Vostok 1

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Vostok 1
Vostok1.jpg
Yuri Gagarin aboard Vostok 1, as televised to launch control
Operator Soviet space program
Harvard designation1961 Mu 1
COSPAR ID 1961-012A
SATCAT no. 103
Mission duration1 hour, 48 minutes [1]
1 hour, 46 minutes [2] [3]
Orbits completed1
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft Vostok-3KA No.3
ManufacturerExperimental Design Bureau OKB-1
Launch mass4,725 kg (10,417 lb) [1]
Landing mass2,400 kg (5,290 lb)
Dimensions2.30 m (7 ft 6.5 in) diameter
Crew
Crew size1
Members Yuri Gagarin
CallsignКедр (KedrSiberian pine), [4]
or: Ласточка (Lastochka - Swallow) [lower-alpha 1]
Start of mission
Launch dateApril 12, 1961, 06:07 (1961-04-12UTC06:07Z)  UTC [8]
Rocket Vostok-K 8K72K
Launch site Baikonur 1/5
45°55′13″N63°20′32″E / 45.920278°N 63.342222°E / 45.920278; 63.342222 [9]
End of mission
Landing dateApril 12, 1961, 07:55 (1961-04-12UTC07:56Z) UTC
Landing site 51°16′14″N45°59′50″E / 51.270682°N 45.99727°E / 51.270682; 45.99727 [10] [11]
Orbital parameters
Reference system Geocentric
Regime Low Earth
Perigee altitude 181 km (98 nmi) [12]
Apogee altitude 327 km (177 nmi) [1]
Inclination 64.95 degrees [8]
Period 89.1 minutes
Epoch April 12, 1961
Gagarin in Sweden.jpg
Yuri Gagarin in Sweden
Vostok programme
Crewed flights
Vostok 2  
 

Vostok 1 (Russian: Восток, East or Orient 1) was the first spaceflight of the Vostok programme and the first human spaceflight in history. The Vostok 3KA space capsule was launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome on April 12, 1961, with Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin aboard, making him the first human to cross into outer space.

Contents

The orbital spaceflight consisted of a single orbit around Earth which skimmed the upper atmosphere at 169 kilometers (91 nautical miles) at its lowest point. The flight took 108 minutes from launch to landing. Gagarin parachuted to the ground separately from his capsule after ejecting at 7 km (23,000 ft) altitude.

Background

The Space Race between the Soviet Union and the United States, the two Cold War superpowers, began just before the Soviet Union launched the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, in 1957. Both countries wanted to develop spaceflight technology quickly, particularly by launching the first successful human spaceflight. The Soviet Union secretly pursued the Vostok programme in competition with the United States' Project Mercury. Vostok launched several precursor uncrewed missions between May 1960 and March 1961, to test and develop the Vostok rocket family and space capsule. These missions had varied degrees of success, but the final two Korabl-Sputnik 4 and Korabl-Sputnik 5 were complete successes, allowing the first crewed flight.

Crew

Position Cosmonaut
Pilot Yuri Gagarin
Only spaceflight
See also Selection and training of the Vostok programme

The Vostok 1 capsule was designed to carry a single cosmonaut. Yuri Gagarin, 27, was chosen as the prime pilot of Vostok 1, with Gherman Titov and Grigori Nelyubov as backups. These assignments were formally made on April 8, four days before the mission, but Gagarin had been a favourite among the cosmonaut candidates for at least several months. [13] :262,272

The final decision of who would fly the mission relied heavily on the opinion of the head of cosmonaut training, Nikolai Kamanin. In an April 5 diary entry, Kamanin wrote that he was still undecided between Gagarin and Titov. [14] "The only thing that keeps me from picking [Titov] is the need to have the stronger person for the one day flight." [15] Kamanin was referring to the second mission, Vostok 2, compared to the relatively short single-orbit mission of Vostok 1. When Gagarin and Titov were informed of the decision during a meeting on April 9, Gagarin was very happy, and Titov was disappointed. [16] On April 10, this meeting was reenacted in front of television cameras, so there would be official footage of the event. This included an acceptance speech by Gagarin. [17] As an indication of the level of secrecy involved, one of the other cosmonaut candidates, Alexei Leonov, later recalled that he did not know who was chosen for the mission until after the spaceflight had begun. [18]

