Wallsend

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Wallsend
Wallsend Town Hall.jpg
Wallsend Town Hall
Tyne and Wear UK location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Wallsend
Location within Tyne and Wear
Population43,826 (2011)
OS grid reference NZ301664
Metropolitan borough
Metropolitan county
Region
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town WALLSEND
Postcode district NE28
Dialling code 0191
Police Northumbria
Fire Tyne and Wear
Ambulance North East
UK Parliament
List of places
UK
England
Tyne and Wear
54°59′28″N1°32′02″W / 54.991°N 1.534°W / 54.991; -1.534 Coordinates: 54°59′28″N1°32′02″W / 54.991°N 1.534°W / 54.991; -1.534

Wallsend /ˌwɔːlzˈɛnd/ , historically Wallsend on Tyne, is a town in the metropolitan borough of North Tyneside in the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear, North East England. Historically, Wallsend is in the county of Northumberland. Wallsend derives its name from its location at the eastern end of Hadrian's Wall. It has a population of 43,842 and lies 3.5 miles (5.6 kilometres) east of Newcastle City Centre. [1] The population of the Wallsend ward of the North Tyneside Borough was at the 2011 census 10,304. [2]

Contents

History

Romans

In Roman times, this was the site of the fort Segedunum. This fort protected the eastern end of Hadrian's Wall, which terminated at the western wall of the fort. [3]

Pre-Conquest

The withdrawal of the Romans from the Wall immediately brought the Picts from the north and shortly afterwards the Angles, sailing from near the mouth of the River Elbe with frequent raids both from sea and from land. Ida the Saxon laid waste to the whole of the north in 547 and Wallsend doubtless suffered in the general devastation. It was not until the golden age of Northumberland under Edwin of Northumbria, and the subsequent introduction of the Christian faith by King Oswald of Northumbria (635-642) and St Aidan, that Wallsend enjoyed a time of peace and progress. This time of peace came to an abrupt end in 794 when the Danes (or Vikings) swarmed up the Tyne in great numbers. In the years before the Norman conquest there was a struggle for mastery between Danes and Saxons.

19th century to present

Several urban sanitary districts were formed in the parish in the late 19th century: Willington Quay, Howdon and Wallsend itself. The first two joined to form the Willington Quay urban district under the Local Government Act 1894, with the portion of the parish outside any urban sanitary district forming the parish of Willington in Tynemouth Rural District. Wallsend was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1901, and in 1910 took over Willington Quay and Willington, and also part of the parish of Longbenton.

St Peter's church (Church of England) has four fine stained glass windows by Michael Healy of An Túr Gloine: St Patrick, St Peter and St Luke (1913); Our Lord with the Nativity and the Shepherds (1919); Angel of the Resurrection with St George and St Christopher (1921); Our Lord walking on water (1921); and a window by Ethel Rhind, also of An Túr Gloine, depicting The Good Shepherd, Mary of Bethany, David (1921).

Shipbuilding

World Unicorn being built by Swan Hunter at the Wallsend shipyard, Tyneside in 1973. World Unicorn, built by Swan Hunter 1973.jpg
World Unicorn being built by Swan Hunter at the Wallsend shipyard, Tyneside in 1973.

Wallsend has a history of shipbuilding and was the home of the Wigham Richardson shipyard, which later amalgamated to form Swan Hunter & Wigham Richardson, probably best known for building the RMS Mauretania. [4] This express liner held the Blue Riband, for the fastest crossing of the Atlantic, for 22 years.

Other famous ships included the RMS Carpathia [5] which rescued the survivors from the Titanic in 1912, and the icebreaker Krasin (launched as Sviatogor) which rescued the Umberto Nobile expedition on Spitzbergen in 1928, when Roald Amundsen perished. The story is retold in the movie The Red Tent , starring Sean Connery and Peter Finch.

Charles Parsons launched his revolutionary Turbinia here in 1894, [6] thus not only revolutionising the navies of the world, but also, through the large-scale production of affordable electricity, making a significant contribution to the modern age.[ clarification needed ] He features in a BBC film called The Inventor of the Twentieth Century.

Wallsend ship repair dry docks, 1987 Wallsend Ship Repair.jpg
Wallsend ship repair dry docks, 1987

Russian novelist Yevgeny Zamyatin worked at Swan Hunter in 1916–17, and used it as background for his great anti-utopian work We which was a major influence on George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four .

World War II ships built here include HMS Sheffield and HMS Victorious which took part in the sinking of the Bismarck . [7] Other ships built there include the new HMS Ark Royal in the 1980s. [8]

The shipyard closed in 2007. [9] The musical The Last Ship by Sting is set in the shipyard. The former Wallsend Slipway & Engineering Company Shipyard continues to operate, constructing offshore oil rigs and as a TV studio: productions from there include the hit ITV drama Vera starring Brenda Blethyn and Inspector George Gently starring Martin Shaw.

Coal mining

Much of Wallsend's early industry was driven by coal mining. The Wallsend Colliery consisted of seven pits which were active between 1778 [10] and 1935. [11] In the 1820s the pits became incorporated as Russell's Colliery, which then became The Wallsend and Hebburn Coal Company Ltd. By 1924 the colliery employed 2,183 people. Its most prominent manager was mining and railway engineer John Buddle [12] who helped develop the Davy Lamp. [13]

Between 1767 and 1925 there were 11 major incidents recorded at the colliery resulting in over 209 deaths. [11] On 18 June 1835 a gas explosion in one of the tunnels killed 102 miners, [10] the youngest of which was aged eight and the oldest 75. Many of the dead were found with their cloth caps in their mouth. This is believed to have been an attempt to prevent inhalation of the gas which eventually killed them. The bodies were extracted and buried in St Peters churchyard at the top of the bank overlooking the Wallsend Burn. A plaque has been erected within the churchyard to commemorate this tragedy.

Recent history

The town has expanded greatly in terms of housing since the end of World War II, and since the 1960s. Wallsend Town Centre—including the main shopping area known as the "Wallsend Forum"—is in fact to the west of the land covered by the town. To the north of this area lies the older estate of High Farm and the new estate of Hadrian Lodge. The town centre of Wallsend is separated from the eastern areas of the town by the Wallsend Burn, a stream running through a small glacial valley from north-west to south-east and through the Willington Gut into the River Tyne. To the east of the Burn is the old area of Holy Cross, which contains the ruins of a medieval church, the pre-war estate of Rosehill and the mainly post-war estate of Howdon. To the south of Howdon lies Willington Quay which, as its name suggests, once served shipping but which is now dominated by industry and housing. East Howdon forms a small enclave between Willington Quay and North Shields.

The town's principal thoroughfare and shopping street is the High Street. To the north of this street is Wallsend Green, the town's most picturesque area, consisting of large houses as well as the Sir G B Hunter Memorial Hospital, surrounding a green square. [14] Behind the Green, where the Burn runs through the parkland of the Hall Grounds lies Wallsend Park, a traditional British municipal park, whose restoration has frequently been demanded by local residents and is planned with many improvements such as a skate and BMX park, better pathways, and a rebuilding of the Duffy Memorial Fountain. On Rheydt Avenue in Wallsend is Centurion Park Golf Club, previously named Wallsend Golf Club. It has 18 holes and a driving range.

The town is home to Wallsend Boys Club, an association football club, which has produced many famous players such as Alan Shearer, Lee Clark, Steve Watson, Peter Beardsley, Robbie Elliott, Mick Tait and Michael Carrick. It is also hometown and birthplace to internationally successful musician Sting, whose song All This Time refers to the Roman wall and fort. The musical The Last Ship , composed and written by Sting, is set in Wallsend.

Wallsend Town Hall, a large Edwardian Baroque style building in High Street East, was completed in 1908. [15]

Commemorating Roman history

In dedication to its Roman heritage, Wallsend's historic name Segedunum is shown in many places in the town, and signs with Latin wordings can also be found. Wallsend Metro Station has some signs in English and Latin. Such translations tend to amuse, with contrasts between today's and ancient times. Segedunum Roman Fort Museum has displays on Roman history as well as reconstructions of a bath house and a section of the Roman Wall which once stood on the site. [16]

Demography

In 2011 Wallsend had a population of 43,826 compared with 42,842 in the previous census.

 Wallsend North Tyneside
White British95.1%95.1%
Asian1.9%1.9%
Black0.6%0.4%
Sources: [17] [18]

In Wallsend, 4.9% of the population is non-white British, which is the same as the surrounding borough. It also has the same percentage of Asian people, but has slightly more black people. Wallsend is the second least ethnically diverse major urban subdivision in Tyneside and has a larger percentage of white British people compared with Tynemouth which is also slightly larger in population. However it has more ethnic minorities than Jarrow, which is south of the river Tyne.

Notable citizens

Politics

Music

Footballers

Other sports players

See also

Related Research Articles

Tyne and Wear Metropolitan county in North East England

Tyne and Wear is a metropolitan county in North East England, situated around the mouths of the rivers Tyne and Wear. It came into existence in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. It consists of the five metropolitan boroughs of Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead, North Tyneside, South Tyneside and the City of Sunderland. The county is bordered to the north by Northumberland, to the south by County Durham and to the east of the county lies the North Sea. It is the smallest county in North East England by area, but by far the largest in terms of population.

South Tyneside Metropolitan borough in England

South Tyneside is a metropolitan borough in the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear, North East England. It forms part of the Tyneside conurbation.

North Tyneside Metropolitan borough in England

The Metropolitan Borough of North Tyneside is a metropolitan borough in the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear, North East England. It forms a part of the greater Tyneside conurbation. The North Tyneside Council is headquartered at Cobalt Business Park, Wallsend.

North Shields Human settlement in England

North Shields is a coastal town on the north bank of the River Tyne in North East England, eight miles (13 km) north-east of Newcastle upon Tyne. Historically part of Northumberland, its name derives from Middle English schele meaning "temporary sheds or huts used by fishermen".

Walker, Newcastle upon Tyne Human settlement in England

Walker is a residential suburb and electoral ward just east of the centre of Newcastle upon Tyne, England. The population at the 2011 census was 11,701.

Hadrians Wall Path Long-distance footpath in the north of England

Hadrian's Wall Path is a long-distance footpath in the north of England, which became the 15th National Trail in 2003. It runs for 84 miles (135 km), from Wallsend on the east coast of England to Bowness-on-Solway on the west coast. For most of its length it is close to the remains of Hadrian's Wall, the defensive wall built by the Romans on the northern border of their empire. This is now recognised as part of the "Frontiers of the Roman Empire" World Heritage Site.

Segedunum Roman fort

Segedunum was a Roman fort at modern-day Wallsend, Tyne and Wear, England, UK. The fort lay at the eastern end of Hadrian's Wall near the banks of the River Tyne, forming the easternmost portion of the wall. It was in use as a garrison for approximately 300 years, from around 122 AD, almost up to 400AD.

Wallsend Metro station Tyne and Wear Metro station in North Tyneside

Wallsend is a Tyne and Wear Metro station, serving the town of Wallsend, North Tyneside in Tyne and Wear. It joined the network on 14 November 1982, following the opening of the fourth phase of the network, between Tynemouth and St James via Wallsend.

Ouseburn

The Ouseburn is a small river in Tyne and Wear, England that flows through the city of Newcastle upon Tyne into the River Tyne. It gives its name to the Ouseburn electoral ward.

Benwell District

Benwell is an area in the West End of Newcastle upon Tyne, England.

Howdon Place in England

Howdon is a largely residential area in the eastern part of Wallsend, Tyne and Wear, England. It consists of High Howdon and the smaller settlement of East Howdon. Much of the High Howdon area was formerly called Willington prior to post-World War II urbanisation. The North Tyneside ward population at the 2011 Census was 11,129.

Willington Quay is an area in the borough of North Tyneside in Tyne and Wear in northern England. It is situated on the north bank of the River Tyne, facing Jarrow, and between Wallsend and North Shields. It is served by the Howdon Metro station in Howdon. The area from 2006 onwards has been an area of new housing built on brownfield sites. The house building continues into 2013 and is changing the social and economic balance in the area. The area has also had a make over of the bowling green off Howdon Lane and further warehousing next to the bowling green has been demolished to make way for further new housing. The changes made recently at Willington Quay are now making it an attractive place to live within North Tyneside.

Pons Aelius

Pons Aelius, or Newcastle Roman Fort, was an auxiliary castra and small Roman settlement on Hadrian's Wall in the Roman province of Britannia Inferior, situated on the north bank of the River Tyne close to the centre of present-day Newcastle upon Tyne, and occupied between the 2nd and 4th centuries AD.

Condercum Roman fort in England

Condercum was a Roman fort on the site of the modern-day Condercum Estate in Benwell, a suburb of Newcastle upon Tyne, England. It was the third fort on Hadrian's Wall, after Segedunum (Wallsend) and Pons Aelius (Newcastle), and was situated on a hilltop 2 miles (3 km) to the west of the city. Today, nothing can be seen of the fort or its adjoining wall, as the site is covered by a modern reservoir and housing estate, bisected by the A186 Newcastle to Carlisle road, which follows the line of Hadrian's Wall. The remains of a small temple dedicated to Antenociticus, a local deity, can be seen nearby, and the original causeway over the vallum, or rear ditch, can also be seen. A modern-day Condercum Road marks the site.

Vindobala Ancient Roman fort at Northumberland, England

Vindobala was a Roman fort at the modern-day hamlet of Rudchester, Northumberland. It was the fourth fort on Hadrian's Wall, after Segedunum (Wallsend), Pons Aelius (Newcastle) and Condercum (Benwell). It was situated about 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) to the west of Condercum. The name Vindobala means “White Strength”. The site of the fort is bisected by the B6318 Military Road, which runs along the route of the wall at that point.

Milecastle 0

Milecastle 0 is a possible milecastle of the Roman Hadrian's Wall which may have preexisted the fort of Segedunum. Although its existence has been suggested by historian Peter Hill, no evidence of this milecastle has been found. It is not known whether the decision to establish forts on the line of the wall predated the decision to extend the wall to Wallsend, so it is possible that this milecastle was never built.

The Riverside Branch was a 6 12-mile (10.5 km) double-track branch line, which ran between Riverside Junction in Heaton and Percy Main West Junction in Percy Main.

The Roman Heritage Way is a long-distance path in England and Scotland. It covers parts of Cumbria, Northumberland, the Scottish Borders, and Tyneside.

Willington Quay was a railway station on the Riverside Branch, which ran between Byker and Willington Quay. The station served Willington Quay in North Tyneside.

Carville was a railway station on the Riverside Branch, which ran between Byker and Willington Quay. The station served Wallsend in North Tyneside.

References

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