Kazakhstan in the east. The two main rivers in European Russia, the Don and the Volga, run through the oblast and are connected by the Volga–Don Canal. Volgograd Oblast's strategic waterways have made it a popular route for shipping and for the generation of hydroelectricity.
Alexeyevsky District is the name of several administrative and municipal districts in Russia. The districts' name generally derives from or is related to the male first name Alexey.
Danilovsky District is the name of several administrative and municipal districts in Russia. The districts' name generally derives from or is related to the male first name Danil.
Gorodishchensky District is the name of several administrative and municipal districts in Russia.
Volzhsky is an industrial city in Volgograd Oblast, Russia, located on the east bank of the Volga River and its distributary the Akhtuba, 20 kilometers (12 mi) northeast of Volgograd. Population: 314,255 (2010 Census); 313,169 (2002 Census); 268,842 (1989 Census).
Kamyshin is a city in Volgograd Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Volgograd Reservoir of the Volga River, in the estuary of the Kamyshinka River. Population: 119,565 (2010 Census); 127,891 (2002 Census); 122,463 (1989 Census); 101,000 (1972); 24,000 (1939).
Uryupinsk is a town in Volgograd Oblast, Russia, located 340 kilometers (210 mi) northwest of Volgograd on the Khopyor River. Population: 41,590 (2010 Census); 41,960 (2002 Census); 42,954 (1989 Census).
Kamyshinsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the thirty-three in Volgograd Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Kamyshinsky Municipal District. It is located in the northeast of the oblast. The area of the district is 3,563 square kilometers (1,376 sq mi). Its administrative center is the city of Kamyshin. Population: 42,893 (2010 Census); 45,019 ; 37,276 (1989 Census).
Krasnooktyabrsky District is the name of several administrative and municipal districts in Russia.
Frolovo is a town in Volgograd Oblast, Russia, located on the Archeda River, 148 kilometers (92 mi) north of Volgograd, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 39,449 (2010 Census); 41,132 (2002 Census); 41,680 (1989 Census).
Mikhaylovka is a town in Volgograd Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Medveditsa River, 210 kilometers (130 mi) northwest of Volgograd. Population: 59,132 (2010 Census); 60,034 (2002 Census); 58,323 (1989 Census).
Ilovlinsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the thirty-three in Volgograd Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Ilovlinsky Municipal District. It is located in the center of the oblast. The area of the district is 4,155 square kilometers (1,604 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Ilovlya. Population: 33,168 (2010 Census); 34,358 ; 31,678 (1989 Census). The population of Ilovlya accounts for 33.9% of the district's total population.
Kalachyovsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the thirty-three in Volgograd Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Kalachyovsky Municipal District. It is located in the south of the oblast. The area of the district is 4,200 square kilometers (1,600 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Kalach-na-Donu. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 58,524, with the population of Kalach-na-Donu accounting for 46.0% of that number.
Mikhaylovsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the thirty-three in Volgograd Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is a part of Mikhaylovka Urban Okrug. It is located in the northwestern central part of the oblast. The area of the district is 3,660 square kilometers (1,410 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Mikhaylovka. Population: 25,936 (2010 Census); 25,978 ; 25,112 (1989 Census).
Nikolayevsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the thirty-three in Volgograd Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Nikolayevsky Municipal District. It is located in the northeast of the oblast. The area of the district is 3,440 square kilometers (1,330 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Nikolayevsk. Population: 32,034 (2010 Census); 34,285 ; 35,145 (1989 Census). The population of Nikolayevsk accounts for 47.1% of the district's total population.
Sredneakhtubinsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the thirty-three in Volgograd Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Sredneakhtubinsky Municipal District. It is located in the southeast of the oblast. The area of the district is 2,039 square kilometers (787 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Srednyaya Akhtuba. Population: 58,962 (2010 Census); 55,341 ; 48,555 (1989 Census). The population of Srednyaya Akhtuba accounts for 24.5% of the district's total population.
Uryupinsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the thirty-three in Volgograd Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Uryupinsky Municipal District. It is located in the northwest of the oblast. The area of the district is 3,460 square kilometers (1,340 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Uryupinsk. Population: 28,775 (2010 Census); 30,615 ; 33,266 (1989 Census).
Mikhaylovka Urban Okrug is a municipal formation in Volgograd Oblast, Russia, one of the six urban okrugs in the oblast. Its territory comprises the territories of two administrative divisions of Volgograd Oblast—Mikhaylovsky District and the town of oblast significance of Mikhaylovka.
Krasnoslobodsk is a town in Sredneakhtubinsky District of Volgograd Oblast, Russia, located on the east bank of the Volga River across from Volgograd, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 15,998 (2010 Census); 14,359 (2002 Census); 13,533 (1989 Census).
Ilovlya is an urban-type settlement and the administrative center of Ilovlinsky District, Volgograd Oblast, Russia. Population: 11,255 (2010 Census); 11,904 (2002 Census); 10,295 (1989 Census).
10 April 1925: Tsaritsyn is renamed Stalingrad.
The Oblast's administrative center is at Volgograd.