Preparations

Model of the Vostok spacecraft with its upper stage, on display in Frankfurt Airport's "Russia in Space" exhibition Vostok spacecraft.jpg
Model of the Vostok spacecraft with its upper stage, on display in Frankfurt Airport's "Russia in Space" exhibition

Unlike later Vostok missions, there were no dedicated tracking ships available to receive signals from the spacecraft. Instead they relied on the network of ground stations, also called Command Points, to communicate with the spacecraft; all of these Command Points were located within the Soviet Union. [19]

Because of weight constraints, there was no backup retrorocket engine. The spacecraft carried 13 days of provisions to allow for survival and natural orbital decay in the event the retrorockets failed. [20]

The letters "СССР" were hand-painted onto Gagarin's helmet by engineer Gherman Lebedev during transfer to the launch site. As it had been less than a year since U2 pilot Gary Powers was shot down, Lebedev reasoned that without some country identification, there was a small chance the cosmonaut might be mistaken for a spy on landing. [21]

Automatic control

Part of the Vostok 1 instrument panel prominently displaying the "Globus" navigation instrument Vostokpanel.JPG
Part of the Vostok 1 instrument panel prominently displaying the "Globus" navigation instrument

The entire mission would be controlled by either automatic systems or by ground control. This was because medical staff and spacecraft engineers were unsure how a human might react to weightlessness, and therefore it was decided to lock the pilot's manual controls. In an unusual move, a code to unlock the controls was placed in an onboard envelope, for Gagarin's use in case of emergency. [13] :278 Prior to the flight, Kamanin and others told Gagarin the code (1-2-5) anyway. [22] [23]

April 11, 1961

Electrocardiogram of Gagarin recorded April 11, 1961, at 19 hours and 35 minutes. Exhibited at the Memorial Museum of Cosmonautics in Moscow. Electrocardiogram of Gagarin.JPG
Electrocardiogram of Gagarin recorded April 11, 1961, at 19 hours and 35 minutes. Exhibited at the Memorial Museum of Cosmonautics in Moscow.

At Baikonur Cosmodrome on the morning of April 11, 1961, the Vostok-K rocket, together with the attached Vostok 3KA space capsule, were transported several kilometers to the launch pad, in a horizontal position. Once they arrived at the launch pad, a quick examination of the booster was conducted by technicians to make sure everything was in order. When no visible problems were found, the booster was erected on LC-1. [24] At 10:00 (Moscow Time), Gagarin and Titov were given a final review of the flight plan. [24] They were informed that launch was scheduled to occur the following day, at 09:07 Moscow Time. This time was chosen so that when the capsule started to fly over Africa, which was when the retrorockets would need to fire for reentry, the solar illumination would be ideal for the orientation system's sensors. [25]

At 18:00, once various physiological readings had been taken, the doctors instructed the cosmonauts not to discuss the upcoming missions. That evening Gagarin and Titov relaxed by listening to music, playing pool, and chatting about their childhoods. [18] At 21:50, both men were offered sleeping pills, to ensure a good night's sleep, but they both declined. [26] Physicians had attached sensors to the cosmonauts, to monitor their condition throughout the night, and they believed that both had slept well. [27] Gagarin's biographers Doran and Bizony say that neither Gagarin nor Titov slept that night. [28] Chief Designer Sergei Korolev did not sleep that night, due to anxiety caused by the imminent spaceflight. [25]

Gagarin statement before the mission

Before the mission, Gagarin made a statement to the press, addressed to the Soviet Union and to the whole world:

Dear friends, both known and unknown to me, fellow countrymen, men and women of all lands and continents!
In a few minutes a mighty spaceship will take me into the far-away expanses of the Universe. What can I say to you in these last minutes before the start? I see my whole past life as one wonderful moment. Everything I have experienced and done till now has been in preparation for this moment. You must realise that it is hard to express my feelings now that the test for which we have been training ardently and long is at hand. I don't have to tell you what I felt when it was suggested that I should make this flight, the first in history. Was it joy? No, it was something more than that. Pride? No, it was not just pride. I felt very happy – to be the first in space, to engage in an unprecedented duel with Nature – could one dream of anything greater than that?
But then I thought of the tremendous responsibility of being the first to accomplish what generations of people had dreamed of, the first to show man the way into space … Can you think of a task more difficult than the one assigned to me. It is not responsibility to a single person, or dozens of people, or even a collective. It is responsibility to all Soviet people, to all mankind, to its present and its future. And if I am nevertheless venturing on this flight, it is because I am a Communist, because I draw strength from unexampled exploits performed by my compatriots, Soviet men and women. I know that I shall muster all my will power the better to do the job. Realising its importance, I will do all I can to carry out the assignment of the Communist Party and the Soviet people.
Am I happy to be starting on a space flight? Of course I am. In all times and all eras man's greatest joy has been to take part in new discoveries.
I would like to dedicate this first space flight to the people of communism, a society which our Soviet people are already entering, and which, I am confident, all men on earth will enter.
It is a matter of minutes now before the start. I say to you good-bye, dear friends, just as people say to each other when setting out on a long journey. I would like very much to embrace you all – people known and unknown to me, close friends and strangers alike.
See you soon! [29] [30]

Flight

At 05:30 Moscow time, on the morning of April 12, 1961, both Gagarin and his backup Titov were woken. [31] They were given breakfast, assisted into their spacesuits, and then were transported to the launch pad. [32] Gagarin entered the Vostok 1 spacecraft, and at 07:10 local time (04:10 UTC), the radio communication system was turned on. [32] Once Gagarin was in the spacecraft, his picture appeared on television screens in the launch control room from an onboard camera. Launch would not occur for another two hours, and during the time Gagarin chatted with the mission's main CapCom, as well as Chief Designer Sergei Korolev, Nikolai Kamanin, and a few others. [32] Following a series of tests and checks, about forty minutes after Gagarin entered the spacecraft, its hatch was closed. Gagarin, however, reported that the hatch was not sealed properly, and technicians spent nearly an hour removing all the screws and sealing the hatch again. [4] According to a 2014 obituary, Vostok's chief designer, Oleg Ivanovsky, personally helped rebolt the hatch. [33] There is some disagreement over whether the hatch was in fact not sealed correctly, as a more recent account stated the indication was false.[ citation needed ]

During this time Gagarin requested some music to be played over the radio. [34] Korolev was reportedly suffering from chest pains and worried, as up to this point the Soviet space launch rate was 50% (12 out of 24 launches had failed). [35] Two Vostoks had failed to reach orbit due to launch vehicle malfunctions and another two malfunctioned in orbit. Korolev was given a pill to calm him down. [36] Gagarin, on the other hand, was described as calm; about half an hour before launch his pulse was recorded at 64 beats per minute. [37]

Launch

Launch of Vostok 1 Vostok1 big.gif
Launch of Vostok 1

Time in orbit

Ground trace of Gagarin's complete orbit; the landing point is west of the takeoff point because of the Earth's eastward rotation. Vostok 1 orbit english.png
Ground trace of Gagarin's complete orbit; the landing point is west of the takeoff point because of the Earth's eastward rotation.

The automatic orientation system brought Vostok 1 into alignment for retrofire about 1 hour into the flight.

Reentry and landing

The Vostok 1 capsule when it was on display at the RKK Energiya museum. The main capsule, seen in the center of this picture, is now on display at the Space Pavilion at the VDNKh. Gagarin Capsule.jpg
The Vostok 1 capsule when it was on display at the RKK Energiya museum. The main capsule, seen in the center of this picture, is now on display at the Space Pavilion at the VDNKh.

At 07:25 UTC, the spacecraft's automatic systems brought it into the required attitude (orientation) for the retrorocket firing, and shortly afterwards, the liquid-fueled engine fired for about 42 seconds over the west coast of Africa, near Angola, about 8,000 kilometers (4,300 nautical miles) uprange of the landing point. The orbit's perigee and apogee had been selected to cause reentry due to orbital decay within 13 days (the limit of the life support system function) in the event of retrorocket malfunction. [20] However, the actual orbit differed from the planned and would not have allowed descent until 20 days. [40]

