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Volney Erskine Howard (October 22, 1809 – May 14, 1889) was an American lawyer, statesman, and jurist.
A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government. Politicians propose, support and create laws or policies that govern the land and, by extension, its people. Broadly speaking, a "politician" can be anyone who seeks to achieve political power in any bureaucratic institution.
A jurist is someone who researches and studies jurisprudence. Such a person can work as an academic, legal writer or law lecturer. In the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and in many other Commonwealth countries, the word jurist sometimes refers to a barrister, whereas in the United States of America and Canada it often refers to a judge.
Volney Erskine Howard was born in Oxford County, Maine on October 22, 1809 to Richard Howard, a prosperous farmer. At the age of 22, Howard traveled to Mississippi to study law. He commenced law practice in Brandon, Mississippi. He was a member of the Mississippi House of Representatives in 1836; reporter of the supreme court of the State of Mississippi; unsuccessful Democratic candidate for election in 1840 to the Twenty-seventh Congress and editor of the Mississippian.
Brandon is a city in Rankin County, Mississippi, United States. Brandon was incorporated December 19, 1831. The population was 21,705 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Rankin County. Brandon is part of the Jackson Metropolitan Statistical Area, and is located east of the state capital.
He moved to Texas during the Republic of Texas and Howard was appointed the first Attorney General of the State of Texas in 1846. He served in that role for only 6 months. He represented Texas's District 2 in the U.S. Congress from 1849 to 1853.
The Republic of Texas was a sovereign state in North America that existed from March 2, 1836, to February 19, 1846. It was bordered by Mexico to the west and southwest, the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast, the two U.S. states of Louisiana and Arkansas to the east and northeast, and United States territories encompassing parts of the current U.S. states of Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming, and New Mexico to the north and west. The citizens of the republic were known as Texians.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States.
Appointed attorney to the Land Commission of California by President Franklin Pierce, Howard left Texas to move to California. He resigned after a few months to practice law in San Francisco. In 1856, he was appointed Adjutant General of California, following the resignation of William T. Sherman during the time of the San Francisco Committee of Vigilance. His attempt to oppose the Committee by force failed. Afterward he moved to Sacramento in 1858 to practice law, but decided to leave northern California because he had made too many enemies while battling the vigilantes in San Francisco. In 1861 he moved to Los Angeles, where he served two terms as District Attorney, from 1864 to 1867, and served as one of the first judges of the Los Angeles Superior Court beginning in 1879. His law firm included two of his lawyer sons, Charles Howard (killed in a gunfight with Daniel B. Nichols, son of a former mayor of Los Angeles, in 1869 in a saloon) and Frank H. Howard, who served as city attorney of Los Angeles. He served only one term on the bench, due to the ill health. He was nominated to a seat on the United States Supreme Court, but declined because of failing health.
Franklin Pierce was the 14th president of the United States (1853–1857), a northern Democrat who saw the abolitionist movement as a fundamental threat to the unity of the nation. He alienated anti-slavery groups by championing and signing the Kansas–Nebraska Act and enforcing the Fugitive Slave Act, yet he failed to stem conflict between North and South, setting the stage for Southern secession and the American Civil War.
The San Francisco Committee of Vigilance was a vigilante group formed in 1851. The catalyst for its formation was the criminality of the Sydney Ducks. It was revived in 1856 in response to rampant crime and corruption in the municipal government of San Francisco, California. The need for extralegal intervention was apparent with the explosive population growth following the discovery of gold in 1848. The small town of about 900 individuals grew to a booming city of over 200,000 very rapidly. This overwhelming growth in population made it nearly impossible for the previously established law enforcement to regulate any longer which resulted in the organization of vigilantes.
Howard died in Santa Monica, California and was buried at Fort Hill in Los Angeles, California, but was disinterred to an undisclosed location when the cemetery was eliminated. Howard County, Texas was named in his honor.
