Walter Burley Griffin

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Walter Burley Griffin
Walter Burley Griffin 1912.jpg
Walter Burley Griffin in 1912
Born(1876-11-24)24 November 1876
DiedFebruary 11, 1937(1937-02-11) (aged 60)
Nationality American
Alma mater University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
Occupation Landscape architect
Years active1890s–1930s
Known for Prairie School
Notable work
Design/plan of Canberra, Australia
Spouse(s) Marion Mahony Griffin (m. 1911)

Walter Burley Griffin (November 24, 1876 February 11, 1937) was an American architect and landscape architect. He is known for designing Canberra, Australia's capital city. He has been credited with the development of the L-shaped floor plan, the carport and an innovative use of reinforced concrete [ citation needed ].

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The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.

Landscape architect person involved in the planning, design and sometimes direction of a landscape, garden, or distinct space

A landscape architect is a person who is educated in the field of landscape architecture. The practice of landscape architecture includes: site analysis, site inventory, land planning, planting design, grading, storm water management, sustainable design, construction specification and ensuring that all plans meet the current building codes and local and federal ordinances. The title landscape architect was first used by Frederick Law Olmsted, the designer of New York City's Central Park.

Canberra capital city of Australia

Canberra is the capital city of Australia. Founded following the federation of the colonies of Australia as the seat of government for the new nation, it is Australia's largest inland city and the eighth-largest city overall. The city is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory; 280 km (170 mi) south-west of Sydney and 660 km (410 mi) north-east of Melbourne.

Contents

Influenced by the Chicago-based Prairie School, Griffin developed a unique modern style. He worked in partnership with his wife Marion Mahony Griffin. In 28 years they designed over 350 buildings, landscape and urban-design projects as well as designing construction materials, interiors, furniture and other household items.

Prairie School architectural style

Prairie School is a late 19th- and early 20th-century architectural style, most common to the Midwestern United States. The style is usually marked by horizontal lines, flat or hipped roofs with broad overhanging eaves, windows grouped in horizontal bands, integration with the landscape, solid construction, craftsmanship, and discipline in the use of ornament. Horizontal lines were thought to evoke and relate to the wide, flat, treeless expanses of America's native prairie landscape.

Modern architecture broad type of architecture

Modern architecture, or modernist architecture was based upon new and innovative technologies of construction, particularly the use of glass, steel and reinforced concrete; the idea that form should follow function; an embrace of minimalism; and a rejection of ornament. It emerged in the first half of the 20th century and became dominant after World War II until the 1980s, when it was gradually replaced as the principal style for institutional and corporate buildings by postmodern architecture.

Marion Mahony Griffin American architect and artist

Marion Mahony Griffin was an American architect and artist. She was one of the first licensed female architects in the world, and is considered an original member of the Prairie School. Her work in the United States developed and expanded the American Prairie School. Her work in India and Australia reflected Prairie School ideals of indigenous landscape and materials in the newly formed democracies. The scholar Deborah Wood has stated that Griffin "did the drawings people think when they think Frank Lloyd Wright ." During her career, she produced some of the best architectural drawing in America and was instrumental in envisioning the design plans for then new capital city of Australia, Canberra.

Early life

Griffin was born in 1876 in Maywood, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. [1] He was the eldest of the four children of George Walter Griffin, an insurance agent, and Estelle Burley Griffin. His family moved to Oak Park and later to Elmhurst. As a boy he had an interest in landscape design and gardening, and his parents allowed him to landscape the yard at their new home in Elmhurst. Griffin went to Oak Park High School. He considered studying landscape design but was advised by the landscape gardener O. C. Simonds to pursue a more lucrative profession.

Maywood, Illinois Village in Illinois, United States

Maywood is a village in Proviso Township, Cook County, Illinois, United States. It was founded on April 6, 1869, and organized October 22, 1881. The population was 24,090 at the 2010 United States Census.

Oak Park, Illinois Village in Illinois, United States

Oak Park is a village adjacent to the West Side of Chicago, Illinois. It is the 29th largest municipality in Illinois as measured by population in the 2010 U.S. census. As of the 2010 United States Census the village had a population of 51,878.

