Waco, Texas

Last updated
Waco, Texas
WacoCity.jpg
From left to right, top to bottom: Downtown, McLennan County Courthouse, Waco Suspension Bridge, Dr. Pepper Museum, Waco Mammoth National Monument, Baylor University, Waco Hippodrome, William Cameron Park, Texas Ranger Hall of Fame and Museum, and Austin Avenue in Downtown
Flag of Waco, Texas.jpg
Flag
Nickname(s): 
"Heart of Texas"
McLennan County Waco.svg
Location within McLennan County and Texas
USA Texas location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Waco
Location of Waco
Usa edcp location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Waco
Waco (the United States)
Coordinates: 31°33′5″N97°9′21″W / 31.55139°N 97.15583°W / 31.55139; -97.15583 Coordinates: 31°33′5″N97°9′21″W / 31.55139°N 97.15583°W / 31.55139; -97.15583
Country Flag of the United States.svg  United States
State Flag of Texas.svg  Texas
County   McLennan
Government
  Type Council-manager
   City Council Mayor Kyle Deaver
Andrea J. Barefield
Alice Rodriguez
John Kinnaird
Dillon Meek
Jim Holmes
   City Manager Wiley Stem III
Area
   City 95.5 sq mi (247.4 km2)
  Land84.2 sq mi (218.1 km2)
  Water11.3 sq mi (29.3 km2)  11.85%
Elevation
470 ft (143.3 m)
Population
 (2018 Est.)
   City 138,183 (US: 197th)
  Density1,350/sq mi (521.5/km2)
   Metro
271,942
Demonym(s) Wacoan
Time zone UTC−6 (Central)
  Summer (DST) UTC−5 (Central)
ZIP codes
76700-76799
Area code 254
FIPS code 48-76000 [1]
GNIS feature ID1370701 [2]
Interstates I-35.svg
U.S. Routes US 77.svg US 84.svg
Website Waco-Texas.com

Waco ( /ˈwk/ WAY-koh) is a city in central Texas and is the county seat of McLennan County, Texas, United States. [3] It is situated along the Brazos River and I-35, halfway between Dallas and Austin. The city had a 2010 population of 124,805, making it the 22nd-most populous city in the state. [4] The 2018 US Census population estimate is 138,183 [5] The Waco Metropolitan Statistical Area consists of McLennan and Falls Counties, which had a 2010 population of 234,906. [6] Falls County was added to the Waco MSA in 2013. The 2018 US Census population estimate for the Waco MSA is 271,942. [7]

A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, China, Romania, Taiwan and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, and historically in Jamaica.

McLennan County, Texas County in the United States

McLennan County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in Central Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 234,906. Its county seat is Waco. The U.S. census 2018 county population estimate is 254,607. The county is named for Neil McLennan, an early settler.

Contents

History

1824–1865

Indigenous peoples occupied areas along the river for thousands of years. In historic times, the area of present-day Waco was occupied by the Wichita Indian tribe known as the "Waco" (Spanish: Hueco or Huaco).

Indigenous peoples Ethnic group descended from and identified with the original inhabitants of a given region

Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the original settlers of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently. Groups are usually described as indigenous when they maintain traditions or other aspects of an early culture that is associated with a given region. Not all indigenous peoples share this characteristic, as many have adopted substantial elements of a colonizing culture, such as dress, religion or language. Indigenous peoples may be settled in a given region (sedentary) or exhibit a nomadic lifestyle across a large territory, but they are generally historically associated with a specific territory on which they depend. Indigenous societies are found in every inhabited climate zone and continent of the world.

Wichita people confederation of Native Americans

The Wichita people or Kitikiti'sh are a confederation of Southern Plains Native American tribes. Historically they spoke the Wichita language and Kichai language, both Caddoan languages. They are indigenous to Oklahoma, Texas, and Kansas.

In 1824, Thomas M. Duke was sent to explore the area after violence erupted between the Waco people and the European settlers. His report to Stephen F. Austin, described the Waco village: [8]

Stephen F. Austin American empresario, slaveholder, namesake of Austin, Texas

Stephen Fuller Austin was an American empresario. Known as the "Father of Texas", and the founder of Texas, he led the second, and ultimately, the successful colonization of the region by bringing 300 families from the United States to the region in 1825.

This town is situated on the West Bank of the River. They have a spring almost as cold as ice itself. All we want is some Brandy and Sugar to have Ice Toddy. They have about 400 acres (1.6 km2) planted in corn, beans, pumpkins, and melons and that tended in good order. I think they cannot raise more than One Hundred Warriors.

Brandy spirit produced by distilling wine

Brandy is a spirit produced by distilling wine. Brandy generally contains 35–60% alcohol by volume and is typically drunk as an after-dinner digestif. Some brandies are aged in wooden casks. Others are coloured with caramel colouring to imitate the effect of aging, and some are produced using a combination of both aging and colouring. Varieties of wine brandy can be found across the winemaking world. Among the most renowned are Cognac and Armagnac from southwestern France.

Thomas M. Duke, Stephen F. Austin Papers

After further violence, Austin halted an attempt to destroy their village in retaliation. In 1825, he made a treaty with them. The Waco were eventually pushed out of the region, settling north near present-day Fort Worth. In 1872, they were moved onto a reservation in Oklahoma with other Wichita tribes. In 1902, the Waco received allotments of land and became official US citizens. Neil McLennan settled in an area near the South Bosque River in 1838. [9] Jacob De Cordova bought McLennan's property [10] and hired a former Texas Ranger and surveyor named George B. Erath to inspect the area. [11] In 1849, Erath designed the first block of the city. Property owners wanted to name the city Lamartine, but Erath convinced them to name the area Waco Village, after the Indians who had lived there. [12] In March 1849, Shapley Ross built the first house in Waco, a double-log cabin, on a bluff overlooking the springs. His daughter Kate was the first settler child to be born in Waco. [13]

Fort Worth, Texas City in Texas, United States

Fort Worth is a city in the U.S. state of Texas. It is the 13th-largest city in the United States and fifth-largest city in Texas. It is the county seat of Tarrant County, covering nearly 350 square miles (910 km2) into three other counties: Denton, Parker, and Wise. According to the 2017 census estimates, Fort Worth's population is 874,168. Fort Worth is the second-largest city in the Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington metropolitan area, which is the 4th most populous metropolitan area in the United States.

Oklahoma State of the United States of America

Oklahoma is a state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, Texas on the south, New Mexico on the west, and Colorado on the northwest. It is the 20th-most extensive and the 28th-most populous of the fifty United States. The state's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning "red people". It is also known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which dramatically increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907. Its residents are known as Oklahomans, and its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City.

Neil McLennan was an early Scottish-American settler of Texas. McLennan County, Texas, was named for him.

1866–1900

Waco in 1886 Old map-Waco-1886.jpg
Waco in 1886
Suspension Bridge, Waco, Texas Suspension Bridge, Waco, Texas.jpg
Suspension Bridge, Waco, Texas

In 1866, Waco's leading citizens embarked on an ambitious project to build the first bridge to span the wide Brazos River. They formed the Waco Bridge Company to build the 475-foot (145 m) brick Waco Suspension Bridge, which was completed in 1870. The company commissioned a firm owned by John Augustus Roebling in Trenton, New Jersey, to supply the cables and steelwork for the bridge, and contracted with Mr. Thomas M. Griffith, a civil engineer based in New York, for the supervisory engineering work on the bridge. [14] The economic effects of the Waco bridge were immediate and large. The cowboys and cattle-herds following the Chisholm Trail north, crossed the Brazos River at Waco. Some chose to pay the Suspension Bridge toll, while others floated their herds down the river. The population of Waco grew rapidly, as immigrants now had a safe crossing for their horse-drawn carriages and wagons. Since 1971, the bridge has been open only to pedestrian traffic and is in the National Register of Historic Places.

Brazos River river in Texas

The Brazos River, called the Río de los Brazos de Dios by early Spanish explorers, is the 11th-longest river in the United States at 1,280 miles (2,060 km) from its headwater source at the head of Blackwater Draw, Curry County, New Mexico to its mouth at the Gulf of Mexico with a 45,000-square-mile (116,000 km2) drainage basin. Being one of Texas' largest rivers, it is sometimes used to mark the boundary between East Texas and West Texas.

Waco Suspension Bridge

The Waco Suspension Bridge crosses the Brazos River in Waco, Texas. It is a single-span suspension bridge with a main span of 475 feet. Opened in 1870, it contains nearly 3 million bricks. It is located north of Downtown Waco, connecting Indian Spring Park with Doris D. Miller Park. Every year on Independence Day, the bridge serves as a place where thousands of locals gather to watch fireworks. Indian Spring Park marks the location of the origin of the town of Waco, where the Huaco Indians had settled on the bank of the river, at the location of an icy cold spring.

Trenton, New Jersey Capital of New Jersey

Trenton is the capital city of the U.S. state of New Jersey and the county seat of Mercer County. it briefly served as the capital of the United States in 1784. The city's metropolitan area, consisting of Mercer County, is grouped with the New York Combined Statistical Area by the United States Census Bureau, but it directly borders the Philadelphia metropolitan area and was from 1990 until 2000 part of the Philadelphia Combined Statistical Area. As of the 2010 United States Census, Trenton had a population of 84,913, making it the state's tenth most populous municipality. The Census Bureau estimated that the city's population was 84,034 in 2014.

In the late 19th century, a red-light district called the "Reservation" grew up in Waco, and prostitution was regulated by the city. The Reservation was suppressed in the early 20th century. In 1885, the soft drink Dr Pepper was invented in Waco at Morrison's Old Corner Drug Store.

In 1845, Baylor University was founded in Independence, Texas. It moved to Waco in 1886 and merged with Waco University, becoming an integral part of the city. The university's Strecker Museum was also the oldest continuously operating museum in the state until it closed in 2003, and the collections were moved to the new Mayborn Museum Complex. In 1873, AddRan College was founded by brothers Addison and Randolph Clark in Fort Worth. The school moved to Waco in 1895, changing its name to Add-Ran Christian University and taking up residence in the empty buildings of Waco Female College. Add-Ran changed its name to Texas Christian University in 1902 and left Waco after the school's main building burned down in 1910. TCU was offered a 50-acre (200,000 m2) campus and $200,000 by the city of Fort Worth to relocate there.

The Dr Pepper Museum is one of Waco's tourist attractions. Dr Pepper Museum.jpg
The Dr Pepper Museum is one of Waco's tourist attractions.

In the 1890s, William Cowper Brann published the highly successful Iconoclast newspaper in Waco. One of his targets was Baylor University. Brann revealed that Baylor officials had been importing South American children recruited by missionaries and making house-servants out of them. Brann was shot in the back by Tom Davis, a Baylor supporter. Brann then wheeled, drew his pistol, and killed Davis. Brann was helped home by his friends, and died there of his wounds.

In 1894, the first Cotton Palace fair and exhibition center was built to reflect the dominant contribution of the agricultural cotton industry in the region. Since the end of the Civil War, cotton had been cultivated in the Brazos and Bosque valleys, and Waco had become known nationwide as a top producer. Over the next 23 years, the annual exposition would welcome over eight million attendees. The opulent building which housed the month-long exhibition was destroyed by fire and rebuilt in 1910. In 1931, the exposition fell prey to the Great Depression, and the building was torn down. However, the annual Cotton Palace Pageant continues, hosted in late April in conjunction with the Brazos River Festival.

On September 15, 1896, "The Crash" took place about 15 miles (24 km) north of Waco. "The Crash at Crush" was a publicity stunt done by the Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad company (known as M-K-T or "Katy"), featuring two locomotives intentionally set to a head-on collision. Meant to be a family fun event with food, games, and entertainment, the Crash turned deadly when both boilers exploded simultaneously, sending metal flying in the air. Two people died and six were seriously injured.

20th century

Washington Avenue Bridge (postcard, circa 1908), built in 1902, it was the longest single-span steel bridge in the world. Steel Bridge, Waco, Texas.jpg
Washington Avenue Bridge (postcard, circa 1908), built in 1902, it was the longest single-span steel bridge in the world.

In 1916, an African American teenager named Jesse Washington was tortured, mutilated, and burned to death in the town square by a mob that seized him from the courthouse, where he had been convicted of murdering a white woman, to which he confessed. About 15,000 spectators, mostly citizens of Waco, were present. The commonly named Waco Horror drew international condemnation and became the cause célèbre of the nascent NAACP's anti-lynching campaign. In 2006, the Waco City Council officially condemned the lynching, which took place without opposition from local political or judicial leaders; the mayor and chief of police were spectators. On the centenary of the Lynching, May 15, 2016, the mayor apologized in a ceremony to some of Washington's descendants. A historical marker is being erected. [15]

In the 1920s, despite the popularity of the Ku Klux Klan and high numbers of lynchings throughout Texas, Waco's authorities attempted to respond to the NAACP's campaign and institute more protections for African Americans or others threatened with mob violence and lynching. [16] In 1923, Waco's Sheriff Leslie Stegall protected Roy Mitchell, an African American coerced into confessing to multiple murders, from mob lynching. Mitchell was the last Texan to be publicly executed in Texas, and also the last to be hanged before the introduction of the electric chair. [16] In the same year, the Texas Legislature created the Tenth Civil Court of Appeals and placed it in Waco; it is now known as the 10th Court of Appeals.

