|Born||April 7, 1859|
New Britain, Connecticut
|Died||March 14, 1925 65) (aged|
|Coaching career (HC unless noted)|
|Head coaching record|
|Accomplishments and honors|
|3 National (1888, 1891, 1892)|
| College Football Hall of Fame |
Inducted in 1951 (profile)
Walter Chauncey Camp (April 7, 1859 – March 14, 1925) was an American football player, coach, and sports writer known as the "Father of American Football". Among a long list of inventions, he created the sport's line of scrimmage and the system of downs.With John Heisman, Amos Alonzo Stagg, Pop Warner, Fielding H. Yost, and George Halas, Camp was one of the most accomplished persons in the early history of American football. He attended Yale College, where he played and coached college football. Camp's Yale teams of 1888, 1891, and 1892 have been recognized as national champions. Camp was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame as a coach during 1951.
Camp wrote articles and books on the gridiron and sports in general, annually publishing an "All-American" team. By the time of his death, he had written nearly 30 books and more than 250 magazine articles.
|Part of the American football series on the|
|History of American football|
|Origins of American football|
|Close relations to other codes|
Camp was born in New Britain, Connecticut, the son of Leverett Camp and Ellen Sophia (Cornwell) Camp. Walter Camp was of English descent. His first immigrant ancestor was the English colonist Nicholas Camp, who came from Nazeing, Essex, England and arrived in colonial New England in 1630, arriving first in Massachusetts and then moving to Connecticut that same year.Walter attended Hopkins Grammar School in New Haven, entered Yale College in 1875, and graduated in 1880. At Yale he was a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity, the Linonian Society, and Skull and Bones. He attended Yale Medical School from 1880 to 1883, where his studies were interrupted first by an outbreak of typhoid fever and then by work for the Manhattan Watch Company. Camp worked for the New Haven Clock Company beginning in 1883, working his way up to chairman of the board of directors.
In 1873, Camp attended a meeting where representatives from Columbia, Rutgers, Princeton, and Yale universities created the Intercollegiate Football Association (IFA). The representatives created the rule that each team is only allowed 15 plays per drive. Camp played as a halfback at Yale from 1876 to 1882. Harvard player Nathaniel Curtis took one look at Camp, then only 156 pounds, and told Yale captain Gene Baker "You don't mean to let that child play, do you? ... He will get hurt."
On June 30, 1888, Camp married Alice Graham Sumner, sister of sociologist William Graham Sumner. They had two children: Walter Camp, Jr. (1891-1940), who attended Yale as well and was elected as a member of Scroll and Key in 1912, and Janet Camp Troxell (1897-1987).Camp is buried with his wife and children in Grove Street Cemetery in New Haven. He was an Episcopalian.
Camp served as the head football coach at Yale from 1888 to 1892. In his time with Yale, the team won 67 games and lost just 2 games.He then moved on to Stanford University, where he coached in December 1892 and in 1894 and 1895. On Christmas Day, 1894, Amos Alonzo Stagg and his University of Chicago Maroons defeated Camp's Stanford team 24–4 at San Francisco in an early intersectional contest.
Camp was on the various collegiate football rules committees that developed the American game from his time as a player at Yale until his death. English rugby football rules at the time required a tackled player, when the ball was "fairly held," to put the ball down immediately for scrummage. Camp proposed at the U.S. College Football 1880 rules convention that the contested scrimmage be replaced with a "line of scrimmage" where the team with the ball started with uncontested possession. This change effectively created the evolution of the modern game of American football from its rugby football origins.
He is credited with innovations such as the snap-back from center, the system of downs, and the points system as well as the introduction of what became a standard offensive arrangement of players—a seven-man line and a four-man backfield consisting of a quarterback, two halfbacks, and a fullback. Camp was also responsible for introducing the "safety," the awarding of two points to the defensive side for tackling a ball carrier in his own end zone followed by a free kick by the offense from its own 20-yard line to restart play. This is significant as rugby union has no point value award for this action, but instead awards a scrum to the attacking side five meters from the goal line.