Elmhurst, Illinois City in Illinois, United States

Elmhurst is a city mostly in DuPage County and overlapping into Cook County in the U.S. state of Illinois, and a western suburb of Chicago. As of the 2017 census, the city has a population of 46,662.

Griffin chose to study architecture, and, in 1899, completed his bachelor's degree in architecture at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. [1] The University of Illinois program was run by Nathan Clifford Ricker, a German-educated architect, who emphasized the technical aspects of architecture. During his studies, he also took courses in horticulture and forestry.

Architecture The product and the process of planning, designing and constructing buildings and other structures.

Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements.

University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign public research university in Urbana and Champaign, Illinois, United States

The University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign is a public research university in Illinois and the flagship institution of the University of Illinois System. Founded in 1867 as a land-grant institution, its campus is located in the twin cities of Champaign and Urbana.

Nathan Clifford Ricker, D.Arch was a professor and architect known for his work at the University of Illinois. He was born on a farm near Acton, Maine June 24, 1843. In 1875, he was married to Mary Carter Steele of Galesburg, Illinois. Mary Steele graduated with honors from the University of Illinois in 1875. His only child, Ethel, was born in 1883. He died March 19, 1924.

Chicago career

After his studies, Griffin moved to Chicago and was employed as a draftsman for two years in the offices of progressive architects Dwight H. Perkins, Robert C. Spencer, Jr., and H. Webster Tomlinson in "Steinway Hall". [1] Griffin's employers worked in the distinctive Prairie School style. This style is marked by horizontal lines, flat roofs with broad overhanging eaves, solid construction, craftsmanship, and strict discipline in the use of ornament. Louis Sullivan was influential among Prairie School architects and Griffin was an admirer of his work, and of his philosophy of architecture which stressed that design should be free of historical precedent. Other architects of that school include George Grant Elmslie, George Washington Maher, William Gray Purcell, William Drummond and most importantly, Frank Lloyd Wright.

Dwight Heald Perkins was an American architect and planner.

Louis Sullivan American architect

Louis Henry Sullivan was an American architect, and has been called the "father of skyscrapers" and "father of modernism". He is considered by many as the creator of the modern skyscraper, was an influential architect and critic of the Chicago School, was a mentor to Frank Lloyd Wright, and an inspiration to the Chicago group of architects who have come to be known as the Prairie School. Along with Wright and Henry Hobson Richardson, Sullivan is one of "the recognized trinity of American architecture". The phrase "Form follows function" is attributed to him, although he credited the origin of the concept to an ancient Roman architect. In 1944, Sullivan was the second architect to posthumously receive the AIA Gold Medal.

George Grant Elmslie was a Scottish-born American Prairie School architect whose work is mostly found in the Midwestern United States. He worked with Louis Sullivan and later with William Gray Purcell as a partner in the firm Purcell & Elmslie.

In July 1901 Griffin passed the new Illinois architects' licensing examination and this permitted him to enter private practice as an architect. He began to work in Frank Lloyd Wright's famous Oak Park, Illinois, studios. [1] Although he was never made a partner, Griffin oversaw the construction on many of Wright's noted houses including the Willits House in 1902 and the Larkin Administration Building built in 1904. From 1905 he also began to supply landscape plans for Wright's buildings. Wright allowed Griffin and his other staff to undertake small commissions of their own. The William Emery house, built in Elmhurst, Illinois, in 1903 was such a commission. [1] While working for Wright, Griffin fell in love with Mr. Wright's sister, Maginel Wright. He proposed marriage to her, but his affections for her were not returned, and she refused.

Frank Lloyd Wright American architect

Frank Lloyd Wright was an American architect, interior designer, writer, and educator, who designed more than 1,000 structures, 532 of which were completed. Wright believed in designing structures that were in harmony with humanity and its environment, a philosophy he called organic architecture. This philosophy was best exemplified by Fallingwater (1935), which has been called "the best all-time work of American architecture." His creative period spanned more than 70 years.

