WKVB (FM)

Last updated

WKVB
KLOVE 2014.svg
City Westborough, Massachusetts, US
Broadcast area Greater Boston
Worcester, Massachusetts
Frequency 107.3 MHz (HD Radio)
BrandingK-Love
Slogan "Positive, Encouraging"
Programming
Format Contemporary Christian
Subchannels HD2: Air 1
Network K-Love
Ownership
Owner Educational Media Foundation
WCCC, WKMY, WLVO
History
First air date
June 15, 1961 (1961-06-15) [1]
Former call signs
WAAB-FM (19611968)
WAAF (19682020)
WBZU (2020)
Call sign meaning
K-LoVe Boston
Technical information
Licensing authority
FCC
Facility ID 74467
Class B
ERP 9,600 watts
HAAT 335 meters (1,099 ft)
Transmitter coordinates
42°20′9.00″N71°42′57.00″W / 42.3358333°N 71.7158333°W / 42.3358333; -71.7158333
Links
Public license information
Profile
LMS
Webcast Listen Live
Website klove.com

WKVB (107.3  FM) – branded K-Love – is a non-commercial contemporary Christian radio station licensed to serve Westborough, Massachusetts, United States. Owned by the Educational Media Foundation, WKVB does not broadcast any local programming, functioning as the Greater Boston network affiliate for K-Love, despite being located in the adjacent Worcester market. The station's studios are located in Boston's Allston district, while its transmitter is on Stiles Hill in Boylston, with a backup in Paxton. In addition to a standard analog transmission, WKVB broadcasts in HD Radio and is available online.

Contents

Historically, this station is perhaps best known as WAAF, which carried a commercial rock music format for nearly 50 years in various forms of the genre, with an active rock orientation between 1989 and 2020. The station also featured personalities including Bob Rivers, Liz Wilde and Greg Hill, and was the first high-profile radio home for Opie and Anthony in the mid-1990s. Sold by Entercom (now known as Audacy, Inc.) to the Educational Media Foundation on February 18, 2020, WAAF's former programming continues on digital subchannels of WEEI-FM and WWBX, as well as on the Audacy platform. [2]

History

Early years

On October 5, 1960, [3] the Federal Communications Commission awarded the Waterman Broadcasting Corporation, owner of WAAB (1440 AM), a construction permit to build a new FM radio station licensed to Worcester on 107.3 MHz, to transmit from Asnebumskit Hill in Paxton. [4] WAAB-FM went on the air on June 15, 1961. [1] In its early years, WAAB-FM simulcast the full service programming of its AM sister station; in 1967, it broke away from the simulcast and launched a stereo beautiful music format. [5]

WAAB-AM-FM was sold to WAAB, Inc., in 1968 for $675,000. WAAB, Inc., was owned by Ahmet Ertegun and his brother Nesuhi Ertegun, as well as record executive Jerry Wexler; all had just recently sold Atlantic Records to Warner Bros.-Seven Arts. [6] The FM station took on new WAAF call letters on May 28, 1968; [3] the call letters had previously been in use in Chicago on 950 AM for 45 years.

In later years, WAAF ownership would erroneously claim a longer history than that of its own license, stretching back to experimental FM station W1XOJ in the late 1930s. [7] W1XOJ—later given the normal call letters WGTR—was part of the first FM network, put together by the Yankee Network and its principal, John Shepard, who at the time also owned WAAB. While WAAB-FM/WAAF initially utilized the same transmission tower as this previous station, [4] there is no connection, as the license for WGTR was deleted at the request of General Teleradio on July 24, 1953. [8]

Freeform era

WAAF ended its automated middle-of-the-road programming on March 16, 1970, and introduced a live progressive rock format, [9] which emphasized folk and folk-rock during the day and harder rock at night. [10] It ran as a freeform station known as "WAAF, The Rock of New England", where the air talent was given total control over what music to play. The station was sold in 1971 to Southern Massachusetts Broadcasters, owned by George Gray, in an $800,000 acquisition. [11]

On November 7, 1971, WAAF was in the middle of an all-Beatles weekend when its transmitting building was damaged by a homemade pipe bomb, knocking it off the air temporarily and causing $4,000 in damage. [12] A group demanding the end of capital punishment and "parole law" in Massachusetts claimed it had orchestrated the bombing. [13] The station was forced to temporarily operate on a limited schedule from the transmitter site, as the blast put its studio-transmitter link out of service. [14] Gray sold his Worcester stations to the Robert L. Williams Broadcasting Company of Massachusetts in 1976 for $1.465 million; he had previously sold his other radio stations in New Bedford and Binghamton, New York, the year before. [15] Robert L. Williams also owned WEZN radio in Bridgeport, Connecticut. [16]

Album rocker

(Lee) Abrams is sitting down in Atlanta coming up with research that shows new wave isn't the coming thing, it's lost its chance. Not enough airplay, not enough record company support.

Steve Stockman,then-WAAF program director, November 1980 [17]

By the mid-1970s, WAAF had settled in as an album-oriented rock outlet. The station was one of the first clients of the "Superstars" format, developed by consultants Lee Abrams and Kent Burkhart; [17] WAAF would continue to use their services until January 1984. [18] Promotional slogans of the period played off the call letters, including "The WAAF Air Force" and a giraffe mascot known as the "WAAF GirAAF". [19]

WAAF had completed the first of several technical improvements to reach listeners in Boston in 1972 when it increased its effective radiated power to 16,500 watts; it had operated with less than 2,000 ever since signing on. [3] However, it was not until 1978 when the Boston Globe heralded WAAF's entry into the Boston market and its "rock radio battle". [20] In 1977, the station managed to outrate talk outlet WMEX. [21] 1978 saw WAAF's third sale of the decade when WAAF, its AM counterpart WFTQ, and WEZN were sold to a group of employees, known as Park City Communications, for $3.2 million. [22] Park City sold all of its stations to Katz Broadcasting, a subsidiary of Katz Media Group, for $16 million in November 1981. [23]

WAAF encountered ratings success in the Worcester market to start the 1980s; despite newfound competition from WCOZ (94.5 FM) in Boston, the station attributed its success to extensive marketing, promotion, and contests. [24] WAAF appeared in ratings surveys not only in Worcester and Boston but in Providence and Springfield; WAAF listening was even measured as far away as Peterborough, New Hampshire. [25] Remaining a "Superstars" client, WAAF relied on Abrams' playlist input and received criticism for not taking chances to play other music genres; Abrams notably told WAAF's program director in 1980 that new wave "isn't the coming thing." [17] Music heard on the station tended to lean toward a harder rock focus from artists like Led Zeppelin, Ted Nugent, Van Halen, and Pat Benatar. [24]

As far as we're concerned, it's the biggest promotion ever to hit AOR radio, certainly at least here in New England... we left the competition, WBCN and WCOZ, hemming and hawing.

Steve Marx,then-WAAF general manager, over the station's 1981 Rolling Stones ticket giveaway [26]

It was during this time, in September 1981, that The Rolling Stones played a warmup show for a group of WAAF listeners at Sir Morgans Cove, a Worcester nightclub. WAAF connected with the band while they rehearsed at Long View Farm in North Brookfield and gave away all 300 tickets for the free show as a reward for locals respecting their privacy; demand exceeded 4,000 in what Radio & Records termed "an unprecedented radio concert promotion coup". [26] All day, station staffers drove around Worcester in unmarked cars handing out tickets to locals who had station stickers or T-shirts. While WAAF refused to announce the name of the location, WBCN obtained the information from a Worcester police officer, causing a large crowd of 4,000 to form outside of the 300-seat venue; 10 people were arrested. [27] WAAF promotion director Steve Stockman blamed WBCN for announcing the venue on-air, declaring his competitor's actions "reckless and irresponsible". [26]

A few months later, Bob and Doug McKenzie (Rick Moranis and Dave Thomas) teamed up with WAAF for a contest to promote their The Great White North comedy album, where the winner received an afternoon trip for two to Tewksbury, while the runner-up won a weekend trip for two to the Lowell suburb. [28] WAAF staffers came up with the contest idea after noticing a sign in Tewksbury that reminded them of toque knit hats referred to in the album. The station had also asked the town's fire chief to give the winner keys to the city; he declined, believing the initial offer to be a prank phone call. [29]

Bob Rivers co-hosted morning drive on WAAF between 1982 and 1987 with Peter "Zip" Zipfel. Titled Bob and Zip, the program became known for parody and novelty songs produced by Rivers; the most memorable one being "Breakin' Up Is Hard On You" ("Breaking Up Is Hard to Do" by Neil Sedaka) regarding the Bell System divestiture, and charted at #70 on the Billboard Hot 100. [30] Rivers also performed "Just a Big Ego" ("Just a Gigolo" by David Lee Roth) which debuted as Roth announced his departure from Van Halen, [31] and was included in The Rhino Brothers Present the World's Worst Records. [32] Rivers and Zipfel attracted attention on the day of the 1984 United States presidential election by instructing their listeners who planned to vote for Ronald Reagan to simultaneously flush their toilets at 7:00 a.m., and listeners voting for Walter Mondale to flush their toilets at 7:30 a.m.; the station then contacted the various regional water authorities and based their exit poll off of the drops in water pressure. [33] Rivers left WAAF to take over as morning-drive host at WIYY in Baltimore; [34] Drew Lane replaced him and was later teamed up with Zipfel. [35] [36]

WAAF attempted another unusual promotion where the station was to have dropped 100,000 one-dollar bills from a helicopter onto downtown Lowell on November 26, 1988, at 1:07 p.m. This event was abruptly canceled at the last minute by Lowell city officials concerned about the safety of people who would have participated, while station management had intended for it to promote Lowell's revitalization. [37]

"Untamed Radio"

It's important to remember that WAAF has a 20-year heritage as a New England rock station, I don't want any mixed signals from this thing... it's not that dramatic a change.

John Gorman,on consulting WAAF's 1989 switch to "Rock 40", an antecedent of their future active rock format [38]

On March 10, 1989, New City Broadcasting traded WAAF and WFTQ to Zapis Communications in exchange for WEKS-FM (104.1) in Atlanta in what was a tax-free asset swap; each half of the transaction was valued at $15 million. [39] Zapis Communications was headed by Xenophon Zapis and his son Lee Zapis, who also owned WZAK in Cleveland. [40] [41] New City already owned WYAY (106.7 FM), and agreed to keep it in the Gainesville, Georgia market as a condition of the asset swap. [42]

When Zapis took over operations in the summer, John Sutherland took over as general manager, promotions director Ron Valeri was promoted to operations manager, Nance Grimes was promoted to acting program director (Grimes left that October, with Valeri assuming the programming role outright) [43] and John Gorman—a Boston native best known for programming WMMS in Cleveland from 1973 to 1986—was hired as a consultant. [38] As a sign of things to come, Aerosmith was in-studio to play their upcoming album Pump two weeks in advance of the album's release. [44]

Owing in part to Gorman's consultancy, WAAF hired Ruby Cheeks for morning drive that October. [45] Cheeks was formerly a part of WMMS's morning show and had also hosted evenings and afternoons, and had left the station in a contract dispute. [46] WAAF's musical direction was shifted to what was called "Rock 40", featuring harder songs by core artists while increasing the amount of new and current music played. Gorman publicly called it a "fine-tuning" of the playlist instead of a format shift, while the move was also made to improve WAAF's ratings in Boston as opposed to Worcester. [38] With the relaunch, the station was re-branded as "Untamed Radio", a slogan also used on WRQK-FM in Canton, Ohio, another station Gorman oversaw. [47]

Greg Hill, who had joined the station's promotions department in 1986, [48] was promoted to overnights in June, [49] then named as Ruby Cheeks's co-host that November. While John Gorman's consultancy over WAAF eventually ended after he took over as program director for WMJI in Cleveland [50] and subsequently returned to WMMS and WHK (1420 AM) in 1994, [51] Gorman held high praise for Valeri's work as programmer for WAAF, telling Hitmakers magazine, "could you imagine what (Ron) would do with a full Boston Metro signal?" [52]

Starting on January 9, 1991, WAAF's programming was simulcast over WFTQ due to what John Sutherland called "substantial losses" for the AM station's prior format; [53] among the people dismissed was Steve LeVeille. [54] This simulcast ended on September 8 when Zapis Communications entered into an agreement with the Boston Celtics, then the owners of WEEI (590 AM), to simulcast the newly converted sports radio outlet under the WVEI call sign. [55]

Alternative and "raunchy" lean

I'm into reality and sarcasm, and I call myself a humorist. Some people are shocked, but to me it's rote, I'm just being myself.

Liz Wilde,WAAF afternoon host [56]

As the station continued to evolve under the "Untamed Radio" brand, Liz Wilde was hired initially for evenings in 1990, then promoted to afternoon drive in early 1992. [57] Following Ruby Cheeks' departure from WAAF to return to Cleveland at WNCX, [58] Greg Hill assumed sole hosting duties for what would be called The Hill-Man Morning Show. Both Wilde and Hill's on-air presentations, in addition to billboards and television commercials suggestively promoting the station, netted attention in the local press for what was deemed as "raunchy" content. [56] General manager Bruce Mittman and program director Ron Valeri defended their content to the Boston Globe as appealing to the 18-34 male demographic, [7] Mittman, in particular, praised Wilde for her creativity. Hill also defended his show by saying, "If something annoys you, turn the knob. Shut it off." [7] Following Wilde's promotion to afternoons, John Osterlind took over as evening host. [59]

Much of the station's change to an aggressive presentation came with WAAF's further orientation to the Boston market, having opened a sales office in Newton in 1991. In the Arbitron ratings in that period, WAAF ranked number one in Worcester, number four in Springfield, in the top five stations in Manchester and in the top ten in Boston and Providence, all in the 18-34 male demo; management viewed WAAF as speaking to an audience rather than speaking to a geographical location. [60] WAAF also championed local band Extreme upon the release of their album Pornograffitti and single "More Than Words", hosting a softball duel between the band and station staffers at Lampson Field in Billerica. [61]

Every November, starting in 1993, WAAF held a popular annual charity event "Walk and Rock for Change", raising money for food banks in Massachusetts and New Hampshire. [62] During this event, the DJs from the station walked across Massachusetts, asking for change from the people as they stopped in each town and airing interviews along the way. Starting in 2003, during this event, WAAF DJs played requested songs not normally heard on the station for a donation. [63] For the first two weeks of December 1993, Greg Hill engaged in an elaborate stunt dressed up as a "Mystery Santa", handing out $50 dollar bills to random people, and even to Boston Mayor Thomas Menino, who declined the money offer. [64] [65] Hill's reveal took place in a news conference after several days of $10,000 giveaways, including several hundred dollars to a homeless shelter, saying he was aiming to capture "the curiosity of the people." [66]

Liz Wilde would leave WAAF for the evening slot on WLUP-FM (97.9) in Chicago in March 1995. [67] It was her replacements in the afternoon time slot, however, that would garner the station ample amounts of attention and infamy.

Opie and Anthony

Gregg Hughes and Anthony Cumia hosted afternoon drive on WAAF from March 1995 to April 1998. Opie and Anthony.jpg
Gregg Hughes and Anthony Cumia hosted afternoon drive on WAAF from March 1995 to April 1998.

In early 1995, Gregg "Opie" Hughes and Anthony Cumia were a newly established duo hosting a late-night program over WBAB in Babylon, New York. [68] WAAF program director Ron Valeri tuned into WBAB while visiting family in Long Island and called Hughes to offer them a job. [69] General manager Bruce Mittman later recounted he "almost drove off the road laughing" from listening to an aircheck assembled by Hughes, [70] and after a competing offer from a Dallas station, Hughes and Cumia were hired by WAAF in afternoon drive in March 1995, officially replacing Liz Wilde. [71] Shortly after the debut of Opie and Anthony, Valeri left the station and was replaced by Dave Douglas; Cumia ignored directives from Douglas and dropped most of the music from their program. Despite this, Douglas cited their show as part of a high-profile airstaff where every daypart could easily be a well-performing morning show on another station. [72]

The duo had several publicity stunts throughout their tenure at WAAF, the most infamous one being "100 Grand" where after weeks of on-air promotions implying otherwise, the winning caller to a contest giveaway won a 100 Grand Bar instead of $100,000. [73] In May 1997, Hughes and Cumia started one of their most notorious promotions: "Whip 'em Out Wednesday", where women engaged in "flashing" to any oncoming drivers that had a "WOW" sticker on their car. [74] The show was suspended for two weeks after a confidential memo from management was read aloud by the duo, while Bruce Mittman canceled the promotion after nine weeks when police contacted station management; Mittman denied the suspension was related. [75] A compilation album of their material from WAAF, Demented World , was released in October 1997. [76] [77]

You can't really feel guilty about it. I don't know, you live by the sword, you die by the sword. I was picked on... because I was 5 foot 2, 91 pounds, in 10th grade, and I never minded it. I always liked the attention, good or bad. I don't care what people think about me. So negative, positive attention, who cares?

Gregg Hughes,on any possible regrets with his Opie and Anthony routines [76]

Hughes and Cumia further accelerated the rivalry between WAAF and WBCN, especially after Nik Carter replaced Mark Parenteau against their show on WBCN. [78] Carter, who was African-American, was targeted not only by Hughes and Cumia, but by nighttime host "Rocko" for his ethnicity; a rant on Opie and Anthony on November 17, 1997, also contained what were construed as threats of physical violence towards Carter, labeled with the pejorative "Disco Boy" by the duo. [79] Carter responded in kind by calling WAAF "the hate station in Worcester" and "We Are All Fonies", in addition to in-kind pejoratives against Hughes, Cumia and Rocko, both on-air and on the station's website. [79] Hughes responded by telling the Boston Globe, "Eventually it's gonna come down to talent and, not to sound cocky, (Carter's) not in our league... (WBCN is) trying to create talk for their guy, a Howard Stern wannabe with no talent to back what he does." [76]

WAAF would become the subject of unwanted national and international attention in April 1998 after an April Fools' Day prank by Hughes and Cumia claimed that Boston mayor Thomas Menino was killed in a car accident in Florida, accompanied by a Haitian prostitute. [68] This included staged phone-in reports from two people claiming to be a policeman and news reporter, respectively. [80] In reality, Menino was on a flight as the prank unfolded; when notified, he joked about "being back from the dead" but filed a complaint with the FCC over the hoax, saying WAAF "blatantly disregarded the personal and public turmoil they were causing my family and the city" after Hughes and Cumia jokingly offered on-air to allow themselves to be stockaded at Boston City Hall Plaza and pied by Menino. [81] While the FCC took no action, [80] the negative reaction caused American Radio Systems (which had purchased the station, along with its AM counterpart, for $24.8 million on August 1, 1996) [82] to fire the duo and suspend Mittman for one month and Douglas for a week. [81] Mittman later claimed he had no advance knowledge of the prank, having taken the day off to celebrate his 20th wedding anniversary. [70]

Both Hughes and Cumia signed a deal to host afternoons at WNEW-FM in New York City several weeks after the firing. [80] As part of the deal, Hughes and Cumia frequently appeared on Nik Carter's afternoon program through phone-in appearances on co-owned WBCN, [83] which later simulcast their WNEW-FM program beginning in August 2001. [70]

The Boston rock radio war

Competitors who get locked into one-on-one format battles often wind up resembling each other consciously and subconsciously... it was true in the Cold War, and it's true in the rock wars in Boston.

Tom Taylor,industry analyst [83]

WAAF's rivalry with WBCN continued to escalate throughout the late 1990s. In February 1997, both stations engaged in a war of words over who had an advance copy of the Aerosmith album Nine Lives first; WAAF offered to play it over the phone to anyone who would call in, while during a listening party for the CD, WBCN announcer Mark Parenteau ripped WAAF as "juvenile" and "trailer park trash bottom feeders". [84] WZLX, co-owned with WBCN, wound up playing the album first over the air and received a cease and desist order. [85] That May, WAAF and WFNX management both accused WBCN and program director Oedipus of directing local bands away from functions hosted by either station. In a Radio & Records op-ed, WAAF program director Dave Douglas saw WBCN's booking of Primus—a band WAAF had played more than any other station in the Boston market—for a festival as insulting, along with a concert performed by Tonic not sponsored by any station but co-opted by WBCN. [86]

The rivalry was justified. WBCN reported to industry trades as both an active rock and alternative hybrid at this period; WAAF shared as much of 59% of its audience with WBCN in the local ratings, while WBCN shared 32% of its audience with WAAF. [87] The overlap between the two stations became so pronounced that a Boston Globe story in 2000 pointed out directly how much WAAF and WBCN "sounded alike", with nearly identical music playlists and equally provocative air personalities, in what industry analyst Tom Taylor called "the rock wars in Boston". The competitiveness was especially notable as WBCN had several distinct advantages over WAAF: a signal centered in Greater Boston, the local rights to The Howard Stern Show , and the flagship station designation for the New England Patriots Radio Network. [83]

Another unseen factor took place on September 20, 1997, when WAAF owner American Radio Systems was purchased by WBCN owner Infinity Broadcasting Corporation's parent company, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, for $1.6 billion. [88] Due to both American Radio and Infinity having multiple station holdings in the Boston market, Entercom purchased WAAF and WWTM, along with WEEI (850 AM), WRKO, and WEGQ, from the combined entity for $140 million on August 14, 1998. [89] After the sale, WAAF moved its studios from Worcester to Boston at a combined facility with the other Entercom acquisitions; the city of license remained Worcester. [90] Prior to the merger and divestiture, WAAF was briefly simulcast on the AM dial again, this time over WNFT (1150 AM) starting in June 1997, replacing a previous simulcast of WKLB (96.9 FM) as a placeholder until ARS could determine a new format for WNFT. [91]

WAAF took credit for being the first radio station to play Godsmack in 1999, giving the band extensive airplay before landing a music deal. [92] [93] In fact, WAAF had booked the band as a warm-up act for a Days of the New concert in December 1997, where they reportedly "stole the show" in a Globe concert review. [94] On June 13, 1999, the station also hosted an impromptu concert headlined by Limp Bizkit on a parking garage rooftop across the street from Fenway Park; the start time was moved up by an hour after WBCN announced the location on-air 15 minutes before WAAF did, and the performance only lasted for 25 minutes before police ordered it to end. [95]

During the production of a WAAF compilation CD, an audio track by evening host Mistress Carrie that gave out a phone number to someone named "Mike" was inserted as an inside joke; the phone number given was the inside studio line to WBCN, forcing WBCN to change their hotline. [96] Mistress Carrie, who has never publicly disclosed her surname, applied to be a producer for Opie and Anthony right before their dismissal in 1998, but was still hired full-time to the evening shift; [97] her involvement at the station dated back to a college internship seven years earlier. [98] Carrie eventually hosted both afternoon drive and middays. [99]

Signal adjustments

While it had been teased as early as 1999 when their studio was moved to downtown Boston, [90] WAAF was finally able to commence testing at a new transmission site at the WUNI tower on Stiles Hill in Boylston between October 31 and November 22, 2005, on program test authority from the FCC; along with this relocation, WAAF's city of license designation was reassigned from Worcester to Westborough, Massachusetts. While the station's signal strength decreased in most parts of Connecticut and western Massachusetts, the move was an attempt to concentrate the signal into Greater Boston. [100]

WAAF resumed broadcasting at the Paxton site to address alleged multipath issues, which were blamed on a faulty T1 line between their Brighton studios and the transmitter site. [101] These issues were resolved by the spring and summer of 2006, when WAAF resumed operations at the Boylston site. [102] The original program test authority lasted until May 26, 2011, when the FCC officially issued a license for the site. [103]

Simulcast with WKAF

WAAF's logo under previous simulcast with WKAF WAAF 97.7-107.3 logo.png
WAAF's logo under previous simulcast with WKAF

Radio One announced the sale of Brockton-licensed WILD-FM (97.7) to Entercom for $30 million on August 21, 2006, in what Radio One President Alfred C. Liggins called "a very good start to our asset disposition process." [104] Entercom's purchase came after their purchase of 15 small-market stations from CBS Radio earlier in the day; those stations and WILD-FM totaled $250 million. [105] Entercom entered into a time brokerage agreement several hours after the announcement, and switched WILD-FM to a simulcast of WAAF, enabling full-market coverage of WAAF's programming in Downtown Boston and other parts of the metro area. [106] After stunting with a computerized countdown sequence, the simulcast began at 5:30 p.m. the next day with AC/DC's "For Those About to Rock (We Salute You)". [107] WILD-FM's call sign was changed to WKAF on August 30, 2006. [108] The addition of WKAF was seen by industry analyst Scott Fybush as a way for WAAF to finally achieve signal parity with WBCN; Fybush considered the combination of WAAF's new Boylston signal and WKAF's signal as "the biggest FM coverage of any single Boston facility." [109]

In 2007, the station was nominated for the Radio & Records magazine active rock station of the year in a top 25 market award; other nominees included WIYY in Baltimore, KBPI in Denver, WRIF in Detroit, WMMR in Philadelphia, and KISW in Seattle. [110] WAAF became the longest-running rock radio station in the Boston market on August 12, 2009, after a complicated series of simultaneous format changes by CBS Radio, where WBCN's call sign changed to WBMX and format from rock to hot adult contemporary; WBMX's call sign changed to WBZ-FM and format from hot AC to sports radio as "The Sports Hub"; [111] [112] and WBCN's rock format was moved to the "new" WBZ-FM's second digital subchannel. [113]

WKAF broke away from the WAAF simulcast on January 5, 2017, when Entercom debuted a separate urban adult contemporary format; a press release sent out by Entercom stated that WKAF "delivered little appreciable audience beyond (WAAF's) booming signal". [114] [115] With the switch, WAAF added simulcasts on the second digital subchannel of WKAF and the third digital subchannel of WEEI-FM. [115] One month later, Entercom entered into an agreement to merge with CBS Radio via a Reverse Morris Trust. [116] Entercom, the surviving entity, retained WAAF and divested WKAF (along with several other stations) to iHeartMedia, Inc. [117]

Departure of Greg Hill

The final Hill-man Morning Show aired on WAAF on July 19, 2019. [118] Greg Hill and co-host Danielle Murr were transferred from WAAF to the morning-drive timeslot on WEEI-FM (and by extension, WVEI, due to it being a full-time affiliate of WEEI-FM's regional network) in the wake of Gerry Callahan's dismissal from WEEI-FM over declining ratings. [119] Callahan's co-host, Mike Mutnansky, was reassigned to weeknights on WEEI-FM, [120] while Hill's other co-host Lyndon Byers and producer Mike Hsu were moved to afternoon drive on WAAF. [120] Byers left the radio station shortly thereafter, leaving Hsu and Mistress Carrie as the lone remaining air personalities on the station, along with The Mens Room in evenings, [121] despite a "national search" for Hill's replacement announced by WAAF management when he left. [122]

In November 2019, the station announced a 50th anniversary concert for early April 2020 headlined by Godsmack, a band WAAF had championed 20 years earlier. [123] Intended as part of a year-long celebration, no other events were ever announced or scheduled. [2]

Sale to EMF

WAAF logo from 2017 to 2020, reflecting its simulcasts on the HD2 channels of WEEI-FM and WWBX Waaf.png
WAAF logo from 2017 to 2020, reflecting its simulcasts on the HD2 channels of WEEI-FM and WWBX
I found out, when Mike (Hsu) found out, after my show on Tuesday. We did our crossover break, and Joe asked us to come into his office. I cracked a smartass joke and said "I didn't do it" and when Joe didn't laugh, I knew something was wrong. Then I turned the corner and saw Mark Hannonour GMsitting there, and I got a pit in my stomach. Mark told us straight up what happened.

Mistress Carrie,on when she learned about the sale of WAAF [124]

On February 18, 2020, Entercom announced that WAAF would be sold to the Educational Media Foundation for $10.75 million. Under a network affiliation agreement signed on February 14, the station would join EMF's K-Love network on February 22. [125] Entercom would still provide two hours of programming for the station on Sunday mornings, so as to satisfy U.S. Federal Communications Commission-mandated public affairs requirements. [126] This agreement ended WAAF's 50-year run as a rock station; Entercom's press release regarding the sale stated that "WAAF"-branded rock programming would continue to air on the second HD Radio channels of WWBX and WEEI-FM (both channels had been simulcasting WAAF), as well as on Entercom's Radio.com platform. [2] Despite the K-Love network affiliation agreement having been officially signed four days earlier, on a Friday, Mistress Carrie and Mike Hsu were not informed of the transaction until two hours before the press release was issued, in between both of their respective airshifts. [124]

While still a Worcester-market station, the sale also effectively marked EMF's entry into the Boston market, [2] which had previously received K-Love programming via a lease of Methuen-licensed WUBG (1570 AM), [127] along with two FM translators in Boston's northern suburbs [128] and reception in the southern end of the market of the network's Providence, Rhode Island station, WLVO (95.5 FM). [127] EMF vice president of signal development Joe Miller said that Boston was "one of the last major markets we haven't been able to get a major signal into until now." [129]

The final day of WAAF's rock format consisted of a 14-hour farewell program co-hosted by program director Joe Calgaro, Mistress Carrie, and Mike Hsu. Among the in-studio guests was Aerosmith bass player Tom Hamilton, who personally reminisced about the first time he heard Dream On played anywhere on radio while driving in his car, listening to WAAF. [130] Other guests on the program included Bob Rivers, Peter Zipfel, Greg Hill, Gregg "Opie" Hughes, Anthony Cumia, and John Osterlind. [131] Mistress Carrie would later say of the offer by Entercom to do such a long farewell program, "that is a gift that we were given that we will never be able to repay. It's like being awake and attending your own wake and funeral... that you are there to hear all the nice things people would say about you if you were dead, it was overwhelming." [97]

We worked so hard to build the WAAF that everyone told us they wanted us to be. The listeners, we heard you. We got all your criticisms and your suggestions, and trust us when we tell you, we built that station for you, and it's in a computer right now. We were so close.

Mistress Carrie,on a possible re-launch of WAAF aborted by the sale to EMF [132]

During the final hour, all three hosts stated on-air that internal plans had been in place to "relaunch the station" on March 2. These plans were to have included re-hiring station veteran Mike Brangiforte as the new morning show host, canceling The Mens Room for a local night host, teaming up Hsu with Calgaro, and a revamped music playlist curated by Mistress Carrie. All of these purported plans were immediately aborted once the sale to EMF was announced, with the ensuing "WAAF"-branded rock programming operating without any air personalities. [132] The last song played on WAAF prior to joining the K-Love network was "Black Sabbath", from Black Sabbath's self-titled debut album. [133] The selection was intentional, as Mistress Carrie explained, "the album came out weeks before we signed on the air, and Ozzy released a new album (Ordinary Man) the day we signed off, and is the only artist to stay current for all 50 years of our history, and well... SATAN. If EMF was going to take our beloved signal, they were going to have to endure Satan first." Hsu also quipped, "I was hoping they (EMF) had to throw some holy water on the stick when (the clock) turned." [124] Following the switchover, around 150 fans, former employees and staff members celebrated the station's legacy outside of the Brighton studios with an outdoor champagne toast in the parking lot. [97] [98]

Upon the takeover, Entercom "parked" the WAAF call sign on a station in Scranton, Pennsylvania; [132] that station's previous WBZU calls were transferred to WAAF in a temporary move, effective February 26, 2020. [134] [a] The WBZU call letters had themselves been parked in Scranton 15 years earlier when another Entercom-owned station in Madison, Wisconsin changed formats and call letters. [135] Entercom then changed the station's call sign to WKVB on March 6; [136] EMF had previously used the WKVB call sign on the K-Love station at Port Matilda, Pennsylvania. EMF's purchase of WKVB was completed on April 21, 2020. [137]

Despite the sale, WAAF's planned "Big Gig" concert was still scheduled to be held on April 25, 2020; however, on March 27, Entercom announced that it would be postponed to April 24, 2021, due to the COVID-19 pandemic. [138]

Current programming

WKVB does not air local programming; all content is transmitted via satellite by the Educational Media Foundation's K-Love network based out of Rocklin, California. This excludes two hours of public affairs programming produced for the station by Entercom on Sunday mornings. [126]

Notes

  1. ^ WBZU was only used for the station's top of the hour station identification; despite the similar call sign, there was no connection between WBZU and WBZ, WBZ-FM, or WBZ-TV. ViacomCBS, which owns WBZ-TV, holds the trademark for "WBZ" [139] and has licensed the rights to the WBZ call letters under long-term agreements with iHeartMedia and Beasley Broadcast Group following CBS Corporation's divestiture of CBS Radio to Entercom. [140]

Related Research Articles

WBZ (AM) American radio station

WBZ is a Class A clear channel radio station licensed in Boston, Massachusetts. Formerly owned by Westinghouse Broadcasting and CBS Radio, the station is owned and operated by iHeartMedia.

WEEI (AM) ESPN Radio affiliate in Boston

WEEI – branded ESPN on WEEI – is a commercial sports radio station licensed to Boston, Massachusetts, serving Greater Boston and much of New England. Owned by Audacy, Inc., WEEI is the Boston affiliate for ESPN Radio, serving as an all-network brand extension of sister station WEEI-FM. The WEEI studios are located in Boston's Brighton neighborhood, while the station transmitter resides in the Boston suburb of Needham. In addition to a standard analog transmission, WEEI is available online via Audacy.

