Volost (Russian:во́лость,IPA: [ˈvoləsʲtʲ] ) was a traditional administrative subdivision in Eastern Europe.
In earlier East Slavic history, volost was a name for the territory ruled by the knyaz, a principality; either as an absolute ruler or with varying degree of autonomy from the Velikiy Knyaz (Grand Prince). Starting from the end of the 14th century, volost was a unit of administrative division in Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Poland, Muscovy, lands of modern Latvia and Ukraine. Since about the 16th century it was a part of provincial districts, that were called "uyezd" in Muscovy and the later Russian Empire. Each uyezd had several volosts that were subordinated to the uyezd city.
After the abolition of Russian serfdom in 1861, volost became a unit of peasant's local self-rule. A number of mirs are united into a volost, which has an assembly consisting of elected delegates from the mirs. These elect an elder ( starshina ) and, hitherto, a court of justice (volostnoy sud). The self-government of the mirs and volosts was, however, tempered by the authority of the police commissaries ( stanovoi ) and by the power of general oversight given to the nominated "district committees for the affairs of the peasants".
Volosts were abolished by the Soviet administrative reform of 1923–1929. Raions may be roughly called a modern equivalent of both volosts and uyezds.
Volosts were governed by volost administration (волостное правление, volostnoye pravleniye), which consisted of the electable chief of volost (volostnoy starshina ), chiefs of villages (village starostas ) and other officials electable by the Volost Assembly (волостной сход, volostnoy skhod).
Volost Court was the court electable by the Volost Assembly, which could handle smaller civil and criminal cases. It could sentence people to corporal punishment, fine or short-term incarceration.
In modern Russia the term has a different meaning. The subdivision into volosts is used in the Republic of Karelia, where volosts have the same status as raions, [ citation needed ] and in Leningrad, Pskov, Samara, and Tula Oblasts, where volosts are considered subdivisions of raions and have the same status as selsovets in other Russian federal subjects.[ citation needed ]
Knyaz or knez (князь) is a historical Slavic title, used both as a royal and noble title in different times of history and different ancient Slavic lands. It is usually translated into English as prince, duke or count, depending on specific historical context and the potentially known Latin equivalents of the title for each bearer of the name. In Latin sources the title is usually translated as comes or princeps, but the word was originally derived from the common Germanic *kuningaz (king).
A governorate, or a guberniya, was a major and principal administrative subdivision of the Russian Empire. Unlike Russia where gubernias were abolished in 1929, in Ukraine subdivision of gubernias was abolished in 1925. The term is usually translated as government, governorate, or province. A governorate was ruled by a governor, a word borrowed from Latin gubernator, in turn from Greek kybernetes. Sometimes the term guberniya was informally used to refer to the office of a governor.
Ukraine is divided into several levels of territorial entities. On the first level there are 27 regions:
The modern administrative-territorial structure of Russia is a system of territorial organization which is a product of a centuries-long evolution and reforms.
A raion is a type of administrative unit of several post-Soviet states. The term is from the French "rayon", which is both a type of a subnational entity and a division of a city, and is commonly translated in English as "district".
Selsoviet is a shortened name for a rural council and for the area governed by such a council (soviet). The full names for the term are, in Belarusian: се́льскi саве́т, Russian: се́льский сове́т, Ukrainian: сільська́ ра́да. Selsoviets were the lowest level of administrative division in rural areas in the Soviet Union. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, they were preserved as a third tier of administrative-territorial division throughout Ukraine, Belarus, and some of the federal subjects of Russia.
Veps, or Vepsians, are a Finnic people who speak the Veps language, which belongs to the Finnic branch of the Uralic languages.
An uyezd was an administrative subdivision of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, the Russian Empire, and the early Russian SFSR, which was in use from the 13th century. For most of Russian history, uyezds were a secondary-level of administrative division. By sense, but not by etymology, uyezd approximately corresponds to the English term county.
The judicial system of the Russian Empire was established as part of the system of government reforms of Peter the Great.
Kolsky Uyezd was an administrative division of the Tsardom of Russia and later of the Russian Empire.
Alexandrovsky Uyezd was an administrative division of Arkhangelsk Governorate of the Russian Empire and later of the Russian SFSR.
Kandalakshskaya Volost was an administrative division over time included into various administrative divisions of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, Russian Empire, and the Russian SFSR.
Lodeynopolsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It is located in the northeast of the oblast and borders with Olonetsky District of the Republic of Karelia in the north, Podporozhsky District in the east, Tikhvinsky District in the south, and Volkhovsky District in the west. The area of the district is 4,900 square kilometers (1,900 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Lodeynoye Pole. Population : 9,795 (2010 Census); 12,185 ; 13,426 (1989 Census).
Monastyrshchinsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the twenty-five in Smolensk Oblast, Russia. It is located in the west of the oblast and borders with Smolensky District in the north, Pochinkovsky District in the east, Khislavichsky District in the south, Mstsislaw District of Mogilev Region of Belarus in the west, and with Krasninsky District in the northwest. The area of the district is 1,513.75 square kilometers (584.46 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Monastyrshchina. Population: 10,788 ; 13,876 (2002 Census); 17,559 (1989 Census). The population of Monastyrshchino accounts for 37.7% of the district's total population.
An okruha, okruh (округ), or okrug is a one the historical administrative division of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic that existed between 1923 and 1930. The system was intended as a transitional system between the Russian Imperial division of governorates and the modern equivalent of oblasts.
Arbuzynka Raion was a subdivision of Mykolaiv Oblast of Ukraine. Its administrative center was the urban-type settlement of Arbuzynka. The raion was abolished on 18 July 2020 as part of the administrative reform of Ukraine, which reduced the number of raions of Mykolaiv Oblast to four. The last estimate of the raion population was 19,269 (2020 est.)
Starobesheve is an urban-type settlement in the southeast of Donetsk Oblast, Ukraine. It is the administrative center of Starobesheve Raion. Starobesheve is located on the right bank of the Kalmius River, about 20 kilometres (12 mi) northwest of the border with Russia. Population: 6,071 (2020 est.) , 6,317 (2013 est.) .
Arbuzynka is an urban-type settlement in the north of Mykolaiv Oblast, Ukraine. It serves as the administrative center of Arbuzynka Raion. Population: 6,135 (2020 est.)
Petr Aleksandrovich Levanidov was a head of a volost and deputy of the Fourth Imperial Duma from the Arkhangelsk Governorate between 1912 and 1917. After the February Revolution of 1917, he became a commissar of the Provisional Government.
Stan was a historical administrative unit in Russia, except for Veliky Novgorod. Stans existed until the 18th century, but in some regions of Russia this name was applied to districts up until the early 20th century.