Willits House historic house in Highland Park, Illinois

The Ward W. Willits House is a building designed by architect Frank Lloyd Wright. Designed in 1901, the Willits house is considered the first of the great Prairie houses. Built in the Chicago suburb of Highland Park, Illinois, the house presents a symmetrical facade to the street. One of the more interesting points about the house is Wright's ability to seamlessly combine architecture with nature. The plan is a cruciate with four wings extending out from a central fireplace. In addition to stained-glass windows and wooden screens that divide rooms, Wright also designed most of the furniture in the house.

Larkin Administration Building Building by architect Frank Lloyd Wright in Buffalo, New York

The Larkin Building was an early 20th century building. It was designed in 1903 by Frank Lloyd Wright and built in 1904-1906 for the Larkin Soap Company of Buffalo, New York. The five story dark red brick building used pink tinted mortar and utilized steel frame construction. It was noted for many innovations, including air conditioning, built-in desk furniture, and suspended toilet partitions and bowls. Though this was an office building, it still caught the essence of Frank Lloyd Wright's type of architecture. Sculptor Richard Bock provided ornamentation for the building.

In 1906 he resigned his position at Wright's studio and established his own practice at Steinway Hall. [1] Griffin and Wright had fallen out over events following Mr. Wright's trip to Japan in 1905. While Wright was away for five months, Griffin ran the practice. When Wright returned, he told Griffin that he had overstepped his responsibilities, completing several of Wright's jobs, and sometimes substituting his own building designs. Further, Wright had borrowed money from Griffin to pay for his travels abroad, and then he tried to pay off his debts to Griffin with prints he had acquired in Japan. It became clear to Griffin then that Wright would not make Griffin a partner in his business.

Griffin's first independent commission was a landscape design for the State Normal School at Charleston, Illinois, now known as the Eastern Illinois University. In the fall of 1906, he received his first residential job from Harry Peters. The Peters' House was the first house designed with an L-shaped or open floor plan. The L-shape was an economical design and easily constructed. From 1907, 13 houses in this style were built in the Chicago neighborhood now known as Beverly-Morgan Park. Seven of these houses are on W. 104th Place in Beverly, Chicago. This street is now named Walter Burley Griffin Place, and forms a municipal historical district within the national Ridge Historic District, as it contains the largest collection of small scale Griffin designs.

In 1911 Griffin developed 'Solid Rock' house for William F. Tempel in Winnetka, Illinois. It was the first house built by Griffin in his mature style and of reinforced concrete. [1]

Portrait of Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin, Castlecrag, Sydney, July 27, 1930, National Library of Australia Walterburleygriffin.jpg
Portrait of Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin, Castlecrag, Sydney, July 27, 1930, National Library of Australia

On June 29th, 1911 Griffin married Marion Lucy Mahony, a graduate of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in architecture. She was employed first in Wright's office, and then by Hermann V. von Holst, who had taken over Wright's work in America when Wright left for Europe in 1909. Marion Mahony recommended to von Holst that he hire Griffin to develop a landscape plan for the area surrounding the three houses on Milliken Place for which Wright had been hired in Decatur, Illinois. Mahony and Griffin worked closely on the Decatur project immediately before their marriage.

After their marriage, Mahony went to work in Griffin's practice. [2] A Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony-designed development with several homes, Rock Crest – Rock Glen in Mason City, Iowa, is seen as their most dramatic American design development of the decade and remains the largest collection of Prairie Style homes surrounding a natural setting. [3]

From 1899 to 1914, Griffin created more than 130 designs in his Chicago office for buildings, urban plans and landscapes; half of these were built in mid-western states of Illinois, Iowa, Michigan and Wisconsin. [1] In 1981, the city of Chicago granted landmark status to the Prairie-style bungalows designed between 1909 and 1914 by Griffin in the 1700 block of West 104th Place (also known as the Griffin Place Historic District), as well as 12 blocks on Longwood Drive and three blocks along Seeley Avenue between 98th and 110th Streets.