WRKO Talk radio station in Boston, Massachusetts

WRKO is a commercial news/talk radio station licensed to Boston, Massachusetts, serving Greater Boston and much of surrounding New England. Owned by iHeartMedia, WRKO is a Class B AM station that provides secondary coverage to portions of Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire and Maine during the day, but is highly directional at night to protect a number of clear-channel stations on adjacent frequencies. WRKO serves as the Boston affiliate for ABC News Radio, Coast to Coast AM and This Morning, America's First News with Gordon Deal; syndicated personalities Joe Pags, John Batchelor and Bill Cunningham; the flagship station of The Howie Carr Show, and the home of radio personality Jeff Kuhner. The WRKO studios are located in the Boston suburb of Medford, while the station transmitter resides in nearby Burlington. Besides its main analog transmission, WRKO simulcasts over the HD2 subchannel of sister station WZLX, and streams online via iHeartRadio.

WZLX Classic rock radio station in Boston

WZLX is a classic rock radio station in Boston, Massachusetts. This station is owned and operated by iHeartMedia. WZLX was one of America's first classic rock FM stations. Its studios are in Medford, and its transmitter is atop the Prudential Tower.

WEEI-FM Sports radio station in Lawrence, Massachusetts, serving Boston

WEEI-FM – branded SportsRadio 93.7 WEEI-FM – is a commercial sports radio station licensed to Lawrence, Massachusetts, serving Greater Boston and much of surrounding New England. Owned by Audacy, Inc., WEEI-FM is the Boston affiliate for CBS Sports Radio, the flagship station for the Boston Red Sox Radio Network; and the radio home of Greg Hill, Glenn Ordway, Lou Merloni, Christian Fauria, Dale Arnold and Jermaine Wiggins.

WBGB (FM) Adult hits radio station in Boston

WBGB – branded as Big 103 – is a commercial adult hits radio station licensed to Boston, Massachusetts. Owned by Audacy, Inc., the station serves Greater Boston. The WBGB studios are located in the Boston neighborhood of Brighton, while the station's transmitter resides in nearby Newton. Besides a standard analog transmission, WBGB broadcasts over three HD Radio channels, and is available online via Audacy.

WWBX Hot adult contemporary radio station in Boston

WWBX is a radio station with a hot adult contemporary format in Boston, Massachusetts. The format started at 98.5 FM on February 9, 1991, and moved to 104.1 FM, replacing WBCN on August 12, 2009, to allow for the launch of WBZ-FM at 98.5 the next day. Its studios are located in Brighton, and its transmitter is on the upper FM mast of the Prudential Tower.

<i>Opie and Anthony</i> American radio show

Opie and Anthony is an American radio show hosted by Gregg "Opie" Hughes and Anthony Cumia that aired from March 1995 to July 2014, with comedian Jim Norton serving as third mic from 2001. The show originated in 1994 when Cumia took part in a song parody contest on Hughes' nighttime show on WBAB on Long Island, New York. After subsequent appearances, Cumia decided to pursue a radio career and team with Hughes to host their own show.

WEZE Religious radio station in Boston

WEZE – branded 590 AM The Word – is a commercial Christian radio station licensed to Boston, Massachusetts, serving Greater Boston and much of surrounding New England. Owned by Salem Communications, WEZE is the Boston affiliate for the Salem Radio Network. The WEZE studios are located in the Boston suburb of North Quincy, and the station transmitter resides in neighboring Medford. Besides a standard analog transmission, WEZE is available online.

Liz Wilde is an American radio personality best known for her shock jock radio program Liz Wilde. After much success at WSHE as the evening air personality, Liz moved her show to the Northeast, taking over the night shift of rock station WAAF-FM in the Boston, Massachusetts radio market. After having great success in the evening slot for 18 months, The Liz Wilde Show was moved to afternoon drive-time setting record ratings for WAAF and making them competitive with rival rock station WBCN (FM) in that daypart for the first time. With her ratings success in Boston, Wilde moved to WLUP in Chicago, Illinois in March 1995. Her show aired in the morning drive-time slot from 6am-10am on WPLL in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. She moved on to rock-and-roll pioneering station WMMS 100.7 FM in Cleveland, Ohio. Her show also aired on KLLI in the Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas market, and most recently on WRXK in Ft. Myers, Florida from November 2004 until March 2006.

Gregg Hughes American radio personality and podcast host (born 1963)

Gregg Hughes, better known by his air name Opie, is an American radio personality and podcast host best known as the former co-host of the Opie and Anthony radio show that aired from 1995 to 2014 with Anthony Cumia and comedian Jim Norton. From 2014 to 2016, Hughes and Norton stayed at SiriusXM as co-hosts of Opie with Jim Norton. In October 2016, Hughes became the host of his own show, The Opie Radio Show which lasted until his firing from SiriusXM on July 7, 2017.

Dennis and Callahan was an American morning radio show on WEEI-FM, a sports radio station in Boston, Massachusetts. On November 16, 2010, a live three-hour simulcast began airing on NESN at 6–10 AM Eastern time each weekday. The show combines talk of sports and politics, along with current or "water cooler" issues. The show premiered in 1997 with Callahan and former WHDH Sports Director John Dennis, and it received strong ratings until WEEI received ratings competition in 2009 with the launch of CBS Radio's sports station, WBZ-FM (98.5); ratings have since fallen from their peak.

WZRM Spanish CHR radio station in Brockton–Boston, Massachusetts

WZRM is a radio station in the Boston, Massachusetts market licensed to Brockton, Massachusetts, carrying a Spanish CHR radio format. Owned and operated by iHeartMedia, it serves the Metro Boston and South Shore areas of Massachusetts. The station's studios are located in Medford and the transmitter site is atop Great Blue Hill.

WAAF is a commercial AM radio station licensed to Scranton, Pennsylvania. Owned by Audacy, Inc., WAAF airs a talk radio format. It is powered at 900 watts by day and 440 watts at night, using a non-directional antenna at all times. The transmitter is at the corner of Penn Avenue and Spruce Street, on the Scranton Times Building. In addition to a standard analog transmission, WAAF's programming is available online via Audacy.

WVEI (AM) WEEI sports radio station in Worcester, Massachusetts, United States

WVEI is an AM sports station in Worcester, Massachusetts, operating on 1440 kHz with 5,000 watts. The station is owned by Audacy, Inc. Most programming is provided by Boston sister station WEEI-FM.

WWLK-FM Radio station in Meredith, New Hampshire

WWLK-FM is an American licensed radio station with studios located in Bow, New Hampshire. The station is owned by Dirk Nadon, through licensee Lakes Media, LLC. WWLK-FM is licensed to serve the community of Meredith, New Hampshire, and has coverage of central New Hampshire, particularly the Lakes Region area. WWLK-FM broadcasts a soft adult contemporary format.

WVEI-FM Radio station in Westerly, Rhode Island

WVEI-FM is a radio station broadcasting a sports radio format, largely simulcasting Boston-based WEEI-FM. Licensed to Westerly, Rhode Island, United States. The station is owned by Audacy, Inc.. In addition to WEEI programming, WVEI-FM carries Providence Friars men's basketball, Boston Bruins hockey, and ESPN Radio. Its transmitter is in Exeter, Rhode Island but due to it being mostly a simulcast, its operations are run out of WEEI-FM's studios in Boston's Brighton neighborhood.

WBZ-FM Sports radio station in Boston

WBZ-FM is a commercial sports radio station licensed to Boston, Massachusetts, serving Greater Boston and much of surrounding New England. Owned by the Beasley Broadcast Group, WBZ-FM is the Boston affiliate for Fox Sports Radio; the flagship station for: the New England Patriots, Boston Bruins, Boston Celtics, and New England Revolution radio networks; and the radio home of Fred Toettcher, Rich Shertenlieb, Scott Zolak, Mike Felger, Tony Massarotti, and Adam Jones. The WBZ-FM studios are located at the Morrissey Boulevard in Dorchester, while the station transmitter resides in the Boston suburb of Newton. In addition to a standard analog transmission, WBZ-FM broadcasts over two HD Radio channels, and is available online.

WWEI Radio station in Easthampton, Massachusetts

WWEI is a radio station in Easthampton, Massachusetts, serving Springfield with a sports radio format. The station is owned by Audacy, Inc.. Most programming is provided by Boston sister station WEEI-FM.