In 1937, Grover C. Thomsen and R.H. Roark created a soft-drink called "Sun Tang Red Cream Soda". This would later become known as the soft drink Big Red.

On May 5, 1942, Waco Army Air Field opened as a basic pilot training school, and on June 10, 1949, the name was changed to Connally Air Force Base in memory of Col. James T. Connally, a local pilot killed in Japan in 1945. The name changed again in 1951 to the James Connally Air Force Base. The base closed in May 1966 and is now the location of Texas State Technical College, formerly Texas State Technical Institute, since 1965. The airfield is still in operation, now known as TSTC Waco Airport, and was used by Air Force One when former US President George W. Bush visited his Prairie Chapel Ranch, also known as the Western White House, in Crawford, Texas.

Alamo Plaza Courts, tourist apartments, Waco circa 1939 WacoAlamoPlaza1938.jpg
Alamo Plaza Courts, tourist apartments, Waco circa 1939

On May 11, 1953, a tornado hit downtown Waco, killing 114. [17] As of 2011, it remains the 11th-deadliest tornado in U.S. history and tied for the deadliest in Texas state history. [18] It was the first tornado tracked by radar and helped spur the creation of a nationwide storm surveillance system. A granite monument featuring the names of those killed was placed downtown in 2004. [19]

In 1964, the Texas Department of Public Safety designated Waco as the site for the state-designated official museum of the legendary Texas Rangers law enforcement agency founded in 1823. In 1976, it was further designated the official Hall of Fame for the Rangers and renamed the Texas Ranger Hall of Fame and Museum. Renovations by the Waco government earned this building green status, the first Waco government-led project of its nature. The construction project has fallen under scrutiny for expanding the building over unmarked human graves.

In 1978, bones were discovered emerging from the mud at the confluence of the Brazos and Bosque Rivers. Subsequent excavations revealed that the bones were 68,000 years old and belonged to a species of mammoth. Eventually, the remains of at least 24 mammoths, one camel, and one large cat were found at the site, making it one of the largest findings of its kind. Scholars have puzzled over why such a large herd had been killed all at once. The site is currently being looked at by the National Park Service for possible inclusion into the National Park system. They are conducting a special resource study to be presented to Congress. The bones are currently on display at the Waco Mammoth National Monument, part of the National Park Service.

On February 28, 1993, a shootout occurred in which six Branch Davidians and four agents of the United States Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms died. After 50 days, on April 19, 1993, a standoff between FBI agents and Branch Davidians ended in a fire that destroyed their compound, referred to as Mt. Carmel, thirteen miles from Waco. Seventy-four people, including leader David Koresh, died in the blaze. This event became known as the Waco siege.

21st century

During the presidency of George W. Bush, Waco was the home to the White House Press Center. The press center provided briefing and office facilities for the press corps whenever Bush visited his "Western White House" Prairie Chapel Ranch near Crawford, about 25 miles (40 km) northwest of Waco.

On May 17, 2015, a violent dispute among rival biker gangs broke out at Twin Peaks restaurant. The Waco police intervened, with nine dead and 18 injured in the incident. More than 170 were arrested. [20] No bystanders, Twin Peak employees, or officers were killed in the process. This was the most high-profile criminal incident since the Waco siege, and the deadliest shootout in the city's history.

Geography

Waco is located at 31°33'5" North, 97°9'21" West (31.551516, -97.155930). [21]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 95.5 square miles (247 km2). 84.2 square miles (218 km2) of it is land and 11.3 square miles (29 km2) of it is covered by water. The total area is 11.85% water.

Cityscape

Downtown Waco is relatively small when compared to other larger Texas cities, such as Houston, Dallas, San Antonio, or even Fort Worth, El Paso, or Austin. The 22-story ALICO Building, completed in 1910, is the tallest building in Waco. [22]

Climate

Waco experiences a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa), characterized by hot summers and generally mild winters. Some 90 °F (32 °C) temperatures have been observed in every month of the year. The record low temperature is −5 °F (−21 °C), set on January 31, 1949; the record high temperature is 114 °F (46 °C), set on July 23, 2018. [23]

Climate data for Waco Regional Airport, Texas (1981–2010 normals, [24] extremes 1901–present)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)90
(32)
96
(36)
100
(38)
101
(38)
102
(39)
109
(43)
114
(46)
112
(44)
111
(44)
101
(38)
92
(33)
91
(33)
114
(46)
Mean maximum °F (°C)77.8
(25.4)
81.0
(27.2)
85.4
(29.7)
90.5
(32.5)
95.1
(35.1)
98.5
(36.9)
102.6
(39.2)
104.1
(40.1)
99.6
(37.6)
93.8
(34.3)
84.3
(29.1)
78.0
(25.6)
105.0
(40.6)
Average high °F (°C)58.2
(14.6)
61.8
(16.6)
69.2
(20.7)
77.6
(25.3)
85.0
(29.4)
91.7
(33.2)
96.3
(35.7)
96.8
(36.0)
89.8
(32.1)
79.9
(26.6)
68.5
(20.3)
59.0
(15.0)
77.9
(25.5)
Average low °F (°C)36.1
(2.3)
39.8
(4.3)
47.1
(8.4)
54.6
(12.6)
63.8
(17.7)
70.8
(21.6)
74.1
(23.4)
73.8
(23.2)
66.4
(19.1)
56.6
(13.7)
46.5
(8.1)
37.5
(3.1)
55.7
(13.2)
Mean minimum °F (°C)21.1
(−6.1)
23.1
(−4.9)
29.3
(−1.5)
36.7
(2.6)
48.5
(9.2)
60.4
(15.8)
67.2
(19.6)
65.5
(18.6)
50.7
(10.4)
39.4
(4.1)
29.3
(−1.5)
21.6
(−5.8)
16.5
(−8.6)
Record low °F (°C)−5
(−21)
4
(−16)
15
(−9)
26
(−3)
34
(1)
52
(11)
58
(14)
53
(12)
39
(4)
25
(−4)
17
(−8)
−4
(−20)
−5
(−21)
Average precipitation inches (mm)2.12
(54)
2.63
(67)
3.15
(80)
2.69
(68)
4.30
(109)
3.43
(87)
1.79
(45)
2.05
(52)
3.06
(78)
3.90
(99)
2.82
(72)
2.75
(70)
34.69
(881)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)7.16.88.36.38.17.55.35.05.87.27.37.181.8
Source: NOAA [23] [25]