The relationship between Griffin and Frank Lloyd Wright cooled in the years following Griffin's departure from Wright's firm in 1906. With Walter and Marion's wedding, Wright started to feel they were "against him". After the Griffins' win in the Canberra design competition, and resultant front page coverage in the New York Times , Wright and Griffin never spoke to each other again. In later years, whenever Griffin was brought up in conversation Wright would downplay his achievements and refer to him as a draftsman. [4]

Canberra

Griffin's contour survey for Canberra Canberra plan-WBG.jpg
Griffin's contour survey for Canberra
Final accepted plan for Canberra Canberra Prelim Plan by WB Griffin 1913.jpg
Final accepted plan for Canberra
Forest of Redwood (Sequoia sempervirens and Sequoiadendron giganteum), planted in 1918, Pialligo Avenue. Pialligo Redwood Forest view south.jpg
Forest of Redwood ( Sequoia sempervirens and Sequoiadendron giganteum ), planted in 1918, Pialligo Avenue.

In April 1911 the Australian Government held an international competition to produce a design for Canberra, its new capital city. Griffin produced a design with impressive renderings of the plan produced by Mahony Griffin. They first heard about the competition in July, while on honeymoon, and worked feverishly to prepare the plans. On May 23, 1912, Griffin's design was selected as the winner from among 137 entries. This created significant press coverage at the time and brought him professional and public recognition. Of his plan, he famously remarked:

I have planned a city that is not like any other in the world. I have planned it not in a way that I expected any government authorities in the world would accept. I have planned an ideal city – a city that meets my ideal of the city of the future.

In 1913 he was invited by the Commonwealth Government to Australia to inspect the site. [5] He left Mahony Griffin in charge of the practice and travelled to Australia in July. His letters reveal his appreciation for the Australian landscape. The Griffins joined the Naturalists' Society of New South Wales in 1914, where they enjoyed organised bush walks and field studies. The Society facilitated their contact with the Australian scientific community, especially botanists. This appreciation for Australia flora was reflected in Griffin's 1914 town plan for Leeton in the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area, and later in a design for Newman College at the University of Melbourne. [6] He also utilised Australian flora botanical names as places names for suburbs and streets in Canberra, such as Grevillea Park, Telopea Park, Clienthus Circle and Blandfordia. [7]

Griffin was offered the position of head of the department of architecture at the University of Illinois. At the same time he was negotiating a three-year contract with the Australian Government to remain in Australia and oversee the implementation of his plan, which he felt had already been compromised. In October 1913 he was appointed the Federal Capital Director of Design and Construction. [1] In this role, Griffin oversaw the design of North and South Canberra, though he struggled with political and bureaucratic obstacles. In May 1914, Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin left America for Australia along with architects Roy Lippincott and George Elgh.

With the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Griffin was under pressure to reduce the scope and scale of his plans due to the Government diverting funds towards the war effort. Several parts of his basic design underwent change. Plans to create Westbourne, Southbourne and Eastbourne Avenues to complement Canberra's Northbourne Avenue were eliminated, as did a proposed railway connecting South Canberra to North Canberra, and then in a northwesterly direction to Yass. A market area that would have been at Russell Hill in North Canberra was moved south to what is now Fyshwick, next to South Canberra.

The pace of building was slower than expected, partly because of a lack of funds and partly because of a dispute between Griffin and Federal government bureaucrats. Many of Griffin's design ideas were attacked by both the architectural profession and the press. In 1917 a Royal Commission determined that they had undermined Griffin's authority by supplying him with false data which he had used to carry out his work. Ultimately, Griffin resigned from the Canberra design project in December 1920 when he discovered that several of these bureaucrats had been appointed to an agency that would oversee Canberra's construction. The Commonwealth Government under the leadership of Prime Minister Hughes had removed Griffin as director of construction at Canberra after disagreements over his supervisory role, and in 1921 created the Federal Capital Advisory Committee, with John Sulman as chair. Griffin was offered membership, but declined and withdrew from further activity in Canberra. [8]

Griffin designed several buildings for Canberra, none of which were built. The grave of General Bridges on Mount Pleasant was the only permanent structure designed by Griffin to be built in Canberra.

Aside from the city's design, his longest-living legacy is the forest of Redwood trees (both Sequoia sempervirens and Sequoiadendron giganteum ) planted in 1918 by Walter Burley Griffin and arborist Thomas Charles Weston on Pialligo, ACT on Pialligo Avenue between Canberra and Queanbeyan.