WBWL (FM) Country music radio station in Lynn–Boston, Massachusetts

WBWL is an American radio station licensed to serve the community of Lynn, Massachusetts. Established in 1963, WBWL is owned by iHeartMedia and serves the Boston metropolitan area. The station broadcasts a country music format. The station's studios are located in Medford and the transmitter site is on Murray Hill, also in Medford.

References

  1. 1 2 "WAAB-FM" (PDF). Broadcasting Yearbook. 1963. p. B-89 (291). Archived (PDF) from the original on March 13, 2021. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Venta, Lance (February 18, 2020). "Entercom Sells WAAF Boston To Educational Media Foundation". RadioInsight. Archived from the original on February 18, 2020. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  3. 1 2 3 FCC History Cards for WAAF
  4. 1 2 Fybush, Scott (March 13, 2003). "Tower Site of the Week: Asnebumskit Hill (and Little Asnebumskit), Paxton, Mass". www.fybush.com. Archived from the original on August 4, 2020. Retrieved February 27, 2020.
  5. "The Boston Radio Dial: WAAF(FM)". The Archives @ BostonRadio.org. February 25, 2007. Archived from the original on July 30, 2019. Retrieved February 20, 2020.
  6. "LIN group gets New York outlet" (PDF). Broadcasting. April 1, 1968. pp. 70, 72. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 13, 2021. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  7. 1 2 3 Kauppi, Jason (April 26, 1992). "On WAAF, if it's raunchy it goes on the air". Boston Globe. pp. 17, 19. Archived from the original on March 13, 2021. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
  8. "FM Station Deleted" (PDF). Broadcasting. August 3, 1953. p. 102. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 13, 2021. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
  9. "Changing Formats" (PDF). Broadcasting . March 30, 1970. p. 69. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 13, 2021. Retrieved February 20, 2020.
  10. "WAAF-FM Shifts to Progressive Rock" (PDF). Billboard . March 21, 1970. p. 32. Retrieved February 20, 2020.
  11. "For the Record" (PDF). Broadcasting. September 6, 1971. p. 69. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 13, 2021. Retrieved February 25, 2020.
  12. "FBI probes bombing of radio station". Boston Globe. November 8, 1971. Archived from the original on June 7, 2019. Retrieved May 6, 2019.
  13. Cowan, Peter (November 9, 1971). "Officials seek link to convicts, blast". Boston Globe. Archived from the original on June 7, 2019. Retrieved May 6, 2019.
  14. "Bomb blasts WAAF-FM off air temporarily" (PDF). Broadcasting. November 15, 1971. p. 40. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  15. "Changing Hands" (PDF). Broadcasting. February 2, 1976. p. 27. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 13, 2021. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  16. "Broadcaster Receives Aid in Purchase". Hartford Courant. July 23, 1976. p. 56. Archived from the original on March 13, 2021. Retrieved May 5, 2019.
  17. 1 2 3 McLaughlin, Jeff (November 6, 1980). "Airplay for Success". The Boston Globe Calendar. pp. 6, 21. Archived from the original on March 13, 2021. Retrieved May 5, 2019.
  18. Feinstein, Steve (December 14, 1984). "AOR: '84 In Review" (PDF). Radio & Records. p. 70. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 13, 2021. Retrieved February 25, 2020.
  19. "The Boston Radio Dial: WAAF(FM)". Boston Radio. February 25, 2007. Archived from the original on July 30, 2019. Retrieved February 25, 2020.
  20. McLaughlin, Jeff (April 6, 1978). "Power Plays". Boston Globe. p. Calendar 4, 32. Archived from the original on March 13, 2021. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  21. Hall, Claude (February 26, 1977). "Vox Jox" (PDF). Billboard. p. 23. Retrieved February 25, 2020.
  22. "For the Record" (PDF). Broadcasting. February 20, 1978. p. 68. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 31, 2021. Retrieved February 25, 2020.
  23. "Changing Hands: Approved" (PDF). Broadcasting . November 9, 1981. p. 67. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 31, 2021. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
  24. 1 2 Keller, Jon (March 21, 1981). "WAAF-FM Thrives, AM Sister Troubled" (PDF). Billboard . p. 23. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 31, 2021. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
  25. Duncan, James (1981). Fall 1981 (PDF). Duncan's American Radio. pp. 95, 141, 203, 203, 243. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 31, 2021. Retrieved February 27, 2020.
  26. 1 2 3 "WAAF Pulls Off Stones Club Date Coup" (PDF). Radio & Records. September 25, 1981. pp. 1, 14. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 31, 2021. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
  27. Simon, James (September 15, 1981). "'Secret' Stones concert in Worcester". Lowell Sun . p. 30. Archived from the original on February 22, 2020. Retrieved February 21, 2020.
  28. McCafferty, Patricia (March 14, 1982). "All-expense paid trip to Tewksbury". Lowell Sun . p. B1. Archived from the original on February 23, 2020. Retrieved February 23, 2020.
  29. McCafferty, Patricia (February 14, 1982). "Grand prize: weekend in Tewksbury". Lowell Sun . p. B1. Archived from the original on February 22, 2020. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
  30. Whitburn, Joel (1997). Joel Whitburn's Top Pop Singles. Menomonee Falls, WI: Record Research Inc. p. 13. ISBN   0-89820-122-5.
  31. "Street Talk" (PDF). Radio & Records . August 9, 1985. p. 28. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 31, 2021. Retrieved February 23, 2020.
  32. "The Rhino Brothers Present the World's Worst Records". amazon.com . Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved February 23, 2020.
  33. Johnson, Dean (November 8, 1984). "On flush polls and camera wars". Lowell Sun . p. 53. Archived from the original on February 23, 2020. Retrieved February 23, 2020.
  34. "Street Talk" (PDF). Radio & Records . June 12, 1987. pp. 18, 21. Retrieved February 23, 2020.
  35. "AOR: Segues" (PDF). Radio & Records . September 4, 1987. p. 62. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 13, 2021. Retrieved February 23, 2020.
  36. "Street Talk" (PDF). Radio & Records . February 24, 1989. pp. 26, 29. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 13, 2021. Retrieved February 23, 2020.
  37. Ward, Peter (November 25, 1988). "City cancels rock station's dollar drop promo". Lowell Sun . pp. 1, 4. Archived from the original on February 23, 2020. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
  38. 1 2 3 "Valeri Upped To OM As WAAF Goes Rock 40" (PDF). Radio & Records . September 8, 1989. pp. 3, 48. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 13, 2021. Retrieved February 21, 2020.
  39. "NewCity/Zapis Swap Could Spell Simulcast Superstation For Atlanta" (PDF). Radio & Records . March 17, 1989. pp. 1, 34. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 13, 2021. Retrieved February 21, 2020.
  40. "NewCity, Zapis Score Big In $30 Million Tax-Free Swap" (PDF). Radio & Records . March 17, 1989. p. 9. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 13, 2021. Retrieved February 21, 2020.
  41. Niesel, Jeff (June 19, 2019). "93.1 FM's Former Owner Lee Zapis Tells the Story of How WZAK Went to No. 1". Cleveland Scene. Archived from the original on July 16, 2019. Retrieved February 21, 2020.
  42. "newsline..." (PDF). Billboard . March 25, 1989. p. 15. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 13, 2021. Retrieved February 21, 2020.
  43. Ross, Sean (October 21, 1989). "Vox Jox" (PDF). Billboard . p. 12. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 13, 2021. Retrieved February 21, 2020.
  44. Perry, Dave (September 1, 1989). "Maria McKee's doing just fine on her own". Lowell Sun . p. 26. Archived from the original on February 23, 2020. Retrieved February 23, 2020.
  45. "Vox Jox" (PDF). Billboard . October 28, 1989. pp. 12–13, 112. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 31, 2021. Retrieved February 21, 2020.
  46. Olszewski, Mike (2003). Radio Daze: Stories from the Front in Cleveland's FM Air Wars. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press. p. 347. ISBN   9780873387736. Archived from the original on December 9, 2016. Retrieved February 27, 2020.
  47. Mire, Beverly (July 14, 1989). "News" (PDF). The Gavin Report. pp. 2, 4. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 13, 2021. Retrieved February 21, 2020.
  48. "AOR: Segues" (PDF). Radio & Records . April 11, 1986. p. 84. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 13, 2021. Retrieved February 21, 2020.
  49. "AOR: Segues" (PDF). Radio & Records . June 16, 1989. p. 52. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 13, 2021. Retrieved February 23, 2020.
  50. "WMJI Names New Execs: Legacy Takes Over, Appoints Thacker GM; Gorman OM/PD; Feighan GSM" (PDF). Radio & Records . January 25, 1991. p. 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 13, 2021. Retrieved December 19, 2019.
  51. Alexander, Shawn (December 2, 1994). "WMMS Becomes 'The Hext Generation': Heritage Rocker's step-by-step evolution to Alternative" (PDF). Radio & Records . p. 20. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 13, 2021. Retrieved December 19, 2019.
  52. Carter, Kevin (January 13, 1995). "An exclusive interview with John Gorman: OM/PD, WMMS-WMJI; OM, WHK/Cleveland" (PDF). Hitmakers (871). pp. 21–24. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 13, 2021. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
  53. "Station to cut staff, format; WFTQ-AM plagued by 'losses'". Worcester Telegram & Gazette . January 4, 1991.
  54. LeVeille, Steve (August 15, 2014). "Chronology of My So-Called Career". Radio Free Steve. Archived from the original on February 26, 2020. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  55. Bickelhaupt, Susan (August 6, 1991). "McKenna, Peruzzi leave KISS-108". Boston Globe . p. 24. Archived from the original on February 26, 2020. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  56. 1 2 Bickelhaupt, Susan (March 16, 1992). "Rock radio goes raunchy". Boston Globe . pp. 1, 16. Archived from the original on February 26, 2020. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  57. "Street Talk" (PDF). Radio & Records. April 3, 1992. p. 20. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 13, 2021. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
  58. "People: Lineups for new stations CIMX, WKSV" (PDF). Billboard . June 8, 1991. p. 11. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 31, 2021. Retrieved February 23, 2020.
  59. Bickelhaupt, Susan (June 26, 1992). "The folks behind that NPR music". Boston Globe . p. 42. Archived from the original on February 26, 2020. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  60. Bickelhaupt, Susan (April 12, 1991). "WCGY, WAAF: stalking the rock audience". Boston Globe . p. 80. Archived from the original on February 23, 2020. Retrieved February 23, 2020.
  61. Collinge, John (July 2, 1991). "Extreme shows hard-rock band can play softball". Lowell Sun . pp. 5, 7. Archived from the original on February 23, 2020. Retrieved February 23, 2020.
  62. Vanni, Olivia. "Walk the Walk", Boston Herald . December 19, 2010. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  63. Malachowski, Jeff. "WAAF walk helps local food bank Archived 2020-02-19 at the Wayback Machine ", Wicked Local Shrewsbury. November 21, 2007. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  64. Coakley, Tom; Carroll, Tom (December 11, 1993). "Generous Santa thrills all buy mayor". Boston Globe . pp. 15, 18. Archived from the original on February 26, 2020. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  65. McGrory, Brian; Armstrong, David (December 12, 1993). "Beard may hide a famous Santa". Boston Globe . pp. 1, 40. Archived from the original on February 26, 2020. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  66. Hohler, Bob; Coakley, Tom (December 14, 1993). "Mystery Santa's beard hid a DJ". Boston Globe . p. 38. Archived from the original on February 26, 2020. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  67. "Street Talk" (PDF). Radio & Records . March 3, 1995. pp. 24, 27. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 13, 2021. Retrieved February 23, 2020.
  68. 1 2 Savino, Michael (June 28, 2007). "Opie and Anthony bring their tour to Mohegan Sun". Redwood Falls Gazette. Archived from the original on March 13, 2021. Retrieved February 20, 2020.
  69. Urstadt, Bryant (August 6, 2006). "Loudmouths". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on November 7, 2016. Retrieved November 6, 2016.
  70. 1 2 3 Jurkowitz, Mark (August 10, 2001). "Radio guru gets 'in your face': Mittman tries WAAF formula on WFNX stations". Boston Globe . pp. D1, D8-D9. Archived from the original on February 26, 2020. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  71. "Straight From The Mouth: The Morning Mouth's February Interview with Opie & Anthony". The Morning Mouth. Radio Online. February 2002. Archived from the original on September 15, 2016. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  72. Maxwell, Cyndee (August 29, 1997). "30 Years of Rock Radio: Pure Personality" (PDF). Radio & Records . pp. 46, 74. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 13, 2021. Retrieved February 27, 2020.
  73. Deitz, Corey. "Radio Bloopers, Screwups, Outtakes and Embarrassments – Series 2". Your Guide to Radio. About.com. Archived from the original on July 15, 2007. Retrieved April 14, 2007.
  74. Eileen, McNamera (June 21, 1997). "Like wow? No, not a bit". Boston Globe . p. B1. Archived from the original on February 26, 2020. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  75. Blowen, Michael (June 26, 1997). "WAAF suspends drive-time deejays". Boston Globe . p. E8. Archived from the original on February 26, 2020. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  76. 1 2 3 Anderman, Joan (December 5, 1997). "Comfortably dumb". Boston Globe . p. C18. Archived from the original on February 24, 2020. Retrieved February 24, 2020.
  77. "Opie & Anthony's Demented World". AllMusic. Archived from the original on October 12, 2016. Retrieved September 11, 2016.
  78. Bickelhaupt, Susan; Dezell, Maureen (November 7, 1997). "Names & Faces: DJs duke it out on the air". Boston Globe . p. D2. Archived from the original on February 26, 2020. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  79. 1 2 Sullivan, Jim (November 28, 1997). "WBCN's Nik Carter finds himself in a radio ruckus". Boston Globe . pp. C1, C14-C15. Archived from the original on February 24, 2020. Retrieved February 24, 2020.
  80. 1 2 3 Adelson, Andrea (July 13, 1998). "On-Air Prank Earns Pair A Shot at Radio Big Time" . The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 13, 2016. Retrieved September 11, 2016.
  81. 1 2 "WAAF fire pranksters". South Coast Today. April 9, 1998. Archived from the original on November 7, 2016. Retrieved November 6, 2016.
  82. "American Radio to buy two more Mass. stations". Boston Globe . August 1, 1996. p. C7. Archived from the original on February 26, 2020. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  83. 1 2 3 Simon, Clea (June 1, 2000). "New-rock 'BCN reverts to old ways of recruiting males". Boston Globe . pp. F1, F9. Archived from the original on February 26, 2020. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  84. Sullivan, Jim (February 8, 1997). "Deejays at WAAF and WBCN take aim at each other". Boston Globe . p. C2. Archived from the original on February 26, 2020. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  85. Bickelhaupt, Susan; Dezell, Maureen (February 11, 1997). "Laquidara jockeys for position". Boston Globe . p. E2. Archived from the original on February 26, 2020. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  86. Sullivan, Jim (May 30, 1997). "Static on rock radio: Rivals accuse 'BCN's Oedipus of unfair play". Boston Globe . pp. D1, D8-D9. Archived from the original on February 26, 2020. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  87. Kerr, Jim (February 12, 1999). "Who Is The Enemy? Is it Active Rock or Pop/Alternative? The answer may be both" (PDF). Radio & Records . p. 92. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 13, 2021. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  88. "Boston radio under one roof". Lowell Sun . September 20, 1997. p. 9. Archived from the original on February 23, 2020. Retrieved February 23, 2020.
  89. "CBS to Sell 5 Boston-Area Radio Stations" . The New York Times . August 14, 1998. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved October 13, 2012.
  90. 1 2 Morse, Steve (November 5, 1999). "Bush blossoms with 'Science': WAAF moves to Boston". Boston Globe . p. D16. Archived from the original on February 26, 2020. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  91. Bickelhaupt, Susan; Dezell, Maureen (June 4, 1997). "Rock falls on country". Boston Globe . p. F2. Archived from the original on February 26, 2020. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  92. Morse, Steve (June 16, 1999). "For Godsmack, being banned is good for the band". Boston Globe . p. E5. Archived from the original on February 26, 2020. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  93. "MTV Adds Godsmack Into Regular Rotation (Advertisement)" (PDF). Radio & Records . March 26, 1999. p. 110. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 13, 2021. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  94. Morse, Steve (December 19, 1997). "Orbit hits the fast track with new 'Libido Speedway'". Boston Globe . p. E18. Archived from the original on February 26, 2020. Retrieved February 25, 2020.
