Vuhledar

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Vuhledar
Shakhta Iuzhno Donbasskaia No. 1.jpg
The Pivdennodonbaska 1 coal mine
Flag of Vuhledar.svg
Coat of Arms of Vuhledar.svg
Donetsk province physical map.svg
Red pog.svg
Vuhledar
Vuhledar shown within Donetsk
Reliefkarte Ukraine 2022.png
Red pog.svg
Vuhledar
Vuhledar shown within Ukraine
Coordinates: 47°46′45″N37°14′54″E / 47.77917°N 37.24833°E / 47.77917; 37.24833
CountryFlag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine
Oblast Donetsk Oblast
Raion Volnovakha Raion
Hromada Vuhledar urban hromada
Founded1964
Area
  Total5.3 km2 (2.0 sq mi)
Elevation
187 m (614 ft)
Population
 (2023) [1]
  TotalDecrease2.svg <500
 In January 2022, prior to the Russian invasion, it was 14,144. [2]
Postal code
85670-85671
Area code +380-6273
Climate Warm summer subtype
KOATUU 1414800000
Website vugledar-rada.gov.ua

Vuhledar (Ukrainian : Вугледа́р, IPA: [wʊɦɫeˈdɑr] ; Russian : Угледа́р, romanized: Ugledar, IPA: [ʊɡlʲɪˈdar] ), is a small city in Volnovakha Raion, Donetsk Oblast, Ukraine. At the beginning of 2022, its population was 14,144. [2]

Contents

Vuhledar is a coal mining city in the cultural and economic Donbas region of eastern Ukraine, with its origins in the 1960s development of the coal industry in the region. It was planned to be a major economic center, but failed to meet expectations, and has remained a minor economic node in the 21st century.

Since March 2022, Vuhledar has been a site of fighting in the Russian invasion of Ukraine. The fighting has almost completely destroyed and depopulated Vuhledar, with reportedly less than 500 civilians remaining in the city.

Geography

Vuhledar is located on an elevated plain that is by far the highest point in the area. It is located close to the administrative border where Donetsk Oblast ends. [3]

Vuhledar is located 57 km (35 mi) from the city of Donetsk, the administrative centre of Donetsk Oblast, [4] and 20 km (12 mi) south of Marinka. [5]

History

20th century

In the 1960s, during the Soviet era, the Donbas coal basin south of the major industrial city of Donetsk was beginning to be developed. [4] The settlement that would later be known as Vuhledar was founded around the Pivdennodonbaska 1 coal mine [5] in 1964. It was originally an urban-type settlement named Pivdennyi Donetsk, meaning "South Donetsk". [4]

Young people were brought to Pivdennyi Donetsk from cities all over the country to work on the new coal industry. [5] There were plans to transform Pivdennyi Donetsk into a huge industrial center, but the plans were not fulfilled. Rather than the goal of achieving a population of 100,000, it only reached 15,000-17,000. Rather than ten mines being built, only two were built. A local has described Vuhledar as an "unfinished project". [6]

In 1969, Pivdennyi Donetsk was renamed Vuhledar, which means "gift of coal". [4] However, even as late as 2023, there were still some older residents who refer to Vuhledar as "Pivdenne", or "Southern", as they are still accustomed to the old name. [6] In 1991, Vuhledar received city status, and became a city of regional significance. [4]

21st century

Police delivers food and water to citizens of destroyed Vuhledar, February 2024 Vuhledar (2024-02-22) 07.jpg
Police delivers food and water to citizens of destroyed Vuhledar, February 2024

During the war in Donbas, many miners from Vuhledar enlisted in the Ukrainian Armed Forces, fought and died during the war. However, the city did not see any actual fighting until 2022. [6]

On February 24, 2022, Russia launched a full-scale invasion of Ukraine. On the day the invasion began, Vuhledar was hit by a Russian ballistic missile carrying a cluster munition. The missile struck outside a hospital and killed four civilians and injured another 10. [7] [8] In early 2023, Russian forces attacked Vuhledar anew. [9] A major Russian attempt to take Vuhledar in February 2023 ended in disaster with "heavy losses and humiliation". [10]

The battle has had a severe humanitarian impact on Vuhledar. [6] Vuhledar's deputy mayor Maksym Verbovsky stated that Vuhledar "was destroyed", with "one hundred percent of the buildings damaged;" [9] fewer than 500 civilians, and only one child, remained in the city once populated with 15,000 residents. [11] [12] [13]

Economy

The Pivdennodonbaska 1 coal mine in Vuhledar is one of the largest coal reserves in Ukraine, having estimated reserves of 69.3 million tonnes. [14] The Pivdennodonbaska 3 coal mine, also in Vuhledar, is even larger, with estimated reserves of 156.9 million tonnes. [14] For unknown reasons, there is no Pivdennodonbaska 2 coal mine. [6]

The majority of people in the town work in one of the coal mines or nearby factories. [3]

Government and politics

Vuhledar is the administrative center of Vuhledar urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine. In addition to Vuhledar itself, the hromada contains fourteen other surrounding villages. [15]

Education

The city contains three secondary schools. [4]

Demographics

Population history
YearPop.±%
1970 2,179 [16]     
1979 7,382 [16] +238.8%
1989 18,658 [17] +152.7%
YearPop.±%
2001 17,440 [4] −6.5%
2011 15,497 [16] −11.1%
2022 14,144 [2] −8.7%

As of the 2001 Ukrainian Census, Vuhledar's population was 17,440. Ethnically, the city has a majority of Ukrainians (63.1%), with a large minority of Russians (33.1%) and a small minority of Belarusians (1.0%). Linguistically, the majority of the city's population speaks Russian as a native language (70.8%), with minorities natively speaking Ukrainian (28.2%) and Belarusian (0.1%). [18]

The city has multiple religious communities, including Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) followers, Jehovah's Witnesses, Pentecostalists, and Evangelical Baptist Christians  [ uk ]. [4]

Notable people

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References

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  2. 1 2 3 Чисельність наявного населення України на 1 січня 2022 [Number of Present Population of Ukraine, as of January 1, 2022](PDF) (in Ukrainian and English). Kyiv: State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 July 2022.
  3. 1 2 "Hilltop Coal-Mining Town a Tactical Prize in Ukraine War". 2023-02-11. Retrieved 2023-11-15.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Ivtšenko, A.; Klimenko, N. P. (2006). "Vuhledar (Вугледар)". Encyclopedia of Modern Ukraine (in Ukrainian). ISBN   9789660220744 . Retrieved 10 February 2023.
  5. 1 2 3 "Вугледар, Мар'їнський Район, Донецька Область". Історія міст і сіл Української РСР[ The History of Cities and Villages of the Ukrainian SSR ] (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 10 February 2023.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 "Вугледар до та після. Невідома історія міста, про яке Україна та світ дізналися завдяки війні. Аудіоверсія" (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 2023-11-15.
  7. "Ukraine: Russian Cluster Munition Hits Hospital". hrw.org. 25 February 2022. Retrieved 8 March 2022.
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  9. 1 2 Santora, Marc. "Russia pushes to take Ukrainian town near a vital supply line". Japan Times. Retrieved 10 February 2022.
  10. "Ukraine war: Vuhledar, the mining town Russia wants to take". BBC News. 2023-02-24. Retrieved 2023-11-15.
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  13. Eckel, Mike (2023-02-17). "What Happened In Vuhledar? A Battle Points To Major Russian Military Problems". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty . Retrieved 2023-05-28.
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