Later career

The Knitlock construction system designed by Griffin. Knitlock diagram-MJC.png
The Knitlock construction system designed by Griffin.

The Griffins' office in Chicago closed in 1917; however, they had successful practices in Melbourne and Sydney, which were a strong motivation for their continuing to live in Australia. The Griffins had received commissions for work outside Canberra since Walter first arrived in the country in 1913, designing town plans, subdivisions, and one of his highly regarded buildings, Newman College, the Catholic residential college of the University of Melbourne while employed in Canberra. [9] While supervising activities in Canberra, Griffin spent much time in Melbourne and, in 1918, became a founder, with Royden Powell, of the Henry George Club, an organisation devoted to providing a home for the Single Tax movement. [10] The Griffins' first major commission after leaving Canberra was the Capitol Theatre in Melbourne; it opened on November 7, 1924. In 1964 architectural writer Robin Boyd described the Capitol as "the best cinema that was ever built or is ever likely to be built".

In 1916 and 1917 Griffin developed a patented modular concrete construction system known as "Knitlock" for use in the construction of Canberra. No Knitlock buildings were ever built in Canberra, although several were built in Australia. The first were built on Griffin's property in Frankston in 1922, where he constructed two holiday houses called "Gumnuts". The best examples of Knitlock include the S.R. Salter House in Toorak and the Paling House. Frank Lloyd Wright designed a similar system and used Griffin's design to support the arguments for his design.

Mannix Wing walkway at Newman College, University of Melbourne Newman College - Mannix wing walkway.JPG
Mannix Wing walkway at Newman College, University of Melbourne

In 1919 the Griffins founded the Greater Sydney Development Association (GSDA), and in 1921 purchased 259 ha of land in North Sydney. The GSDA's goal was the development of an idyllic community with a consistent architectural feel and bushland setting. Walter Burley Griffin as managing director of the GSDA designed all the buildings built in the area until 1935. Castlecrag was the first suburb to be developed by the GSDA. The Redding House and several others in Castelcrag were also built in Knitlock. Almost all the houses Griffin designed in Castlecrag were small and had flat roofs, and he included an internal courtyard in many of them. Griffin used what was at that time the novel concept of including native bushland in these designs. He came to be referred to as "The Wizard of Castlecrag".

Other work the Griffins did during this time included the Melbourne subdivisions of Glenard and Mount Eagle at Eaglemont. Prior to 1920 the Griffins also designed the New South Wales towns of Leeton and Griffith. [11] Griffin and architect J Burcham Clamp designed a large tomb built at Waverley Cemetery, Sydney, between 1914 and 1916 for James Stuart, which still stands as a good example of Griffin's sense of 'human-scale monumentality'. [12]

The Griffins participated in the celebrated Chicago Tribune Tower Competition in 1922. Having won one famous international competition, as architects who were both well acquainted with Chicago and recognized as practical visionaries, they offered a solution that was positive, forward-looking and elegant. Indeed, their entry appears to be about a decade ahead of its time, with emphatic verticality along the lines of the Art Deco or Art Moderne. It anticipated and would have been a near neighbor of Chicago's 333 North Michigan by Holabird & Roche (1928); with stylistic echos in John and Donald Parkinson's Bullocks Wilshire, in Los Angeles (1929), as well as Adah Robinson and Bruce Goff's Boston Avenue Methodist Church, Tulsa (1929). [13]

In the 1920s they prepared plans for the Milleara Estate (also known as City View) at Avondale Heights, and the Ranelagh Estate at Mount Eliza, in conjunction with surveyors Tuxen and Miller.

Incinerators

Walter Burley Griffin Incinerator, Ipswich, Queensland Waltburgriffincin2.jpg
Walter Burley Griffin Incinerator, Ipswich, Queensland

During the financial hardship of the Depression in the 1930s Griffin designed incinerators, collaborating with the Reverberatory Incinerator and Engineering Company (RIECo), in conjunction with his friend and partner, Eric Nicholls. [14] He was responsible for twelve incinerator designs between 1930 and 1938, of which seven still survive. They are located at:

The Willoughby incinerator is a good example of this work. It has been listed by the National Trust of Australia and the Royal Australian Institute of Architects as a building of significance. In 1999 it was listed in the New South Wales State Heritage Register. [15] It has since been restored and converted to commercial use by Willoughby Council.