Ten seconds after retrofire, commands were sent to separate the Vostok service module from the reentry module (code name "little ball" (Russian : шарик, romanized: sharik)), but the equipment module unexpectedly remained attached to the reentry module by a bundle of wires. At around 07:35 UTC, the two parts of the spacecraft began reentry and went through strong gyrations as Vostok 1 neared Egypt. At this point the wires broke, the two modules separated, and the descent module settled into the proper reentry attitude. Gagarin telegraphed "Everything is OK" despite continuing gyrations; he later reported that he did not want to "make noise" as he had (correctly) reasoned that the gyrations did not endanger the mission (and were apparently caused by the spherical shape of the reentry module). As Gagarin continued his descent, he remained conscious as he experienced about 8 g during reentry. (Gagarin's own report states "over 10 g".) [41]

At 07:55 UTC, when Vostok 1 was still 7 km (4.3 mi) from the ground, the hatch of the spacecraft was released, and two seconds later Gagarin was ejected. At 2.5 km (8,200 ft) altitude, the main parachute was deployed from the Vostok spacecraft. Two schoolgirls witnessed the Vostok landing and described the scene: "It was a huge ball, about two or three meters (6 to 9 feet) high. It fell, then it bounced and then it fell again. There was a huge hole where it hit the first time."[ citation needed ]

Gagarin's parachute opened almost immediately, and about ten minutes later, at 08:05 UTC, Gagarin landed. Both he and the spacecraft landed via parachute 26 km (16 mi) south west of Engels, in the Saratov region at 51°16′14″N45°59′50″E / 51.270682°N 45.99727°E / 51.270682; 45.99727 .

A farmer and her granddaughter, Rita Nurskanova, observed the strange scene of a figure in a bright orange suit with a large white helmet landing near them by parachute. Gagarin later recalled, "When they saw me in my space suit and the parachute dragging alongside as I walked, they started to back away in fear. I told them, don't be afraid, I am a Soviet citizen like you, who has descended from space and I must find a telephone to call Moscow!" [41] [42] [43]

Reactions and legacy

A copy of the Vostok rocket Semyorka Rocket R7 by Sergei Korolyov in VDNH Ostankino RAF0540.jpg
A copy of the Vostok rocket
Gagarin's spacesuit Gagarin-skafander.jpg
Gagarin's spacesuit

Soviet reaction

Gagarin's flight was announced while Gagarin was still in orbit, by Yuri Levitan, the leading Soviet radio personality since the 1930s. Although news of Soviet rocket launches would normally be aired only after the fact, Sergei Korolev wrote a note to the Party Central Committee to convince them that the announcement should be made as early as possible:

"We consider it advisable to publish the first TASS report immediately after the satellite-spacecraft enters orbit, for the following reasons:

(a) if a rescue becomes necessary, it will facilitate rapid organization of a rescue;

(b) it precludes any foreign government declaring that the cosmonaut is a military scout." [44]

The flight was celebrated as a great triumph of Soviet science and technology, demonstrating the superiority of the socialist system over capitalism. Moscow and other cities in the USSR held mass demonstrations, the scale of which was comparable to World War II Victory Parades. Gagarin was awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, the nation's highest honour. He also became an international celebrity, receiving numerous awards and honours. [45]

April 12 was declared Cosmonautics Day in the USSR, and is celebrated today in Russia as one of the official "Commemorative Dates of Russia." [46] In 2011, it was declared the International Day of Human Space Flight by the United Nations. [47]

Gagarin's informal reply Poyekhali! ("Let's roll!") became a historical phrase used to refer to the arrival of the Space Age in human history. [48] Later it was included in the refrain of a Soviet patriotic song written by Alexandra Pakhmutova and Nikolai Dobronravov (He said "Let's roll!" He waved his hand). [49]

The Soviet press later reported that, minutes before boarding the spacecraft, Gagarin made a speech: "Dear friends, you who are close to me, and you whom I do not know, fellow Russians, and people of all countries and all continents: in a few minutes a powerful space vehicle will carry me into the distant realm of space. What can I tell you in these last minutes before the launch? My whole life appears to me as one beautiful moment. All that I previously lived through and did, was lived through and done for the sake of this moment." According to historian Asif Siddiqi, Gagarin actually "was essentially forced to utter a stream of banalities prepared by anonymous speechwriters" taped much earlier in Moscow. [13] :274

American reaction

Officially, the U.S. congratulated the Soviet Union on its accomplishments. [50] Writing for The New York Times shortly after the flight, however, journalist Arthur Krock described mixed feelings in the United States due to fears of the spaceflight's potential military implications for the Cold War, [51] and the Detroit Free Press wrote that "the people of Washington, London, Paris and all points between might have been dancing in the streets" if it were not for "doubts and suspicions" about Soviet intentions. [52] Other US writers were concerned that the spaceflight had gained a propaganda victory on behalf of communism. President John F. Kennedy was quoted as saying that it would be "some time" before the US could match the Soviet launch vehicle technology, and that "the news will be worse before it's better." Kennedy also sent congratulations to the Soviet Union for their "outstanding technical achievement." [53] [54] Opinion pages of many US newspapers urged renewed efforts to overtake the Soviet scientific accomplishments. [52]

Adlai Stevenson, then the US ambassador to the United Nations, was quoted as saying, "Now that the Soviet scientists have put a man into space and brought him back alive, I hope they will also help to bring the United Nations back alive," and on a more serious note urged international agreements covering the use of space [52] (which did not occur until the Outer Space Treaty of 1967).

Other world reactions

Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru of India praised the Soviet Union for "a great victory of man over the forces of nature" [53] and urged that it be "considered as a victory for peace." The Economist voiced worries that orbital platforms might be used for surprise nuclear attacks. The Svenska Dagbladet in Sweden chided "free countries" for "splitting up and frittering away" their resources, while West Germany's Die Welt argued that America had the resources to have sent a man into space first but was beaten by Soviet purposefulness. Japan's Yomiuri Shimbun urged "that both the United States and the Soviet Union should use their new knowledge and techniques for the good of mankind," and Egypt's Akhbar El Yom likewise expressed hopes that the cold war would "turn into a peaceful race in infinite space" and turn away from armed conflicts such as the Laotian Civil War. [52]

World record

The FAI rules in 1961 required that a pilot must land with the spacecraft to be considered an official spaceflight for the FAI record books. [13] :283 Although some contemporary Soviet sources stated that Gagarin had parachuted separately to the ground, [55] the Soviet Union officially insisted that he had landed with the Vostok; the government forced the cosmonaut to lie in press conferences, and the FAI certified the flight. The Soviet Union did not admit until 1971 that Gagarin had ejected and landed separately from the Vostok descent module. [13] :283

When Soviet officials filled out the FAI papers to register the flight of Vostok 1, they stated that the launch site was Baykonur at 47°22′00″N65°29′00″E / 47.36667°N 65.48333°E / 47.36667; 65.48333 . In reality, the launch site was near Tyuratam at 45°55′12.72″N63°20′32.32″E / 45.9202000°N 63.3423111°E / 45.9202000; 63.3423111 , 250 km (160 mi) to the south west of Baykonur. They did this to try to keep the location of the Space Center a secret. [13] :284 In 1995, Russian and Kazakh officials renamed Tyuratam Baikonur.

Legacy

Commemorative monument, Vostok-1 landing site near Engels, Russia Gagarin field.jpg
Commemorative monument, Vostok-1 landing site near Engels, Russia

Four decades after the flight, historian Siddiqi wrote that Vostok 1

will undoubtedly remain one of the major milestones in not only the history of space exploration, but also the history of the human race itself. The fact that this accomplishment was successfully carried out by the Soviet Union, a country completely devastated by war just sixteen years prior, makes the achievement even more impressive. Unlike the United States, the USSR had to begin from a position of tremendous disadvantage. Its industrial infrastructure had been ruined, and its technological capabilities were outdated at best. A good portion of its land had been devastated by war, and it had lost about 25 million citizens ... but it was the totalitarian state that overwhelmingly took the lead [in the space race]. [13] :282

The landing site is now a monument park. The central feature in the park is a 25 m (82 ft) tall monument that consists of a silver metallic rocketship rising on a curved metallic column of flame, from a wedge shaped, white stone base. In front of this is a 3-meter (9 foot) tall white stone statue of Yuri Gagarin, wearing a spacesuit, with one arm raised in greeting and the other holding a space helmet. [56] [57] [58]

As of September 2018, the Vostok 1 re-entry capsule belongs to the S. P. Korolev RSC Energia Museum in Korolev City. [59] However, during the summer of 2018 it was on a temporary loan to the Space Pavilion at the VDNKh in Moscow.

In 2011, documentary film maker Christopher Riley partnered with European Space Agency astronaut Paolo Nespoli to record a new film of what Gagarin would have seen of the Earth from his spaceship, by matching historical audio recordings to video from the International Space Station following the ground path taken by Vostok 1. The resulting film, First Orbit , was released online to celebrate the 50th anniversary of human spaceflight. [60]

See also

Note

  1. The six crewed Vostok missions used names of birds as their call signs, and the Vostok 1 spacecraft was known as Swallow in keeping with this convention. [5] [6] However, due to its special importance, a terrestrial call sign Cedar (or: Siberian Pine) was used for Vostok 1 during flight. This code name was used to camouflage the significance of the mission to potential eavesdroppers until success was assured. [7]

Citations

  1. 1 2 3 "Aviation and Space World Records". Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI). Archived from the original on July 26, 2009. Retrieved March 12, 2009.
  2. "Spaceflight mission report: Vostok 1". Spacefacts. August 11, 2020. Retrieved March 12, 2020.
  3. "The Vostok (3A No. 3) mission" . Retrieved March 12, 2020. Gagarin's mission lasted 106 minutes, not 108 minutes, the duration that was reported for 50 years and even made book titles.
  4. 1 2 Siddiqi, p.275
  5. Yenne, Bill (1988). The Pictorial History of World Spaceflight. Exeter. p. 18. ISBN   0-7917-0188-3.
  6. Swenson, Jr., Loyd S.; Grimwood, James M.; Alexander, Charles C. "This New Ocean: A History of Project Mercury, Chapter 10, Section: "Vostok Wins the First Lap"". NASA.
  7. "Why was Apollo called Apollo? The history of spacecraft call signs". Royal Museums Greenwich.
  8. 1 2 "Vostok 1 – NSSDC ID: 1961-012A". NASA.
  9. "Google Maps – Vostok 1 Launch Pad – Gagarin's Start photo" . Retrieved December 25, 2010.
  10. "Google Maps – Vostok 1 Landing Site – Monument" . Retrieved December 25, 2010.
  11. "Google Maps – Vostok 1 Landing Site – Monument Photo" . Retrieved December 25, 2010.
  12. Records file on the first space flight by the USSR citizen Youri Alexeyvich Gagarin (PDF). The USSR Central Aero Club. 1961.
  13. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Siddiqi, Asif A. Challenge To Apollo: The Soviet Union and the Space Race, 1945–1974. NASA.
  14. Burgess and Hall, p.140
  15. Quoted in Burgess and Hall, p.140-141
  16. Burgess and Hall, p.141. The press said that Titov was so happy for Gagarin that he almost kissed him, but Titov denies this – Burgess and Hall, p.145.
  17. Siddiqi, p.272, also Burgess and Hall, p.142
  18. 1 2 Burgess and Hall, p.151
  19. Hall and Shayler, p.148-149
  20. 1 2 ""Тогда Юра вернулся на землю не из космоса, а с того света!.."".
  21. "(russian) "Where did the writing CCCP come from?" with authentic photos". Archived from the original on January 15, 2017. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
  22. "Oleg Ivanovsky - obituary". The Daily Telegraph. September 21, 2014. Retrieved September 25, 2014.
  23. Burgess and Hall, p.156
  24. 1 2 Burgess and Hall, p.150
  25. 1 2 Siddiqi, p.273
  26. Burgess and Hall, p.151. During a post-flight press conference on April 15, Alexander Nesmeyanov claimed that Gagarin took a sleeping pill. Also, Siddiqi, p.273, claims that they were both asleep at 21:30 when Korolev came to visit them, but Burgess and Hall, p.151, says Korolev spoke with them at this time.
  27. Siddiqi, p.273; In a post-flight press conference, Gagarin also stated that he slept well.
  28. Burgess and Hall, p.153.
  29. Gagarin, Yuri (2001). Soviet Man in Space. ISBN   9780898754605.
  30. "ДО СКОРОЙ ВСТРЕЧИ!" (in Russian). Archived from the original on April 1, 2021.
  31. Burgess and Hall, p.153
  32. 1 2 3 Siddiqi, p.274
  33. Obituary, Aviation Week and Space Technology, September 29, 2014, p.11-
  34. Siddiqi, p.276; neither Siddiqi, nor Hall and Shayler claim that music was actually played after this request.
  35. Khurana, Sukant (May 4, 2018). "VOSTOK 1 : FIRST MANNED SPACEFLIGHT IN HISTORY". Sukant Khurana. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
  36. Siddiqi describes it as a "tranquilizer pill", while Hall and Shayler describe it as a "cardiac pill".
  37. Siddiqi, p.276
  38. Hall and Shayler, p.150
  39. "1961: Soviets win space race". BBC News. April 12, 1961.
  40. Руденко М. И. (May–June 2008). "Тогда Юра вернулся на землю не из космоса, а с того света!." интернет-газета "Русская Берёза". Retrieved March 31, 2011.
  41. 1 2 "ЗВЕЗДНЫЙ РЕЙС ЮРИЯ ГАГАРИНА". epizodsspace.airbase.ru. Archived from the original on June 10, 2020. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  42. "Yuri Gagarin, 12 April 1961: "I come from outer space!" (1)". www.reflexions.uliege.be. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  43. Rosenberg, Steve (April 12, 2021). "Yuri Gagarin: Sixty years since the first man went into space". BBC News. Retrieved April 12, 2021.
  44. Harford, James (April 8, 1997). Korolev: How One Man Masterminded the Soviet Drive to Beat America to the Moon: How One Man Masterminded the Soviet Drive to Beat the Americans to the Moon. John Wiley & Sons. p. 169. ISBN   0-471-32721-2.
  45. Pervushin (2011), 7.1 Гражданин мира
  46. Государственная Дума. Федеральный закон №32-ФЗ от 13 марта 1995 г. «О днях воинской славы и памятных датах России», в ред. Федерального закона №59-ФЗ от 10 апреля 2009 г «О внесении изменения в статью 1.1 федерального закона "О днях воинской славы и памятных датах России"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", No.52, 15 марта 1995 г. ( State Duma . Federal Law #32-FZ of March 13, 1995 On the Days of Military Glory and the Commemorative Dates in Russia , as amended by the Federal Law #59-FZ of April 10, 2009 On Amending Article 1.1 of the Federal Law "On the Days of Military Glory and the Commemorative Dates in Russia". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  47. "UN Resolution A/RES/65/271, The International Day of Human Space Flight (12 April)". April 7, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2015.
  48. Pervushin (2011), 6.2 Он сказал «Поехали!»
  49. Душенко, Константин (2014). Большой словарь цитат и крылатых выражений (in Russian). Litres. ISBN   978-5-699-40115-4.
  50. 1961 Year in Review. UPI Audio Network. U.S. in Space.
  51. Arthur Krock, "In The Nation; Concentration of Science on Outer Space," The New York Times p. 28, April 14, 1961. "But because of the distrust that now exists among the great nations, and has plunged them into huge programs of deadly rearmament, an achievement by one which carries a clear and direct potential of military supremacy engenders fear of its use.... And so it has become as impossible for either of the groups divided by the Cold War to welcome unreservedly such feats as Major Gagarin's in the opposite camp."
  52. 1 2 3 4 "Opinion of the Week: At Home and Abroad," The New York Times p. E11 (April 16, 1961). Quotes of reactions from many US and international sources.
  53. 1 2 "Man in Space", The New York Times p. E1 (April 16, 1961).
  54. Harry Schwartz, "Moscow: Flight is taken as another sign that communism is the conquering wave," The New York Times p. E3 (April 16, 1961).
  55. "The Cruise of the Vostok". Time. April 21, 1961. Archived from the original on February 4, 2013. Retrieved November 5, 2011.
  56. "Google Maps – Vostok 1 Landing Site – Monument Park Location – Satellite photo" . Retrieved December 26, 2010.
  57. "Google Maps – Vostok 1 Landing Site – Rocket Monument photo" . Retrieved December 26, 2010.
  58. "Google Maps – Vostok 1 Landing Site – Yuri Gagarin Statue photo" . Retrieved December 26, 2010.
  59. "RSC Energia Museum"
  60. Amos, Jonathan (March 23, 2011). "Movie recreates Gagarin's spaceflight". BBC News. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
  61. Tattoo Archive – Vostok Archived January 22, 2012, at the Wayback Machine

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