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1870 3,008
1880 7,295142.5%
1890 14,44598.0%
1900 20,68643.2%
1910 26,42527.7%
1920 38,50045.7%
1930 52,84837.3%
1940 55,9825.9%
1950 84,70651.3%
1960 97,80815.5%
1970 95,326−2.5%
1980 101,2616.2%
1990 103,5902.3%
2000 113,7269.8%
2010 124,8059.7%
Est. 2017136,436 [26] 9.3%
U.S. Decennial Census [27]
Lake Waco - southern half of the lake with State Highway 6 Twin Bridges in view Lake Waco southern portion.jpg
Lake Waco – southern half of the lake with State Highway 6 Twin Bridges in view

As of the census [1] of 2010, 124,805 people resided in the city, organized into 51,452 households and 27,115 families. The population density was recorded as 1,350.6 people per square mile (521.5/km2), with 45,819 housing units at an average density of 544.2 per square mile (210.1/km2). The 2000 racial makeup of the city was 60.78% White, 22.65% African American, 1.38% Asian, 0.51% Native American, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 12.38% from other races, and 2.26% from two or more races. About 23.6% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. Non-Hispanic Whites were 45.8% of the population in 2010, [28] down from 66.6% in 1980. [29]

In 2000, the census recorded 42,279 households, of which 29.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.4% were married couples living together, 16.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.4% were not families. Around 31.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.9% had someone living alone at 65 years of age or older. The average household size was calculated as 2.49 and the average family size 3.19.

In 2000, 25.4% of the population was under the age of 18, 20.3% from 18 to 24, 25.0% from 25 to 44, 16.0% from 45 to 64, and 13.4% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 28 years. For every 100 females, there are 91.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 87.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $26,264, and for a family was $33,919. Males had a median income of $26,902 versus $21,159 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,584. About 26.3% of the population and 19.3% of families lived below the poverty line. Of the total population, 30.9% of those under the age of 18 and 13.0% of those 65 and older lived below the poverty line.

Government

McLennan County Courthouse Mcclennan courthouse.jpg
McLennan County Courthouse

Waco has a council-manager form of government. Citizens are represented on the City Council by six elected members; five from single-member districts and a mayor who is elected at-large. [30] The city offers a full line of city services typical of an American city this size, including: police, fire, Waco Transit buses, electric utilities, water and wastewater, solid waste, and the Waco Convention and Visitors Bureau.

List of mayors of Waco, Texas
NamePortraitTerm startTerm end
C.C. McCulloch [31] 1890
W. H. Wilkes1896
C. C. McCulloch1897
J. W. Riggins1900
Allen Sanford1903
Jas. B. Baker1904
H. D. Mistrot1910
J.H. Mackey1912
J. W. Riggins1914
John Dollins1916
Ed McCullough1918
Ben C. Richards1920
Thos P. Stone1924April 9, 1926
J.W. Holloway, H.F. Connally1926
A. Baker Duncan1927
T.D. Brooks1928
T.F. Bush1930
G.H. Zimmerman1932
Carl Mason, John F. Sheehy1934
Jos W. Hale1935
Charles Gray Catto Charles Gray Catto.jpg 1937
Geo. O. Jones1938
T.M. Gribble1939
L.T. Murray1940
D. T. Hicks1941
Hubert Johnson1942
Berry Williams1943
A.N. Denton1944
Frank L. Wilcox1945
Richard C. Bush1946
J.E. Hawkins1948
L.M. Crow1949
L. H. Bradshaw1952
Ralph R.Wolf1953
H.F. Connally, Jr.1954
O.B. Robertson1955
D.T. Hicks, Jr.1956
Truett K. Smith1957
Joe L. Ward, Jr.1958
Madison Clement1959
Billy J. Hinton1960
Maurice C. Barnes1961
Stanton Brown, Jr.1962
W.B. Lenamon1963
Roger N. Conger1964
J. Ernest Pardo1965
P.M. Johnston1966
H. Malcolm Louden1968
Howard Dudgeon, Jr.1969
Travis Du Bois, Jr.1970
Karl M. May1971
Bill McDavid1972November 15, 1972
Harold MathiasNovember 1972
Oscar N. Du Conge1974
L.Ted Getterman, Jr.1975
Catfish Smith1976September 21, 1976
J.R. ClossSeptember 21, 1976
J. Leigh Brooks1977
Lois Ted Getterman, Jr.1978
J.P. Davis1979
George Chase, Davis S. Dow1980
Billy H. Davis1981
Roland Arriola, Jim Mathis1982
Malcolm P. Duncan, Sr.1984
Ruben M. Santos1985
LaNelle McNamara1986
David Sibley 19871988
R.D. Pattillo1988
Charles Reed1990
J. Robert Sheehy, Sr.1992
Michael D. Morrison1997
Linda Ethridge2000
Mae JacksonMay 2004February 11, 2005
Robin G. McDurhamFebruary 21, 20052005
Virginia DuPuy 20052010
Jim Bush20102012
Malcolm P. Duncan Jr.2012
Kyle Deaver2016

The Heart of Texas Council of Governments is headquartered in Waco on South New Road. This regional agency is a voluntary association of cities, counties, and special districts in the Central Texas area.

The Texas Tenth Court of Appeals is located in the McLennan County Courthouse in Waco. [32]

The Waco Fire Department operates 13 fire stations throughout the city. [33]

The Texas Department of Criminal Justice operates the Waco Parole Office in Waco. [34]

The United States Postal Service operates the Waco Main Post Office along Texas State Highway 6. [35] In addition, it operates other post offices throughout Waco.

Economy

Aerial view of downtown Waco in 2009; Brazos River to the left and campus of Baylor University in the upper right Aerial view of Downtown Waco 2009 Looking East.jpg
Aerial view of downtown Waco in 2009; Brazos River to the left and campus of Baylor University in the upper right

According to the Greater Waco Chamber of Commerce, the top employers in the city as of July 2015 are: [36]

#EmployerEmployees
1 Baylor University 2,675
2 Waco Independent School District 2,500
3Providence Health Center2,397
4 L3 Technologies 2,300
5Baylor Scott & White Health (Hillcrest)1,800
6 Walmart 1,656
7City of Waco1,506
8 H-E-B 1,500
9 Midway Independent School District 1,067
10 Sanderson Farms, Inc.1,041

Culture

Libraries and museums

Waco's 22-story ALICO building WacoTX AlicoTower.jpg
Waco's 22-story ALICO building
The Waco Suspension Bridge WacoBridge02.jpg
The Waco Suspension Bridge

Waco is served by the Waco-McLennan County Library system. [37] The Armstrong Browning Library, located on the campus of Baylor University, houses collections of English poets Robert Browning and Elizabeth Barrett Browning. [38] The Red Men Museum and Library houses the archives of the Improved Order of Red Men. [39] The Lee Lockwood Library and Museum is home to the Waco Scottish Rite of Freemasonry. [40] The Waco Mammoth National Monument is a paleontological site and museum managed by the National Park Service in conjunction with the City of Waco and Baylor University. [41]

Other museums in Waco include the Dr Pepper Museum, Texas Sports Hall of Fame, Texas Ranger Hall of Fame and Museum, and the Mayborn Museum Complex.

Parks and recreation

A 7-mile scenic riverwalk along the east and west banks of the Brazos River stretches from the Baylor campus to Cameron Park Zoo. This multiuse walking and jogging trail passes underneath the Waco Suspension Bridge and captures the peaceful charm of the river. [42] Lake Waco is a reservoir along the western border of the city. Cameron Park is a 416-acre (168 ha) urban park featuring playgrounds, picnic areas, a cross-country running track, and a disc golf course. [43] The park also contains Waco's 52-acre (21 ha) zoo, the Cameron Park Zoo. [44]

Attractions

The Magnolia Market in Waco Photo of Magnolia Market, Waco, TX.jpg
The Magnolia Market in Waco

Notable attractions in Waco include the Hawaiian Falls water park and the Grand Lodge of Texas, one of the largest Grand Lodges in the world. [45] The Waco Suspension Bridge is a single-span suspension bridge built in 1870, crossing the Brazos River. [46] Indian Spring Park marks the location of the origin of the town of Waco, where the Huaco Indians had settled on the bank of the river, at the location of an icy cold spring. [47] The Doris Miller Memorial is a public art installation along the banks of the Brazos River. [48] A nine-foot bronze statue of Miller was unveiled on December 7, 2017, temporarily located at nearby Bledsoe-Miller Park. [49]

Downtown Waco is home to Magnolia Market, a shopping complex containing specialty stores, food trucks, and event space, set in repurposed grain silos originally built in 1950 for the Brazos Valley Cotton Oil Company. [50] The Magnolia Market, operated by Chip and Joanna Gaines of the HGTV TV series Fixer Upper , saw 1.2 million visitors in 2016. [51]

Education

Pat Neff Hall Administration Building, Baylor University PatNeffHall Baylor Waco Texas.jpg
Pat Neff Hall Administration Building, Baylor University
Rufus Columbus Burleson statue in front of Burleson Quadrangle at Baylor University Burleson.jpg
Rufus Columbus Burleson statue in front of Burleson Quadrangle at Baylor University

Waco Independent School District serves most of the city of Waco. Portions of the city also lie in the boundaries of Midway Independent School District, Bosqueville ISD, China Spring ISD, Connally ISD, and La Vega ISD. Three large public high schools are in the Waco city limits: Waco High School (Waco ISD), University High School (Waco ISD), and Midway High School (Midway ISD). The schools are all rivals in sports, academics, and pride. Former high schools in Waco ISD were A.J. Moore High School, G.W. Carver High School, Richfield High School, Jefferson-Moore High School, and a magnet school known as A.J. Moore Academy.

Charter high schools in Waco include Harmony Science Academy, Methodist Children's Home, Premier High School of Waco, Rapoport Academy Public School, and Waco Charter School (EOAC). Local private and parochial schools include Live Oak Classical School, Parkview Christian Academy, Reicher Catholic High School, Texas Christian Academy, Vanguard College Preparatory School, and Waco Montessori School.

The three institutions of higher learning in Waco are:

In the past, several other higher education institutions were located in Waco: [52]

Local media

The major daily newspaper is the Waco Tribune-Herald . Other publications include The Waco Citizen, The Anchor News, The Baylor Lariat, Tiempo, Wacoan, and Waco Today Magazine .

The Waco television market (shared with the Killeen/Temple and Bryan/College Station areas) is the 89th-largest television market in the US and includes these stations: [53]

The Waco radio market is the 200th-largest radio market in the US and includes:

Transportation

Downtown Waco as seen from Interstate 35 Downtown Waco from I-35-cropped.jpg
Downtown Waco as seen from Interstate 35

Interstate 35 is the major north-south highway for Waco. It directly connects the city with Dallas (I-35E), Fort Worth (I-35W), Austin, and San Antonio. Texas State Highway 6 runs northwest-southeast and connects Waco to Bryan/College Station and Houston. US Highway 84 is the major east-west thoroughfare in the area. It is also known as Waco Drive, Bellmead Drive (as it passes through the city of Bellmead), Woodway Drive or the George W. Bush Parkway. Loop 340 bypasses the city to the east and south. State Highway 31 splits off of US 84 just east of Waco and connects the city to Tyler, Longview, and Shreveport, Louisiana.

The Waco area is home to three airports. Waco Regional Airport (ACT) serves the city with daily flights to Dallas/Fort Worth International via American Eagle. TSTC Waco Airport (CNW) is the site of the former James Connally AFB and was the primary fly-in point for former President George W. Bush when he was visiting his ranch in Crawford. It is also a hub airport for L3 and several other aviation companies. McGregor Executive Airport (PWG) is a general-aviation facility located west of Waco.

Local transportation is provided by the Waco Transit System, which offers bus service Monday-Saturday to most of the city. Nearby passenger train service is offered via Amtrak. The Texas Eagle route includes daily stops in McGregor, located 20 miles west of the city.

Sports

Extraco Events Center in Waco (formerly the Heart O' Texas Coliseum) Heart O' Texas Coliseum-cropped.jpg
Extraco Events Center in Waco (formerly the Heart O' Texas Coliseum)

The Baylor Bears athletics teams compete in Waco. The football team has won or tied for nine conference titles, and have played in 24 bowl games, garnering a record of 13–11. The women's basketball team won the NCAA Division I Women's Basketball Tournament in 2005.

The Waco BlueCats, an independent minor league baseball team, plans to play in the inaugural season of the Southwest League of Professional Baseball in 2019. A new ballpark is planned for the suburb of Bellmead.

The American Basketball Association had a franchise for part of the 2006 season, the Waco Wranglers. The team played at Reicher Catholic High School and practiced at Texas State Technical College.

