The Volontaires de la Liberté was a French resistance group founded in May 1941. Consisting of school boys and led by Jacques Lusseyran, the group's activities consisted initially of propaganda; it published a bulletin that agitated against the Nazi occupation and the regime of Vichy France. After the Service du travail obligatoire, the Compulsory Work Service, was installed by the Nazis in February 1943 the group's size increased and it dispersed, in part due to ideological differences, many members joining the larger, militant Défense de la France to engage in armed combat. Others continued under the Volontaires name and aided other resistance organizations by sheltering downed Allied pilots.
Jacques Lusseyran was a French author and political activist.
Vichy France is the common name of the French State headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II. Evacuated from Paris to Vichy in the unoccupied "Free Zone" in the southern part of metropolitan France which included French Algeria, it remained responsible for the civil administration of France as well as the French colonial empire.
The Service du travail obligatoire was the forced enlistment and deportation of hundreds of thousands of French workers to Nazi Germany to work as forced labour for the German war effort during World War II.
The group consisted of school boys (from the Lycée Louis-le-Grand and the Lycée Henri-IV) and university students from Paris.Its main founder was the blind student Jacques Lusseyran, and by the end of May 1941 the group had formed a central committee of eight students: Jean Besniée, Jean-Louis Bruch, Pierre Cochery, Jean-Claude Comert, Georges Guillemin, Jacques Lusseyran, Jacques Oudin and Jean Sennelier. Initially the group focused on ideology more than on armed combat, and published its first bulletin in October 1941. Between October 1941 and 1943, the bulletin was published 55 times, in circulations of between 50 and 1000 copies. The bulletin contained news and theoretical articles, with essays on Nazism, democracy, and Marxism; its goal was in the words of Lusseyran, "to understand events and explain them."
The Lycée Louis-le-Grand is a prestigious secondary school located in Paris. Founded in 1563 by the Jesuits as the Collège de Clermont, it was renamed in King Louis XIV of France's honor after he extended his direct patronage to it in 1682. It offers both a sixth-form college curriculum, and a post-secondary-level curriculum, preparing students for entrance to the elite Grandes écoles for research, such as the École normale supérieure (Paris), for engineering, such as the École Polytechnique, or for business, such as HEC Paris. Students at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand are called magnoludoviciens.
The Lycée Henri-IV is a public secondary school located in Paris. Along with Louis-le-Grand and Lycée Condorcet it is widely regarded as one of the most prestigious and demanding sixth-form colleges (lycées) in France.
Initially isolated, by 1942 the group had made contact with other resistance groups, and with the help of Maurice Lacroix, a teacher at Louis-le-Grand. It aided in the distribution of the Résistance, the clandestine paper edited by Marcel Renet, but the group experienced internal dissent after that paper published a pro-Franco article. Lusseyran was aiming for higher circulation, but others wished to stay true to the group's original anti-Pétain direction. A compromise was found in the publication of a second paper, Le Tigre, dedicated to Georges Clemenceau, which appeared seven times (between 500 and 2000 copies) until October 1942.
Francisco Franco Bahamonde was a Spanish general and politician who ruled over Spain as Head of State and dictator under the title Caudillo from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975. This period in Spanish history is commonly known as Francoist Spain or the Francoist dictatorship.
Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain, generally known as Philippe Pétain, Marshal Pétain or The Old Marshal, was a French general officer who attained the position of Marshal of France at the end of World War I, during which he became known as The Lion of Verdun, and in World War II served as the Chief of State of Vichy France from 1940 to 1944. Pétain, who was 84 years old in 1940, ranks as France's oldest head of state.
Georges Eugène Benjamin Clemenceau was a French statesman who served as Prime Minister of France during World War I. A leading figure of the Independent Radicals, he played a central role in the politics of the Third Republic.
When the Service du travail obligatoire (STO), the Compulsory Work Service, was installed by the Nazis in February 1943 the group's size increased and dispersed, many members joining the larger, militant Défense de la France to engage in armed combat.
Défense de la France was an underground newspaper produced by a group of the French Resistance during World War II.
In the meantime Lusseyran had formed an alliance with Philippe Viannay, leader of the Défense de la France. This alliance came to a head in February 1943 when he decided the Volontaires should join the larger group while maintaining organizational independence; he soon found the desire for autonomy counterproductive and incorporated the entire group under the Défense. Especially Pierre Cochery was dissatisfied and the Volontaires split, with a smaller group led by Cochery focusing on clandestine operations like sabotaging the STO through falsifying census data and sheltering deserters. The Volontaires were now led by Cochery, Jean-Louis Bruch, André Darrouzet (arrested in August 1943), and Pierre Bigand (replacing Darrouzet), Jean-Claude Comert, and Yves Allain. They published a single issue of another bulletin, Le Quatrième République. The group worked with Libération-Nord starting in mid-1943, and afterward with Franc-Tireur, and aided the efforts of the Bourgogne group, for example through sheltering allied pilots. Members were arrested and deported, with casualties including Jean Besniée, Jean Sennelier, Pierre Bizos and Jacques Oudin (http://jacques-oudin-resistant.fr).Other members included Léon Delarbre.
Philippe Viannay was a French journalist.
Libération-Nord was one of the principal resistance movements in the northern occupied zone of France during the Second World War.
Franc-Tireur was a French Resistance movement founded at Lyon in November 1940 under the name "France Liberté". It was renamed "Franc-Tireur" in December 1941 on the proposal of Jean-Jacques Soudeille.
Jean Pierre Moulin was a French civil servant who served as the first President of the National Council of the Resistance during World War II from 23 May 1943 until his death less than two months later.
The National Front was a World War II French Resistance movement created to unite all of the Resistance Organizations together to fight the Nazi occupation forces and Vichy France under Marshall Petain. Founded in 1941 in Paris by Jacques Duclos, Andre Pican and Pierre Villon, along with their wives all members of the French Communist Party (PCF) they felt that to be a vital force against the Nazis, the collaborationists and the informers that all of the Resistance movements, no matter their party or Religion(Jewish or Catholic) had to band together. Its name was inspired by the Popular Front, a left-wing coalition which governed France from 1936 to 1938. This helped them coordinate attacks all across France, to move weapons, food, false identity papers, information and food, protect and move people who were to be arrested or executed and supply multiple safe houses for the Resistance and for Jews. They also formed fighting units in early 1942 to assassinate German leaders and soldiers among the occupation forces, perform acts of sabotage on railroads and other forms of distribution of people and goods being taken from France to Germany and to help organize sabotage in factories forced to produce armaments and goods for the German military.
The Francs-tireurs et partisans – main-d'œuvre immigrée (FTP-MOI) were a sub-group of the Francs-tireurs et partisans (FTP) organization, a component of the French Resistance. A wing composed mostly of foreigners, the MOI maintained an armed force to oppose the German occupation of France during World War II. The Main-d'œuvre immigrée was the "Immigrant Movement" of the FTP.
Combat was a large movement in the French Resistance created in the non-occupied zone of France during the Second World War (1939–1945).
The Parti Populaire Français was a French fascist and anti-semitic political party led by Jacques Doriot before and during World War II. It is generally regarded as the most collaborationist party of France.
The National Council of the Resistance, in French Conseil National de la Résistance (CNR), was the body that directed and coordinated the different movements of the French Resistance - the press, trade unions, and members of political parties hostile to the Vichy regime, starting from mid-1943.
The Salon de Mai is a group of French artists which formed in a café on the Rue Dauphine in Paris in 1943 during the German occupation of France.
Maurice Garçon was a French novelist, historian, essayist and lawyer. A major figure at the bar, he gained a certain notoriety and was even mentioned with René Floriot in the last phrase of Jean-Pierre Melville's film "Bob le flambeur".
The Independent Front was a left-wing faction of the Belgian Resistance in German-occupied Belgium in World War II. It was founded in March 1941 by Dr Albert Marteux of the Communist Party of Belgium, Father André Roland, and Fernand Demany, another communist. The aim of the organisation was to unite Belgian resistance groups of all opinions and political leanings; nonetheless the only political party that that was affiliated as such was the Communist Party. The FI operated a significant propaganda, social and paramilitary organization, in addition to its military and sabotage functions and operated in competition with the larger pro-government Secret Army.
The Mouvement de la Paix is an organisation which promotes a culture of peace initiated by the United Nations. The movement was created in the aftermath of the Second World War by the large resistance movements, particularly those associated with communists, Christians and free-thinkers, and was linked directly to the Mouvement mondial des partisans de la paix whose aim was to struggle for peace.
Victor Martin was a Belgian academic sociologist, known for his involvement with the Belgian Resistance during World War II.
Jacques Decour, real name Daniel Decourdemanche, was a French writer and resistant, killed by the Nazis.
Georges-Pierre de Froment was a French soldier and member of the World War II resistance.
Pierre Kaan was a professor of philosophy, Marxist essayist, and prominent member of the French Resistance during the Second World War.