Santa Monica is a beachfront city in western Los Angeles County, California, United States. Situated on Santa Monica Bay, it is bordered on three sides by the city of Los Angeles – Pacific Palisades to the north, Brentwood on the northeast, West Los Angeles on the east, Mar Vista on the southeast, and Venice on the south. The Census Bureau population for Santa Monica in 2010 was 89,736.
Howard County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. At the 2010 census, its population was 35,012. Its county seat is Big Spring. The county was created in 1876 and organized in 1882. It is named for Volney E. Howard, a U.S. Congressman from Texas.
John Neely Johnson was an American lawyer and politician. He was elected as the fourth governor of California from 1856 to 1858, and later appointed justice to the Nevada Supreme Court from 1867 to 1871. As a member of the American Party, Johnson remains one of only three members of a third party to be elected to the California governorship.
The United States District Court for the Northern District of California is the federal United States district court whose jurisdiction comprises following counties of California: Alameda, Contra Costa, Del Norte, Humboldt, Lake, Marin, Mendocino, Monterey, Napa, San Benito, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, and Sonoma. The court hears cases in its courtrooms in Eureka, Oakland, San Francisco, and San Jose. It is headquartered in San Francisco.
Sherman Otis Houghton was an American politician from California. He also married, in succession, two survivors of the Donner Party.
William Francis Fitzgerald was an American jurist who served on the Federal bench as an Associate Justice of the Arizona Territorial Supreme Court, as well as at the state level as an Associate Justice of the California Supreme Court. Other positions he held include California Attorney General and judge of the Superior Court of Los Angeles County.
John Chilton Burch was a California Democratic politician and United States Congressman.
John Maxwell Coghlan was a California Republican politician.
John Fitch Kinney was a prominent American attorney, judge, and Democratic politician. He served as Justice of the Supreme Court of Iowa, twice as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Territory of Utah and one term as the Territory of Utah's Delegate in the House of Representatives of the 38th Congress.
Duncan E. McKinlay was a U.S. Representative from California.
John Raglan Glascock was a U.S. Representative from California.
Douglas Lyman Edmonds was an American jurist, serving on the Supreme Court of California and the United Nation's International Law Commission.
Erskine Mayo Ross was an American attorney and jurist from California. He served as a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit and of the United States Circuit Courts for the Ninth Circuit and previously was a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of California and a Justice of the Supreme Court of California.
Andrew Jackson King (1833–1923), or A. J. King, was a lawman, lawyer, legislator and judge in 19th Century Los Angeles County, California.
Charles Silent was a German-born American jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Arizona Territorial Supreme Court. After leaving the bench he entered private practice and became one of Los Angeles' leading attorneys. His interest in horticulture led to his involvement in the Los Angeles parks system.
Nathaniel Bennett was one of the first Associate Justices of the California Supreme Court.
John Randolph Sharpstein was a member of the Wisconsin State Senate and Wisconsin State Assembly, and an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of California.
Myer Joseph Newmark (1838–1911) was the youngest city attorney in the history of Los Angeles, California, and was active in the affairs of that city in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Isaac Sawyer Belcher was an American attorney and an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of California from March 4, 1872, to January 5, 1874.
James Dabney Thornton was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of California from January 5, 1880 to January 5, 1891.
Joseph Glover Baldwin was an American attorney and humor writer who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of California from October 2, 1858 to January 2, 1864.
Warren Olney Jr. was an American lawyer who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of California from March 1, 1919, to July 1921.
The Biographical Directory of the United States Congress is a biographical dictionary of all present and former members of the United States Congress and its predecessor, the Continental Congress. Also included are Delegates from territories and the District of Columbia and Resident Commissioners from the Philippines and Puerto Rico.
The Handbook of Texas is a comprehensive encyclopedia of Texas geography, history, and historical persons published by the Texas State Historical Association (TSHA).
| Texas Attorney General |
| Succeeded by|
John W. Harris
|U.S. House of Representatives|
| Member of the U.S. House of Representatives |
from Texas's 2nd congressional district
| Succeeded by|
Peter H. Bell