In 2011, reviewing Camp's role in the founding of the sport and of the NCAA, Taylor Branch also credited Camp with cutting the number of players on a football team from 15 to 11 and adding measuring lines to the field. However, Branch noted that the revelation in a contemporaneous McClure's magazine story of "Camp's $100,000 slush fund," along with concern about the violence of the growing sport, helped lead to President Theodore Roosevelt's intervention in the sport. The NCAA emerged from the national talks, but worked to Yale's disadvantage relative to rival (and Roosevelt's alma mater ) Harvard, according to Branch.
Despite having a full-time job at the New Haven Clock Company, a Camp family business, and being an unpaid yet very involved adviser to the Yale football team, Camp wrote articles and books on the gridiron and sports in general. By the time of his death, he had written nearly 30 books and more than 250 magazine articles. His articles appeared in national periodicals such as Harper's Weekly, Collier's, Outing, Outlook, and The Independent, and in juvenile magazines such as St. Nicholas, Youth's Companion, and Boys' Magazine. His stories also appeared in major daily newspapers throughout the United States. He also selected an annual "All-American" team.
By the age of 33, twelve years after graduating from Yale, Walter Camp had already become known as the "Father of Football." In a column in the popular magazine Harper's Weekly , sports columnist Caspar Whitney had applied the nickname; the sobriquet was appropriate because, by 1892, Camp had almost single-handedly fashioned the game of modern American football.
Camp was editor for several sports books published by the Spalding Athletic Library.
The dominance of Ivy League players on Camp's All-America teams led to criticism over the years that his selections were biased against players from the leading Western universities, including Chicago, Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Notre Dame.Many selectors picked only Eastern players. For example, Wilton S. Farnsworth's 1910 All-American eleven for the New York Evening Journal was made up of five players from Harvard, two from West Point, and one each from Yale, Princeton, Penn, and Brown.
The selectors were typically Eastern writers and former players who attended only games in the East. In December 1910, The Mansfield News , an Ohio newspaper, ran an article headlined: "All-American Teams of East Are Jokes: Critics Who Never Saw Western Teams Play to Name Best in Country -- Forget About Michigan, Minnesota and Illinois."The article noted:
Eastern sporting editors must be devoid of all sense of humor, judging by the way in which they permit their football writers to pick 'All-American' elevens. What man in the lot that have picked 'All-American' elevens this fall, saw a single game outside the North Atlantic States? With a conceit all their own they fail to recognize that the United States reaches more than 200 miles in any direction from New York. ... Suppose an Ohio football writer picked 'All-American' teams. Ohio readers would not stand for it. But apparently the eastern readers will swallow anything.
Camp was a proponent of exercise, and not just for the athletes he coached. While working as an adviser to the United States military during World War I, he devised a program to help servicemen become more physically fit.
Walter Camp has just developed for the Naval of setting up exercises that seems to fill the bill; a system designed to give a man a running jump start for the serious work of the day. It is called the "daily dozen set-up", meaning thereby twelve very simple exercises.
Both the Army and the Navy used Camp's methods.
The names of the exercises in the original Daily Dozen, as the whole set became known, were hands, grind, crawl, wave, hips, grate, curl, weave, head, grasp, crouch, and wing. As the name indicates, there were twelve exercises, and they could be completed in about eight minutes.A prolific writer, Camp wrote a book explaining the exercises and extolling their benefits. During the 1920s, a number of newspapers and magazines used the term "Daily Dozen" to refer to exercise in general.
Starting in 1921 with the Musical Health Builder record sets, Camp began offering morning setting-up exercises to a wider market.In 1922, the initiative reached the new medium of radio.
|Yale Bulldogs (Intercollegiate Football Association)(1888–1892)|
|National championship Conference title Conference division title or championship game berth|
In several forms of football, a forward pass is the throwing of the ball in the direction to which the offensive team is trying to move, towards the defensive team's goal line. The forward pass is one of the main distinguishers between gridiron football in which the play is legal and widespread, and rugby football from which the North American games evolved, in which the play is illegal.
The Harvard–Yale football rivalry is renewed annually with The Game, an American college football match between the Harvard Crimson football team of Harvard University and the Yale Bulldogs football team of Yale University.