Previous professional sports franchises in Waco have proven unsuccessful. The Waco Marshals of the National Indoor Football League lasted less than two months amidst a midseason ownership change in 2004. (The team became the beleaguered Cincinnati Marshals the following year.) The Waco Wizards of the now-defunct Western Professional Hockey League fared better, lasting into a fourth season before folding in 2000. Both teams played at the Heart O' Texas Coliseum, one of Waco's largest entertainment and sports venues.

The Southern Indoor Football League announced that Waco was an expansion market for the 2010 season. It was rumored that they would play in the Heart O' Texas Coliseum. However, the league broke up into three separate leagues, and subsequently, a team did not come to Waco in any of the new leagues.

Professional baseball first came to Waco in 1889 with the formation of the Waco Tigers, a member of the Texas League. The Tigers were renamed the Navigators in 1905, and later the Steers. In 1920, the team was sold to Wichita Falls. In 1923, a new franchise called the Indians was formed and became a member of the Class D Texas Association. In 1925, Waco rejoined the Texas League with the formation of the Waco Cubs.

On June 20, 1930, the first night game in Texas League history was played at Katy Park in Waco. The lights were donated by Waco resident Charles Redding Turner, who owned a local farm team for recruits to the Chicago Cubs.

On the night of August 6, 1930, baseball history was made at Katy Park: in the eighth inning of a night game against Beaumont, Waco left fielder Gene Rye became the only player in the history of professional baseball to hit three home runs in one inning.

The last year Waco had a team in the Texas League was 1930, but fielded some strong semipro teams in the 1930s and early 1940s. During the World War II years of 1943–45, the powerful Waco Army Air Field team was probably the best in the state; many major leaguers played for the team, and it was managed by big-league catcher Birdie Tebbetts.

In 1947, the Class B Big State League was organized with Waco as a member called the Waco Dons.

In 1948, A.H. Kirksey, owner of Katy Park, persuaded the Pittsburgh Pirates club to take over the Waco operation, and the nickname was changed to Pirates. The Pirates vaulted into third place in 1948. They dropped a notch to fourth in 1949, but prevailed in the playoffs to win the league championship. The Pirates then tumbled into the second division, bottoming out with a dreadful 29-118, 0.197 club in 1952. This mark ranks as one of the 10 worst marks of any 20th-century full-season team. When the tornado struck in 1953, it destroyed the park. The team relocated to Longview to finish the season and finished a respectable third with a 77-68 record.

Many golf clubs and courses are located in Waco including Cottonwood Creek Golf Course. [54]

In 2018, Bicycle World Texas IRONMAN 70.3 Waco held its inaugural event in the city on October 26. [55]

Notable people

Sports

Pro baseball players from Waco

Movies and television

Music

Politics

Other

See also

Related Research Articles

Temple, Texas City in Texas, United States

Temple is a city in Bell County, Texas, United States. As of 2018, the city has a population of 76,600 according to a US census estimate.

McLennan Community College

McLennan Community College (MCC) is a public community college in McLennan County, Texas. Located in Waco, Texas, it opened in 1965. MCC now serves about 9,000 students and has more than 700 employees. It is governed by a Board of Trustees elected from single-member districts in the county.

Lone Star Series


The Lone Star Series is a Major League Baseball (MLB) rivalry featuring Texas's two major league franchises, the Houston Astros and Texas Rangers. It is an outgrowth of the "natural rivalry" established by MLB as part of interleague play as the Rangers are a member of the American League (AL) and the Astros were a member of the National League (NL) until 2012. During interleague play, the winner of the six game series was awarded the Silver Boot, a 30-inch (760 mm) tall display of a size 15 cowboy boot cast in silver, complete with a custom, handmade spur. If the series was split, the winner was the club which scored the most runs over the course of the series. In 2013, the Astros joined the American League West with the Rangers and changed their rivalry from an interleague to an intra-division rivalry.

Waco High School Waco, Texas high school

Waco High School is a public high school located in the city of Waco, Texas and classified as a 6A school by the UIL. It is a part of the Waco Independent School District located in central McLennan County. In 2015, the school was rated "Improvement Required" by the Texas Education Agency.

Waco, a Texas city of around 120,000, is unusual in that, unlike most cities its size, it has areas that are referred to much like many larger cities. These are not official government neighborhoods, but rather common names given by the residents and city neighborhood maps and parks.

University High School is a public high school located in the city of Waco, Texas, part of Waco Independent School District and classified as a 5A school by the University Interscholastic League. It is one of two public high schools in Waco ISD, the other being Waco High School.

Midway High School

Midway High School is a public high school located in the city of Waco, Texas, USA and classified as a 6A school by the UIL. It is part of the Midway Independent School District, which serves the Waco, Texas area. Although the school is located in southwestern Waco, most students live in the suburbs of Woodway and Hewitt. The school was formerly located in Hewitt until the fall of 2003, when the current high school was built a half-mile away. The previous building is now Midway Middle School.

Waco Independent School District

Waco Independent School District is a public school district based in Waco, Texas (USA).

Brazos Independent School District

Brazos Independent School District is a public school district based in Wallis, Texas (USA). The district lies in two counties, Austin and Fort Bend. In addition to Wallis, the district also serves the city of Orchard.

KWBU-FM, is a public non-commercial FM radio station in Waco, Texas, serving the greater Brazos Valley region. It is operated by Baylor University, with studios on River Street in Waco. The station's Federal Communications Commission license is held by the Brazos Valley Public Broadcasting Foundation, a nonprofit community organization. Baylor has a majority of votes on the foundation board.

Texas Sports Hall of Fame

The Texas Sports Hall of Fame recognizes athletes, coaches, and administrators who have made "lasting fame and honor to Texas sports". It was established in 1951 by the Texas Sports Writers Association. Once it made its first induction in 1951, Texas became the first U.S. state to have a sports hall of fame.

Baylor Bears baseball Baseball team representing Baylor University

The Baylor Bears baseball team represents Baylor University in NCAA Division I college baseball. The team belongs to the Big 12 Conference and plays home games at Baylor Ballpark. The Bears are currently led by head coach Steve Rodriguez, who was hired in 2015.

Baylor University private university in Waco, Texas, United States

Baylor University, or simply Baylor, is a private Christian university in Waco, Texas. Chartered in 1845 by the last Congress of the Republic of Texas, it is the oldest continuously operating universities in Texas and one of the first educational institutions west of the Mississippi River in the United States. Located on the banks of the Brazos River next to I-35, between the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex and Austin, the university's 1,000-acre campus is the largest Baptist university campus in the world. Baylor University's athletic teams, known as the Bears, participate in 19 intercollegiate sports. The university is a member of the Big 12 Conference in the NCAA Division I. It is affiliated with the Baptist General Convention of Texas.

David McAdams Sibley Sr. is a lobbyist and attorney in Austin and Waco, Texas, who served from 1991 to 2002 as a Republican member of the Texas State Senate. Previously, he was from 1987 to 1988 the mayor of Waco, then an unelected and still a nonpartisan position, as are all elected municipal offices in Texas.

McLane Stadium football stadium at Baylor University

McLane Stadium is an American football stadium in Waco, Texas that is owned and operated by Baylor University. Originally named Baylor Stadium, the facility's name was changed to McLane Stadium in December 2013 to honor Baylor alumnus and business magnate Drayton McLane, Jr., who provided the lead gift in the fundraising campaign for the stadium construction. Baylor's first game at McLane was played August 31, 2014, with the Bears defeating SMU 45–0. The stadium has a capacity of 45,140 spectators and was designed to be expandable to a capacity of 55,000 as future needs require. McLane Stadium replaced Floyd Casey Stadium as the home field for the Baylor Bears football program. McLane stadium has excellent rates of game attendance. In 2017 Baylor ranked 4th in the State of Texas in largest football crowd attendance averaging 44,000. Re-ranked by Attendance as % of enrollment:Baylor student population of 16,000 gives the school a 261% football attendance figure.

Chris Martin (baseball) American baseball player

Christopher Riley Martin is an American professional baseball relief pitcher for the Texas Rangers of Major League Baseball (MLB). He previously played in MLB for the Colorado Rockies and New York Yankees, and for the Hokkaido Nippon-Ham Fighters of the Nippon Professional Baseball (NPB).

Cameron Park (Waco)

Cameron Park is a 416-acre (168 ha) urban park located in Waco, Texas. The park was dedicated on May 27, 1910, and named in memory of Waco philanthropist and lumber baron William Cameron. The park also contains Waco's 52-acre (21 ha) zoo, the Cameron Park Zoo.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Waco, Texas, USA.

Davis Wendzel is an American college baseball third baseman for the Baylor Bears.

References

  1. 1 2 "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2013-09-11. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  2. "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  3. "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on 2011-05-31. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  4. American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau Archived 2012-05-05 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 2011-11-01.
  5. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places of 50,000 or More, Ranked by July 1, 2018 Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2018 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division Release Date: May 2019
  6. American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau Archived 2011-07-14 at WebCite Retrieved 2011-11-01.
  7. Estimates of Resident Population Change and Rankings: July 1, 2017 to July 1, 2018 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division Release Date: April 2019
  8. "Thomas M. Duke to Stephen F. Austin, 06-xx-1824". Digital Austin Papers. Retrieved 2019-04-30.
  9. CLARK, LONGWELL, EVELYN (15 June 2010). "MCLENNAN, NEIL". www.tshaonline.org.
  10. NATALIE, ORNISH, (12 June 2010). "DE CORDOVA, JACOB RAPHAEL". www.tshaonline.org.
  11. Erath, Lucy (1923). The Memoirs of Major George B. Erath. Austin, Texas: Texas State Historical Association.
  12. Kelley, Dayton (1966). Waco, & McLennan County, Texas: 1876. Waco, Texas: Texian Press. p. 12.
  13. Davis, Joe Tom (1989). Legendary Texians, Vol. 4. Austin, Texas: Eakin Press. p. 151. ISBN   0-89015-669-7.
  14. Roger, Conger (1992). The Waco Suspension Bridge. Friends of the Texas Ranger Library. p. 224.
  15. Lichtenstein, Andrew; Lichtenstein, Alex (2017). Marked Unmarked Remembered. A Geography of American Memory. West Virginia University Press. p. 136. ISBN   9781943665891.
  16. 1 2 Bernstein, Patricia (2005). The First Waco Horror. College Station: Texas A&M University Press. pp. 185–91.
  17. Pohlen, Jerome (1 February 2006). Oddball Texas: A Guide to Some Really Strange Places. Chicago Review Press. p. 164. ISBN   978-1-56976-472-5.
  18. Top Ten US Killer Tornadoes Archived December 3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  19. "Twister Memorial to be Displayed". The Victoria Advocate. June 27, 2004.
  20. "9 Dead, 192 Charged in Waco Biker Gang Shooting" . Retrieved 2015-05-18.
  21. "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
  22. "History of the ALICO Building". ALICO Building. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  23. 1 2 "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved 2018-08-03.
  24. Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
  25. "Station Name: TX WACO RGNL AP". National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2018-04-11.
  26. "Population and Housing Unit Estimates" . Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  27. "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  28. "Waco (city), Texas". State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on May 5, 2012. Retrieved May 4, 2012.
  29. "Texas – Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. Retrieved May 4, 2012.
  30. "City Council – City of Waco, Texas". waco-texas.com.
  31. Memorial and Biographical History of McLennan, Falls, Bell and Coryell Counties, Texas. Chicago: Lewis Publishing Company. 1893. ISBN   978-1-4035-0020-5.
  32. "Contact Information." Texas Tenth Court of Appeals. Retrieved on March 10, 2010.
  33. "Waco Fire Stations". waco-texas.com. Retrieved March 27, 2016.
  34. "Directory – Region and District Parole Offices". Texas Department of Criminal Justice . May 28, 2015. Retrieved March 27, 2016.
  35. "Find Locations: WACO". United States Postal Service . Retrieved March 27, 2016.
  36. "Customized Report". wacochamber.com.
  37. "Waco-McLellan County Library". City of Waco, Texas. Retrieved December 27, 2018.
  38. "Armstrong Browning Library". Waco Convention & Visitors Bureau. Retrieved December 27, 2018.
  39. Masters, Claire (April 2014). "Portals to the past: Red Men plate exhibit at Waco library". Waco Today Magazine . Waco Tribune-Herald . Retrieved 2014-11-01.
  40. "Lee Lockwood Library and Museum – Waco's Best Kept Secret". www.srftx.org.
  41. Office of the Press Secretary (July 10, 2015). "FACT SHEET: President Obama Designates New National Monuments". The White House.
  42. "Suspension Bridge & Riverwalk – Parks & Recreation – City of Waco, Texas". waco-texas.com.
  43. Ryan, Terri. "The man behind Cameron Park". WacoTrib. Waco Tribune-Herald. Retrieved March 27, 2015.
  44. Kelley, Dayton (1972). The Handbook of Waco and McLennan County, Texas. Texian Press. p. 47.|access-date= requires |url= (help)
  45. http://www.msana.com/msastats.asp
  46. "Historic Bridge Foundation". Historic Bridge Foundation. Retrieved 2011-08-19.
  47. "Waco History". Wacocvb.com. Retrieved 2011-08-19.
  48. "Doris Miller Memorial". dorismillermemorial.org. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
  49. Smith, J. B. (December 7, 2017). "Pearl Harbor Hero". Waco Tribune-Herald . Retrieved February 7, 2018.
  50. "Brazos Valley Cotton Oil Mill | Waco History". Waco History. Retrieved 2017-12-26.
  51. jbsmith@wacotrib.com, J.B. SMITH. "Tourism boom of 2016 puts Waco on map of travel destinations". WacoTrib.com. Retrieved 2018-01-08.
  52. "The Waco Horror" (PDF). The Crisis. June 1916. Retrieved 2009-11-03.
  53. "Local Television Market Universe Estimates" (PDF). The Nielsen Company . Retrieved January 25, 2011.
  54. "Cottonwood Creek Golf Course". waco-texas.com. Retrieved 2018-09-11.
  55. "IRONMAN 70.3 Waco". ironman.co. Retrieved 2019-01-30.
  56. "Kwame Cavil". Pro-Football Reference.com. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
  57. "Perrish Cox". Pro-Football Reference.com. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
  58. "Dave Eichelberger". pgatour.com. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
  59. "Casey Fossum". BASEBALL REFERENCE. COM. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
  60. "Ken Grandberry". Pro-Football Reference.com. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
  61. "RUFUS GRANDERSON". profootballarchives.com. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 19, 2015.
  62. "Ty Harrington".
  63. "Andy Hawkins". BASEBALL REFERENCE. COM. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
  64. "Sherrill Headrick". Pro-Football Reference.com. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
  65. "Michael Johnson". baylorbears.com. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
  66. "Jim Jones". pro-football-reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved September 26, 2015.
  67. "Dominic Rhodes". Pro-Football Reference.com. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
  68. "LaDainian Tomlinson". gamedayr.com. Archived from the original on August 9, 2013. Retrieved March 27, 2016.
  69. "Kevin Belcher". BASEBALL REFERENCE. COM. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  70. "Lance Berkman". BASEBALL REFERENCE. COM. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  71. "Buzz Dozier". BASEBALL REFERENCE. COM. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  72. "Louis Drucke". BASEBALL REFERENCE. COM. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  73. "Boob Fowler". BASEBALL REFERENCE. COM. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  74. "Charlie Gorin". Pro-Baseball Reference.Com. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  75. "Donald Harris". Pro-Baseball Reference.Com. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  76. "Al Jackson". Pro-Baseball Reference.Com. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  77. "Scott Jordan". Pro-Baseball Reference.Com. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  78. "Rudy Law". Pro-Baseball Reference.Com. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  79. "L. D. Meyer". Pro-Baseball Reference.Com. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  80. "Arthur Rhodes". Pro-Baseball Reference.Com. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  81. "Schoolboy Rowe". Pro-Baseball Reference.Com. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  82. "Ted Wilborn". Pro-Baseball Reference.Com. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  83. "Jules Bledsoe". Waco History Project. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  84. "Shannon Elizabeth". IMDb.com, Inc. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  85. "Peri Gilpin". IMDb.com, Inc. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  86. "Texas Guinan". IMDb.com, Inc. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  87. "Thomas Harris". IMDb.com, Inc. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  88. "Jennifer Love Hewitt". IMDb.com, Inc. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  89. "Terrence Malick". Answers Corporation facebook. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  90. "Steve Martin". IMDb.com, Inc. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  91. "Kevin Reynolds". IMDb.com, Inc. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  92. "David Crowder Band". Baylor® University. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
  93. "Wade Bowen". Waco Tribune-Herald. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
  94. "Pat Green". Scripps Interactive Newspapers Group. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
  95. "Roy Hargrove". The Dallas Morning News Inc. Archived from the original on 24 February 2014. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
  96. "Hi-Five". Waco Tribune-Herald, Waco. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
  97. "Kari Jobe". Athens Publishing. Archived from the original on 28 February 2014. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
  98. "Willie Nelson". BeenVerified. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
  99. "Ted Nugent". WorldNow and KCEN. Archived from the original on November 2, 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
  100. Rossiter, Erin. "Ortiz: 'I've been blessed'". Online Athens. Athens Banner-Herald. Retrieved 2016-12-06.
  101. "Bill Payne of Little Feat". Highline Ballroom . Retrieved March 27, 2016.
  102. "Billy Joe Shaver". WACO TRIBUNE HERALD. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
  103. "Ashlee Simpson". IMDb . Retrieved 13 August 2013.
  104. "Strange Fruit Project". The Dallas Morning News Inc. Archived from the original on 11 December 2013. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
  105. "Hank Thompson". Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum. Archived from the original on June 18, 2013. Retrieved March 27, 2016.
  106. "Mercy Dee Walton". Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
  107. "Holly Tucker". AllMusic . Retrieved 2017-09-11.
  108. Staff. "Waco: Holly Tucker nominated for 2 TCMA Awards". KWTX.
  109. Melson, Kayla (9 September 2017). "'The Voice' contestant Holly Tucker visits NC9". elpasoproud.com.
  110. "Kip Averitt". Vote Smart . Com. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
  111. "Joe Barton". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
  112. "Roy Bass". Archives.com. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
  113. "Russell B. Cummings". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
  114. "Kent Grusendorf". Vote Smart . Com. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
  115. "Leon Jaworski". Notable Names Data Base. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
  116. Texas, Railroad Commission of. "Railroad Commission of Texas: An Inventory of Railroad Commission Commissioners Records at the Texas State Archives, 1898-1901, 1906-1908, 1916, 1920-1967, 1978-1980, 1997-2005, undated, bulk about 1930-about 1960". legacy.lib.utexas.edu. Retrieved 2019-02-01.
  117. "Ann Richards". tsl.state.tx.us. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
  118. "Ralph Sheffield Biography" (PDF). Legislative Reference Library. Retrieved February 21, 2014.
  119. "David Sibley" (PDF). waco-texas.com. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
  120. Hevesi, Dennis. "Robert W. McCollum, Dean of Dartmouth Medical School, Dies at 85", The New York Times , September 25, 2010. Accessed September 26, 2010.
  121. "Glenn McGee". Times Union . Archived from the original on August 29, 2006. Retrieved March 27, 2016.
  122. Smith, J. B. (March 16, 2011). "Former McLennan Elections Official John Willingham to Sign Copies of His Book". Waco Tribune-Herald. BH Media Group. Retrieved December 6, 2016.

Bibliography