The Walter Burley Griffin Incinerator in Ipswich, Queensland is listed on the Queensland Heritage Register and has been converted into a theatre. [16] Another incinerator was built in the suburb of Pyrmont, not far from the centre of Sydney. This incinerator was considered for heritage listing but was demolished in 1992 because it was in irredeemably bad condition. [17]

India

During their time at the GSDA, the Griffins became more involved in anthroposophy, [18] and in 1935 through contacts in the movement Griffin won a commission to design the library at the University of Lucknow in Lucknow, India.

Although he had planned to stay in India only to complete the drawings for the library, he soon received more than 40 commissions, including the University of Lucknow Student Union building; a museum and library for the Raja of Mahmudabad; a zenana (women's quarters) for the Raja of Jahangirabad; Pioneer Press building, a bank, municipal offices, many private houses, and a memorial to King George V. He also won complete design responsibility for the 1936–1937 United Provinces Exhibition of Industry and Agriculture. His 53 projects for the 160-acre (0.65 km2) site featured a stadium, arena, mosque, imambara, art gallery, restaurant, bazaar, pavilions, rotundas, arcades, and towers, [19] [20] however, only part of his elaborate plans were fully executed. [21]

Griffin was inspired by the architecture and culture of India, modifying forms as "he sought to create a modern Indian architecture ... Griffin was able to expand his aesthetic vocabulary to create an exuberant, expressive architecture reflecting both the 'stamp of the place' and the 'spirit of the times'". [22] While in India, Griffin also published numerous articles for the Pioneer, writing about architecture, in particular about ventilation design improvements. His wife Marion traveled to Lucknow in April 1936 to assist and contributed to several projects.

Death and burial in India

Griffin died of peritonitis in early 1937, five days after gall bladder surgery at King George's Hospital, Lucknow in Lucknow city in state of Uttar Pradesh, India, and was buried in Christian Cemetery in Lucknow. Marion Mahony Griffin oversaw the completion of the Pioneer Building that he had been working on at the time of his death. She closed down their Indian offices, then left their Australian practice in the hands of Griffin's partner, Eric Milton Nicholls, and returned to Chicago. [20]

Legacy

Griffin was largely under-appreciated during his time in Australia, but since his death there has been a growing recognition of his work. In 1964 when Canberra finally got its central lake (as Griffin had intended), Prime Minister Robert Menzies declined to have the lake named after himself, and he instead named it Lake Burley Griffin, and this became the first monument in Canberra dedicated to the city's designer ("Burley" was included in the name because of the misconception that it was part of Griffin's surname).

Architectural drawings and other archival materials by and about the Griffins are held by numerous institutions in the United States, including the Drawings and Archives Department of Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library at Columbia University; the Block Gallery at Northwestern University; the Ryerson & Burnham Libraries at the Art Institute of Chicago; and the New York Historical Society, as well as in several repositories in Australia, including the National Library of Australia, National Archives of Australia, and the Newman College Archives of the University of Melbourne. At the centenary of the Griffins' design work for Canberra, some believe they are owed a permanent memorial. [23]

In his own words

. ... "I am what may be termed a naturalist in architecture. I do not believe in any school of architecture. I believe in architecture that is the logical outgrowth of the environment in which the building in mind is to be located". ... From the New York Times , Sunday 2 June 1912 [24]

Major works

India

United States

Australia

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Duncan House is a heritage-listed residence located at 8 The Barbette, Castlecrag, City of Willoughby, New South Wales, Australia. It was designed by Walter Burley Griffin. It is also known as Duncan House Number 2. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.

Fishwick House

The Fishwick House is a heritage-listed private residence located at 15 The Citadel, Castlecrag, City of Willoughby, New South Wales, Australia. It was designed by Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin and built during 1929. It is also known as The Fishwick House and Fyshwick House. The property is privately owned. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 15 December 2006.

Buhrich House II

Buhrich House II is a heritage-listed residence located at 375 Edinburgh Road, Castlecrag, City of Willoughby, New South Wales, Australia. It was designed by Hugh Buhrich and built during 1972. The property is privately by members of the Buhrich family. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 25 May 2001.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Marion Mahony Griffin, Walter Burley Griffin, Powerhouse Museum (1998). Beyond architecture: Marion Mahony and Walter Burley Griffin: America, Australia, India. Sydney: University of Illinois Press. pp. 4–7. ISBN   1863170685. OCLC   40398084.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Date and year (link)
  2. Marion Mahony at www.pbs.org
  3. Walter Burley Griffin – Mason City at www.pbs.org
  4. Paul kruty at www.pbs.org
  5. Vernon, Christopher; National Archives of Australia; National Library of Australia (2013), The dream of a century : the Griffins in Australia's capital, Canberra National Library of Australia, retrieved April 9, 2018
  6. Vernon, C., (2002), 'Griffin, Walter Burley', in R. Aitken and M. Looker (eds), Oxford Companion to Australian Gardens, South Melbourne, Oxford University Press, pp. 275–76.
  7. Vernon, C., (1997), 'Griffin and Australian flora', Australian Garden History, 8 (5), pp. 10–11.
  8. An Ideal City – Timeline Archived October 15, 2005, at the Wayback Machine at www.idealcity.org.au
  9. Birrell, James (1986), "Vision and bureaucracy: the Walter Burley Griffin experience", Heritage (Australian Heritage Society), 5 (3): 33–36, ISSN   0155-2716
  10. Henry George Club – Home Page Archived February 23, 2006, at the Wayback Machine at www.hgclub.com.au
  11. "The City Plan of Griffith". Irrigation Record . 3, (6). New South Wales, Australia. June 1, 1915. p. 1. Retrieved April 9, 2018 via National Library of Australia.
  12. "Tomb by Burley Griffin sheds darkness and light", Sydney Morning Herald, July 21, 1998
  13. Solomonson, Katherine, "The Chicago Tribune Tower Competition", 2001; page 155
  14. The Architecture of Walter Burley Griffin, Donald Leslie Johnson (Macmillan Company of Australia) 1977, p.116 ISBN   0 333 22928 2
  15. "Willoughby Council Website". Archived from the original on April 2, 2011. Retrieved January 30, 2012.
  16. 1 2 "Walter Burley Griffin Incinerator (former) (entry 600596)". Queensland Heritage Register . Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved August 1, 2014.
  17. "City of Sydney Website". Archived from the original on March 24, 2012. Retrieved January 30, 2012.
  18. Paull, John (2012) "Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahoney Griffin, Architects of Anthroposophy", Journal of Bio-dynamics Tasmania, 106:20-30.
  19. National Library of Australia Digital Collections Pictures: nla.pic-vn3674084
  20. 1 2 Walter Burley Griffin Society, Inc., Walter Burley Griffin
  21. Australian Dictionary of Biography, Griffin, Walter Burley (1876–1937)
  22. Kruty, Paul & Maldre, Mati, Walter Burley Griffin in America, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1996, pp. 76–81
  23. Vernon, Christopher 'Let's Not Forget the Griffins', The Canberra Times, Panorama magazine, 17 May 2014 p6, from Australian Design Review, April 2013.
  24. NEW YORK TIMES ON GRIFFIN & HIS PLAN at www.library.cornell.edu
  25. "Fishwick House, The". New South Wales State Heritage Register . Office of Environment and Heritage. H01751. Retrieved June 2, 2018.
  26. "Walter Burley Griffin Incinerator". New South Wales State Heritage Register . Office of Environment and Heritage. H00084. Retrieved June 1, 2018.
  27. "Duncan House". New South Wales State Heritage Register . Office of Environment and Heritage. H00742. Retrieved June 2, 2018.
  28. "Eric Pratten House". New South Wales State Heritage Register . Office of Environment and Heritage. H01443. Retrieved May 18, 2018.
  29. Building Details - Architects of South Australia > Hindmarsh Incinerator Accessed 13 May 2014.
  30. Building Details - Architects of South Australia > Thebarton Incinerator Accessed 13 May 2014.

Further reading

National Library of Australia:

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