The College Football All-America Team is an honor given annually to the best college football players in the United States at their respective positions. The original use of the term All-America seems to have been to the 1889 College Football All-America Team selected by Caspar Whitney and published in This Week's Sports. Football pioneer Walter Camp also began selecting All-America teams in the 1890s and was recognized as the official selector in the early years of the 20th century.
Edward Harris "Ted" Coy was an American football player and coach. Coy was selected as a first-team All-American three straight years from 1907 to 1909 and was later selected as the fullback on Walter Camp's All-Time All-America team. He also served as Yale's head football coach in 1910. In 1951, Coy was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame as part of its inaugural class.
Homer Howard "Pop" Hazel was an American football player and coach. He played college football at Rutgers University in 1916 and again from 1923 to 1924. Considered an outstanding punter, kicker, and passer, he was selected as a first-team All-American as an end in 1923 and as a fullback in 1924. He was the first player selected as an All-American at two different positions. He also lettered in baseball, basketball and track at Rutgers.
Arthur Howe was an American football player and coach, teacher, minister and university president. He played college football for Yale University from 1909 to 1911, was the quarterback of Yale's 1909 national championship team, and was a consensus first-team All-American in 1912. He was the head coach of the 1912 Yale football team. Howe was later ordained as a Presbyterian minister and taught at Eastern preparatory schools and at Dartmouth College. From 1930 to 1940, he was the president of Hampton University. He was posthumously inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 1973.
Thomas Leonard Shevlin was an American college football player and coach at Yale University and a businessman. He was a consensus All-American for three of his four years, selected a first-team All-American by some selector in all. He was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 1954.
Harold Hathaway Weekes was an American college football player. Weekes played halfback for the Columbia University Lions (1899-1902), and he served as team captain during his senior year. Weekes received induction into the College Football Hall of Fame in 1954 as the first of seven Columbia players enshrined. In 1962, the book Football Immortals profiled Weekes for their selection of the greatest 64 American football players from the game's first 93 years. The Bill Shannon Biographical Dictionary of New York Sports termed him a "145-pound lightning bolt" who "hit the college football scene like a shot". During Weekes's college football career, Columbia won 29 games, including 19 shutouts.
Edward Ratliff "Butch" Slaughter, Sr., also known as Edliff Slaughter, was an American football player, athletic coach and professor of physical education. He played guard at the University of Michigan from 1922 to 1924, and was chosen as a first-team All-American in 1924. Slaughter served as an assistant football coach at the University of Wisconsin, North Carolina State University, and the University of Virginia. He was also a member of the faculty at the University of Virginia, and held a variety of positions, including Chairman of the Department of Physical Education and Director of Intramural Sports, from 1931 until his retirement in 1973.
The Yale Bulldogs football program represents Yale University in college football at the NCAA Division I Football Championship Subdivision. Yale's football program is one of the oldest in the world, having begun competing in the sport in 1872. The Bulldogs have a legacy that includes 27 national championships, two of the first three Heisman Trophy winners, 100 consensus All-Americans, 28 College Football Hall of Fame inductees, including the "Father of American Football" Walter Camp, the first professional football player Pudge Heffelfinger, and coaching giants Amos Alonzo Stagg, Howard Jones, Tad Jones and Carmen Cozza. With over 900 wins, Yale ranks in the top ten for most wins in college football history.
The 1910 College Football All-America team is composed of college football players who were selected as All-Americans for the 1910 college football season. The only selector for the 1910 season who has been recognized as "official" by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is Walter Camp. Many other sports writers, newspapers, coaches and others also selected All-America teams in 1910. The magazine Leslie's Weekly attempted to develop a consensus All-American by polling 16 football experts and aggregating their votes. Others who selected All-Americans in 1911 include The New York Times, The New York Sun, and sports writer Wilton S. Farnsworth of the New York Evening Journal.
Benjamin Lewis Crosby Jr. was an American college football player and coach. Born in Halcott Centre, New York, Crosby attended Yale University beginning in 1889; while there, he was a popular student and sportsman. He was a two-year starter on the football team and a backup on the crew team. During his junior year, he was replaced on the football team by freshman Frank Hinkey and never returned to a starting position. The remainder of Crosby's time at Yale was successful and he enrolled at the New York Law School after graduation.
William Charles Wurtenburg was an American college football player and coach. