Wallis and Futuna
|Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands|
Territoire des îles Wallis-et-Futuna (French)
Telituale o Uvea mo Futuna(Wallisian and Futunan)
|Anthem: "La Marseillaise"|
Location of Wallis and Futuna
|Protectorate over Wallis||5 April 1887|
|Protectorate over Alo and Sigave||16 February 1888|
|Separation from New Caledonia||1961|
and largest city
| Mata Utu |
|Government||Devolved parliamentary dependency|
|142.42 km2 (54.99 sq mi)|
• Water (%)
|83.55/km2 (216.4/sq mi)(125th)|
|GDP (nominal)||2005 estimate|
• Per capita
|Currency||CFP franc (XPF)|
|ISO 3166 code|
Wallis and Futuna, officially the Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands / ... / ; French : Wallis-et-Futuna [walis.e.futuna] or Territoire des îles Wallis-et-Futuna, Fakauvea and Fakafutuna: Uvea mo Futuna), is a French island collectivity in the South Pacific between Tuvalu to the northwest, Fiji to the southwest, Tonga to the southeast, Samoa to the east, and Tokelau to the northeast. Though both French and Polynesian, Wallis and Futuna is distinct from the entity known as French Polynesia.(
French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.
Futunan or Futunian is the Polynesian language spoken on Futuna. The term East-Futunan is also used to distinguish it from the related West Futunan (Futuna-Aniwan) spoken on the outlier islands of Futuna and Aniwa in Vanuatu.
France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
Its land area is 142.42 km2 (54.99 sq mi) with a population of 11,558 at the 2018 census (down from 14,944 at the 2003 census). Mata-Utu is the capital and biggest city. The territory is made up of three main volcanic tropical islands along with a number of tiny islets, and is split into two island groups that lie about 260 km (160 mi) apart, namely the Wallis Islands (Uvea) in the northeast, and the Hoorn Islands (also known as the Futuna Islands) in the southwest, including Futuna Island proper and the mostly uninhabited Alofi Island.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
The Hoorn Islands are one of the two island groups of which the French overseas collectivity of Wallis and Futuna is geographically composed. The aggregate area is 115 km², and the population 4,873.
Alofi is an island in the Pacific Ocean belonging to the French overseas collectivity of Wallis and Futuna.
Since 2003, Wallis and Futuna has been a French overseas collectivity ( collectivité d'outre-mer , or COM). Between 1961 and 2003, it had the status of a French overseas territory ( territoire d'outre-mer , or TOM), though its official name did not change when the status changed.
The earliest signs of human habitation in these islands are from the Lapita culture, dating to around 850 to 800 BCE. The islands served as natural stopover points for boat traffic going between Fiji and Samoa. During the Tongan invasions of the 15th and 16th centuries, the islands showed varying levels of resistance and assimilation, with Futuna retaining more of their pre-Tongan cultural features while Wallis underwent more fundamental changes in society, language and culture.The original inhabitants built forts and other identifiable ruins on the islands, some of which are still partially intact. Oral history and archaeological evidence suggest that the Tongan invaders reoccupied and modified some of these structures. Oral history also preserves a cultural memory of long-standing relationships between Samoa and Futuna going back to the islanders' origin stories.
The Lapita culture was a prehistoric Pacific Ocean people who flourished in the Pacific Islands from about 1600 BCE to about 500 BCE. Archaeologists believe that the Lapita are the ancestors of historic cultures in Polynesia, Micronesia, and some coastal areas of Melanesia. The characteristics of the Lapita culture are the extension of human settlement to previously uninhabited islands scattered over a large area in the Pacific Ocean, the spread of Oceanic languages in that area, the distinctive geometric dentate-stamped pottery, and the use and widespread distribution of obsidian.
Fiji, officially the Republic of Fiji, is an island country in Melanesia, part of Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about 1,100 nautical miles northeast of New Zealand's North Island. Its closest neighbours are Vanuatu to the west, New Caledonia to the southwest, New Zealand's Kermadec Islands to the southeast, Tonga to the east, the Samoas and France's Wallis and Futuna to the northeast, and Tuvalu to the north. Fiji consists of an archipelago of more than 330 islands—of which 110 are permanently inhabited—and more than 500 islets, amounting to a total land area of about 18,300 square kilometres (7,100 sq mi). The most outlying island is Ono-i-Lau. The two major islands, Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, account for 87% of the total population of 898,760. The capital, Suva, on Viti Levu, serves as the country's principal cruise-ship port. About three-quarters of Fijians live on Viti Levu's coasts, either in Suva or in smaller urban centres such as Nadi—where tourism is the major local industry—or Lautoka, where the sugar-cane industry is paramount. Due to its terrain, the interior of Viti Levu is sparsely inhabited.
Samoa, officially the Independent State ofSamoa and, until 4 July 1997, known as Western Samoa, is a country consisting of two main islands, Savai'i and Upolu, and four smaller islands. The capital city is Apia. The Lapita people discovered and settled the Samoan Islands around 3,500 years ago. They developed a unique Samoan language and Samoan cultural identity.
Futuna was first put on the European maps by Willem Schouten and Jacob Le Maire during their circumnavigation of the globe in 1616. They named the islands "Hoornse Eylanden" after the Dutch town of Hoorn where they hailed from. This was later translated into French as "Isles de Horne." The French were the first Europeans to settle in the territory,[ citation needed ] with the arrival of French missionaries in 1837, who converted the population to Roman Catholicism. Pierre Chanel, canonized as a saint in 1954, is a major patron of the island of Futuna and the region. The Wallis Islands are named after the British explorer, Samuel Wallis, who sailed past them in 1767 after discovering Tahiti.
Willem Cornelisz Schouten was a Dutch navigator for the Dutch East India Company. He was the first to sail the Cape Horn route to the Pacific Ocean.
Jacob Le Maire was a Dutch mariner who circumnavigated the earth in 1615 and 1616. The strait between Tierra del Fuego and Isla de los Estados was named the Le Maire Strait in his honor, though not without controversy. It was Le Maire himself who proposed to the council aboard Eendracht that the new passage should be called by his name and the council unanimously agreed with Le Maire. The author or authors of The Relation took Eendracht captain Schouten’s side by proclaiming:
On 5 April 1842, the missionaries asked for the protection of France after the rebellion of a part of the local population. On 5 April 1887, the Queen of Uvea (on the island of Wallis) signed a treaty officially establishing a French protectorate. The kings of Sigave and Alo on the islands of Futuna and Alofi also signed a treaty establishing a French protectorate on 16 February 1888. The islands were put under the authority of the French colony of New Caledonia.
ʻUvea is one of the three official chiefdoms of the French territory of Wallis and Futuna in Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean.
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state. In exchange for this, the protectorate usually accepts specified obligations, which may vary greatly, depending on the real nature of their relationship. Therefore, a protectorate remains an autonomous part of a sovereign state. They are different from colonies as they have local rulers and people ruling over the territory and experience rare cases of immigration of settlers from the country it has suzerainty of. However, a state which remains under the protection of another state but still retains independence is known as a protected state and is different from protectorates.
Sigavé is one of the three official chiefdoms of the French territory of Wallis and Futuna in Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean.
In 1917, the three traditional kingdoms were annexed to France and turned into the Colony of Wallis and Futuna, which was still under the authority of the Colony of New Caledonia.[ citation needed ]
During World War II, the islands' administration was pro-Vichy until a Free French corvette from New Caledonia deposed the regime on 26 May 1942. Units of the US Marine Corps landed on Wallis on 29 May 1942.
In 1959, the inhabitants of the islands voted to become a French overseas territory, effective in 1961, thus ending their subordination to New Caledonia.
In 2005, the 50th King of Uvea, Tomasi Kulimoetoke II, faced being deposed after giving sanctuary to his grandson who was convicted of manslaughter. The King claimed his grandson should be judged by tribal law rather than by the French penal system. There were riots in the streets involving the King's supporters, who were victorious over attempts to replace the King. Two years later, Tomasi Kulimoetoke died on 7 May 2007. The state was in a six-month period of mourning. During this period, mentioning a successor was forbidden.On 25 July 2008, Kapiliele Faupala was installed as King despite protests from some of the royal clans. He was deposed in 2014. There were no kings installed for two years. Finally, a new king, Patalione Kanimoa, was installed on Wallis in 2016; Filipo Katoa in Alo on Futuna succeeded after Petelo Sea had abdicated, and Eufenio Takala succeeded Polikalepo Kolivai in Sigave, The French president, François Hollande, was present.
The territory is divided into three traditional kingdoms (royaumes coutumiers): Uvea, on the island of Wallis, Sigave, on the western part of the island of Futuna, and Alo, on the eastern part of the island of Futuna and on the uninhabited island of Alofi (only Uvea is further subdivided, into three districts):
|Mu'a ("first")||Mala'efo'ou (2)||26.3||3,699||2,976||-19.5%||10|
The capital of the collectivity is Matāʻutu on the island of Uvéa, the most populous of the Wallis Islands. As an overseas collectivity of France, it is governed under the French constitution of 28 September 1958, and has universal suffrage for those over 18 years of age. The French president is elected by popular vote for a five-year term; the high administrator is appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of the Interior; the presidents of the Territorial Government and the Territorial Assembly are elected by the members of the assembly.
The head of state is President Emmanuel Macron of France as represented by the Administrator-Superior Thierry Queffelec.The President of the Territorial Assembly is Petelo Hanisi since 11 December 2013. The Council of the Territory consists of three kings (monarchs of the three pre-colonial kingdoms) and three members appointed by the high administrator on the advice of the Territorial Assembly.
The legislative branch consists of the unicameral Territorial Assembly or Assemblée territoriale of 20 seats; the members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms. Wallis and Futuna elect one senator to the French Senate and one deputy to the French National Assembly.
Justice is generally administered under French law by a tribunal of the first instance in Mata-Utu, but the three traditional kingdoms administer justice according to customary law (only for non-criminal cases). The Court of Appeal is in Nouméa, New Caledonia.
The territory participates in the Franc Zone, and as a permanent member of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community and as an observer of the Pacific Islands Forum.
Wallis and Futuna is located about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand, at Coordinates: , (225 mi west of Samoa and 300 mi (480 km) north-east of Fiji).
The territory includes the island of Uvéa (the most populous), the island of Futuna, the essentially uninhabited island of Alofi, and 20 uninhabited islets, totaling 274 square kilometres (106 sq mi) with 129 kilometres (80 mi) of coastline. The highest point in the territory is Mont Puke (on the island of Futuna) at 524 metres (1,719 ft).
The islands have a hot, rainy season from November to April with associated storms caused by the passage of tropical cyclones over the islands. There is a cool, dry season from May to October caused by the predominance of the south-east trade winds during this time. Average annual rainfall is 2,500 to 3,000 millimetres (98–118 in) with rainfall likely on at least 260 days each year. The average humidity is 80% and the average temperature is 26.6 °C (79.9 °F), rarely falling below 24.0 °C (75.2 °F) and ranging between 28.0 °C (82.4 °F) and 32.0 °C (89.6 °F) during the rainy season.
Only five percent of the islands' land area is arable land; permanent crops cover another 20%. Deforestation (only small portions of the original forests remain), largely as a result of the continued use of wood as the main fuel source, is a serious problem; as a consequence of cutting down the forests, the mountainous terrain of Futuna is particularly prone to erosion. There are no permanent settlements on Alofi because of the lack of natural freshwater resources.
|Island||Capital||Other Cities||Area (km²)||Population|
|Wallis and Futuna||Mata-Utu||Leava, Vaitupu, Alele, Liku, Falaleu, Utufua||142.42||15500|
|Hoorn Islands (Futuna and Alofi islands)||Leava||Fiua, Nuku, Taoa, Mala'e, Ono, Vele||64.1||4591|
|Futuna||Leava||Toloke, Fiua, Vaisei, Nuku, Taoa, Mala'e, Kolopelu, Ono, Kolia, Vele, Kolotai, Laloua, Poi, Tamana, Tuatafa, Tavai||46.3||4589|
|Ilot St. Christophe||Chappel St. Christophe||0.03||0|
|Wallis (island)||Mata-Utu||Vaitupu, Alele, Liku, Falaleu, Utufua, Mala'efo'ou, Mala'e||75.8||10895|
|Wallis and Futuna||Mata-Utu||Leava, Vaitupu, Alele, Liku, Falaleu, Utufua||142.42||15500|
The GDP of Wallis and Futuna in 2005 was 188 million US dollars at market exchange rates.The territory's economy is limited to traditional subsistence agriculture, with about 80% of the labor force earning its livelihood from agriculture (coconuts and vegetables), livestock (mostly pigs), and fishing. About 4% of the population is employed in government. Revenues come from French government subsidies, licensing of fishing rights to Japan and South Korea, import taxes, and remittances from expatriate workers in New Caledonia, French Polynesia and France. Industries include copra, handicrafts, fishing, and lumber. Agricultural products include coconuts, bread fruit, yams, taro, bananas, pigs, and fish. In 1991, BNP Nouvelle-Calédonie, a subsidiary of BNP Paribas, established a subsidiary, Banque de Wallis-et-Futuna, which currently is the only bank in the territory. Two years earlier Banque Indosuez had closed the branch at Mata-Utu that it had opened in 1977, leaving the territory without any bank. Many exports include copra, chemicals, and fish.
The total population of the territory at the July 2018 census was 11,558 (72.1% on the island of Wallis, 27.9% on the island of Futuna),down from 14,944 at the July 2003 census. The vast majority of the population are of Polynesian ethnicity, with a small minority of Metropolitan French descent and/or native-born whites of French descent.
Lack of economic opportunities has since the 1950s pushed many young Wallisians and Futunians to migrate to the more prosperous French territory of New Caledonia, where, as French citizens, they can legally settle and work. More recently (since the middle of the 2000s), political tensions on the main island of Wallis (Uvea), due to a feud between rival aristocratic clans who are supporting competing kings, has led to a new surge of emigration towards New Caledonia and even the very distant Metropolitan France. At the 2014 New Caledonian census, 21,926 residents of New Caledonia (both born in New Caledonia and in Wallis and Futuna) self-reported their ethnicity as Wallisian and Futunian, which is almost double the total population of Wallis and Futuna.
|Official figures from past censuses.|
At the 2018 census, among the population whose age was 14 and older, 59.1% of people reported that the language they spoke the most at home was Wallisian (down from 60.2% at the 2008 census), 27.9% reported Futunan (down from 29.9% in 2008), and 12.7% reported French (up from 9.7% in 2008).On Wallis Island, the languages most spoken at home were Wallisian (82.2%, down from 86.1% in 2008), French (15.6%, up from 12.1% in 2008), and Futunan (1.9%, up from 1.5% in 2008). On Futuna, the languages most spoken at home were Futunan (94.5%, down from 94.9% in 2008), French (5.3%, up from 4.2% in 2008), and Wallisian (0.2%, down from 0.8% in 2008).
At the same 2008 census, 88.5% of people whose age was 14 or older reported that they could speak, read and write either Wallisian or Futunan, whereas 7.2% reported that they had no knowledge of either Wallisian or Futunan.78.2% of people whose age was 14 or older reported that they could speak, read and write French, whereas 17.3% reported that they had no knowledge of French. On Wallis Island, 81.1% of people whose age was 14 or older reported that they could speak, read and write French, whereas 14.3% reported that they had no knowledge of French. On Futuna, 71.6% of people whose age was 14 or older reported that they could speak, read and write French, whereas 24.3% reported that they had no knowledge of French.
The overwhelming majority (99%) of the people in Wallis and Futuna are Roman Catholics, [ citation needed ]served by their own Roman Catholic Diocese of Wallis and Futuna, with see at Mata-Utu, a suffragan of the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Nouméa (New Caledonia).
The culture of Wallis and Futuna is Polynesian, and is very similar to the cultures of its neighbouring nations Samoa and Tonga. The Wallisian and Futunan cultures share very similar components in language, dance, cuisine and modes of celebration.
Fishing and agriculture are the traditional occupations and most people live in traditional fate houses in an oval shape made of thatch.Kava, as with many Polynesian islands, is a popular beverage brewed in the two islands, and is a traditional offering in rituals. Highly detailed tapa cloth art is a specialty of Wallis and Futuna.
In 1994, the territory had 1,125 telephones in use, had one AM radio station, and two television broadcast stations[ citation needed ]. Communication costs are high, costing up to ten times as much[ citation needed ] as western countries. The island of Wallis has about 100 kilometres (62 mi) of roadways, of which 16 are paved, while the island of Futuna has only 20 kilometres (12 mi), none are paved. The territory has two main ports and harbours, Mata-Utu and Leava (on the island of Futuna), that support its merchant marine fleet consisting of three ships (two passenger ships and a petroleum tanker), totaling 92,060 GRT or 45,881 tonnes. There are two airports, Hihifo Airport on Wallis with a paved runway of 2.1 kilometres (1.3 mi), and Pointe Vele Airport on Futuna with a 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) smaller runway. New Caledonia-based Aircalin operates the only commercial flights that go to Wallis, where it has an office in Mata-Utu. There are currently no commercial boat operators.
There are 18 primary schools in the territory with a combined total of over 5,200 students; 12 primary schools are on Wallis and six are on Futuna.
The territory has six junior high schools and one senior high school/sixth-form college.
There is also an agricultural high school.
Deforestation is a major concern in the region as only small portions of the original forests remain due to the continued use of wood as the main source of fuel. Consequently, the mountainous terrain of Futuna has become prone to erosion. There are no permanent settlements on Alofi due to the lack of natural freshwater resources and the presence of infertile soil on the islands of Uvea and Futuna further reduces the agricultural productivity.
The territory's data code and country code (top level Internet domain) is .wf. Currently this is suspended in favor of the .fr and .nc (Nouvelle Calédonie) data code.
This page is an overview of the economy of Wallis and Futuna.
Futuna is an 80 km2 island with 5,000 people and max. elevation of 500 m in the Pacific Ocean, belonging to the French overseas collectivity of Wallis and Futuna. It is one of the Hoorn Islands or Îles Horne, nearby Alofi being the other. They are both a remnant of an old extinct volcano, now bordered with a fringing reef.
Politics of Wallis and Futuna takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic French overseas collectivity, whereby the President of the Territorial Assembly is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government.
The Samoic–Outlier languages, also known as Samoic languages, are a purported group of Polynesian languages, encompassing the Polynesian languages of Samoa, Tuvalu, American Samoa, Tokelau, Wallis and Futuna, and Polynesian outlier languages in New Caledonia, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Papua New Guinea, and the Federated States of Micronesia. The name "Samoic-Outlier" recognizes Sāmoan.
Tomasi Kulimoetoke II was the 50th Lavelua (King) of Wallis Island, which is known as Uvea in the Wallisian language, one of the three traditional kingdoms in the French overseas territory of Wallis and Futuna.
Wallis is a Polynesian island in the Pacific Ocean belonging to the French overseas collectivity of Wallis and Futuna. It lies north of Tonga, northeast of Fiji, east-northeast of the Hoorn Islands, east of Fiji's Rotuma, southeast of Tuvalu, southwest of Tokelau and west of Samoa. Its area is almost 100 km2 (39 sq mi) with almost 11,000 people. Its capital is Matāʻutu. Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion. Its highest point is Mount Lulu Fakahega. Wallis is of volcanic origin with fertile soil and some remaining lakes. Rainfall is plentiful.
Mata Utu is the capital of Wallis and Futuna, an overseas collectivity of France. It is located on the island of Uvéa (ʻUvea), in the district of Hahake, of which it is also the capital. Its population is 1,191. It is one of two ports in Wallis and Futuna, the other being at Leava on Futuna. Hihifo Airport, the main airport accessing the island and city, is 5.6 kilometres (3.5 mi) to the northwest.
Wallisian, or ʻUvean, is the Polynesian language spoken on Wallis Island. The language is also known as East Uvean to distinguish it from the related West Uvean language spoken on the outlier island of Ouvéa near New Caledonia. The latter island was colonised from Wallis Island in the 18th century.
Hakake is one of the 5 districts of Wallis and Futuna, located in Wallis Island, in the Pacific Ocean. It is part of the Chiefdom of Uvea.
Cathedral of Our Lady of the Assumption, also known as Matâ'Utu Cathedral, is a Roman Catholic cathedral, and a national monument of France, located in the town of Matâ'Utu on Uvea, in Wallis and Futuna. It is a dominant edifice in downtown Mata-Utu town, capital of Wallis Island. It bears the royal insignia of Wallis, a Maltese cross between its towers. The cathedral is also known as the "Our Lady of Good Hope Cathedral". It is the seat of Bishop Ghislain Marie Raoul Suzanne de Rasilly.
Alo is one of three official chiefdoms of the French territory of Wallis and Futuna in Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Wallis and Futuna:
Kapeliele "Gabriel" Faupala was the 51st Lavelua (King) of Wallis Island (Uvea), one of the three traditional kingdoms which comprise the French overseas territory of Wallis and Futuna. Faupala was officially crowned Lavelua on July 25, 2008, succeeding Tomasi Kulimoetoke II, who died in May 2007. He was removed from office in September 2014.
Kolopopo is a village in Wallis and Futuna. It is a French island collectivity in the South Pacific containing 36 villages. It is located in Mua District on the southwest coast of Wallis Island. Its population according to the 2008 census was 144 people. The population has declined in this area due to lack of job opportunities and political tension on the main island. The currency used is Comptoirs Français du Pacifique (CFP) Franc.
Wallis and Futuna, an overseas territory of France in Oceania has a rich Polynesian culture that is very similar to the cultures of its neighbouring nations Samoa and Tonga. The Wallisian and Futunan cultures share very similar components in language, dance, cuisine and modes of celebration.
The 2013 Pacific Mini Games was the ninth edition of these Games. They were held in Mata Utu, Wallis and Futuna, Territory of France, from 2 to 12 September 2013.
|Look up Wallis and Futuna in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Wallis and Futuna .|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Wallis and Futuna .|