  95. Morse, Steve (June 14, 1999). "Band rocks around the block". Boston Globe . pp. B1, B4. Archived from the original on February 26, 2020. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  96. "Street Talk" (PDF). Radio & Records . January 19, 2001. pp. 30, 33–34. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 31, 2021. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  97. 1 2 3 Heslam, Jessica (February 24, 2020). "Demise of rock 'n roll at WAAF leaves DJ spinning". Boston Herald . Archived from the original on March 13, 2021. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
  98. 1 2 Berg, Matt (February 25, 2020). "Longtime WAAF host Mistress Carrie says goodbye to radio station". Boston Globe . Archived from the original on February 27, 2020. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
  99. Venta, Lance (December 22, 2016). "WAAF Revamps On-Air Lineup For 2017". RadioInsight. Archived from the original on February 28, 2020. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
  100. Fybush, Scott (November 7, 2005). "Susquehanna sells - and holiday radio's here". NorthEast Radio Watch. Archived from the original on December 6, 2005. Retrieved May 17, 2021.
  101. WAAF (use of Paxton site in 2005)
  102. FCC Internet Services Staff. "Application Search Details". Licensing.fcc.gov. Archived from the original on October 21, 2012. Retrieved October 22, 2012.
  103. FCC Internet Services Staff. "Application Search Details". Licensing.fcc.gov. Archived from the original on October 26, 2012. Retrieved October 22, 2012.
  104. "Radio One Agrees to Sell WILD-FM In Boston" (Press release). Washington, D.C.: Radio One. August 21, 2006. Archived from the original on February 20, 2020. Retrieved February 20, 2020.
  105. Wilkerson, David B. (August 21, 2006). "Entercom to buy 16 stations for $292 million". MarketWatch . Archived from the original on February 20, 2020. Retrieved February 20, 2020.
  106. "Entercom Also Buys WILD(FM) from Radio One". Radio World. August 21, 2006. Archived from the original on February 20, 2020. Retrieved February 20, 2020.
  107. Venta, Lance; Nelson, Bob (August 22, 2006). "97.7 WILD-FM becomes WAAF Simulcast". Format Change Archive. Archived from the original on March 13, 2021. Retrieved February 20, 2020.
  108. FCC Internet Services Staff. "Call Sign History". Licensing.fcc.gov. Archived from the original on October 21, 2012. Retrieved October 22, 2012.
  109. Simon, Clea (August 31, 2006). "WAAF's increased signal may change FM balance of power". Boston Globe . p. H9. Archived from the original on February 26, 2020. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  110. "2007 Industry Achievement Awards". Radio and Records. September 28, 2008. Archived from the original on May 17, 2008.
  111. "CBS Radio Steps up to the Plate and Launches FM Sports Stations in Boston & Washington, D.C. Company's Leading All-Sports Stations Show More Than 20% Increase in Audience Share Year to Date; Advertisers Capitalizing on Opportunity to Reach Captive Upscale – CBS Corporation". Archived from the original on September 29, 2019. Retrieved September 29, 2019.
  112. CBS Radio. "CBS Radio to Launch Boston's Newest and Only FM Sports Station, 98.5 The Sports Hub, on Thursday, August 13". Archived from the original on July 17, 2009. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
  113. Wien, Dick (January 4, 2010). "2009: Our Year In Review" (PDF). CBS Corporation Update. 12 (615): 1–17. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 5, 2017. Retrieved February 27, 2020.
  114. "WAAF sets new lineup in 2017". Boston RadioWatch. December 22, 2016. Archived from the original on April 20, 2019. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  115. 1 2 Venta, Lance (January 5, 2017). "Entercom Debuts Urban AC "The New 97.7" Boston". RadioInsight. Archived from the original on February 19, 2020. Retrieved February 20, 2020.
  116. Venta, Lance (February 2, 2017). "CBS Radio To Merge With Entercom". RadioInsight. Archived from the original on August 26, 2017. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
  117. Venta, Lance (November 1, 2017). "Entercom Trades Boston & Seattle Spin-Offs To iHeartMedia For Richmond & Chattanooga". RadioInsight. Archived from the original on December 28, 2019. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
  118. "Hill-Man Morning Show Audio". WAAF 107.3 FM. Radio.com. May 8, 2019. Archived from the original on February 22, 2020. Retrieved February 20, 2020.
  119. "Gerry Callahan Ousted at WEEI Boston, Replaced By WAAF's Greg Hill". Insideradio.com. July 12, 2019. Archived from the original on February 20, 2020. Retrieved February 20, 2020.
  120. 1 2 Venta, Lance (July 12, 2019). "Greg Hill Moves From WAAF To WEEI Boston Mornings As Gerry Callahan Exits". RadioInsight. Archived from the original on July 13, 2019. Retrieved February 20, 2020.
  121. Venta, Lance (May 31, 2017). "KISW's The Men's Room Sets First Syndication Affilliates [sic]". RadioInsight. Archived from the original on October 10, 2019. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
  122. O'Malley, Nick (July 12, 2019). "Greg Hill of WAAF's 'Hill-Man Morning Show' eyed to replace Gerry Callahan at WEEI (report)". masslive. Archived from the original on February 20, 2020. Retrieved February 20, 2020.
  123. "WAAF Big Gig featuring Godsmack". WAAF 107.3 FM. Radio.com. November 4, 2019. Archived from the original on February 18, 2020. Retrieved February 20, 2020.
  124. 1 2 3 "10 Questions with ... Mistress Carrie & Mike Hsu, Ex APD/MD/Midday & PM Drive Host". All Access. March 3, 2020. Archived from the original on August 15, 2020. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
  125. "Application for Consent to Assignment of Broadcast Station Construction Permit or License: BALH - 20200226AAA". licensing.fcc.gov. Retrieved February 27, 2020.
  126. 1 2 "Network Affiliation Agreement". FCC.gov. February 14, 2020. Archived from the original on February 27, 2020. Retrieved February 27, 2020.
  127. 1 2 Fybush, Scott (February 18, 2020). "NERW Extra: EMF Enters Boston with WAAF Purchase". North East RadioWatch. Archived from the original on February 19, 2020. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  128. "Entercom Sells WAAF Boston To EMF For $10.75 Million". Inside Radio. February 18, 2020. Archived from the original on February 19, 2020. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  129. Szaniszlo, Marie (February 19, 2020). "From rock, to rock of ages: WAAF sold, will convert to 'contemporary Christian' programming". Boston Herald . Archived from the original on February 19, 2020. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  130. Eagan, Jennifer (February 21, 2020). "Inside rock station WAAF's final day on the Boston airwaves". wcvb.com. Hearst Television. Archived from the original on February 25, 2020. Retrieved February 25, 2020.
  131. Carter, Kevin (February 23, 2020). "WAAF Rocks Off After 50 Years". RAMP - Radio and Music Pros. Archived from the original on February 25, 2020. Retrieved February 25, 2020.
  132. 1 2 3 Venta, Lance (February 24, 2020). "Did WAAF Have One More Life To Live?". RadioInsight. Archived from the original on February 24, 2020. Retrieved February 24, 2020.
  133. "The End Of WAAF Boston". Format Change Archive. February 22, 2020. Archived from the original on February 23, 2020. Retrieved February 23, 2020.
  134. Fybush, Scott (February 24, 2020). "NorthEast Radio Watch 2/24/2020: The WAAF-termath". Fybush.com. Archived from the original on February 25, 2020. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  135. Ondrako, Mary (June 4, 2005). "Jack airs his eclectic tastes on growing range of stations". Times-Tribune. p. B3. Archived from the original on March 13, 2021. Retrieved February 24, 2020.
  136. Federal Communications Commission. "Call Sign Desk - Query: WKVB" . Retrieved March 9, 2020.
  137. "Consummation Notice". CDBS Public Access. Federal Communications Commission. April 21, 2020. Retrieved May 5, 2020.
  138. Bonner, Michael (March 27, 2020). "WAAF's Big Gig concert postponed at Worcester's DCU Center until April 2021". MassLive . Archived from the original on March 27, 2020. Retrieved March 27, 2020.
  139. "WBZ Trademark of CBS Mass Media Corp. - Registration Number 2463746 - Serial Number 76033841". trademarks.justia.com. Justia Trademarks. Archived from the original on March 13, 2021. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
  140. "Exhibit 2.8 - Execution Version: Trademark License Agreement (TV Station Brands) by and between CBS Broadcasting Inc. CBS Mass Media Corporation and CBS Radio Inc., and certain subsidiaries of CBS Radio Inc". www.sec.gov. November 16, 2017. Archived from the original on February 28, 2020. Retrieved February 27, 2020.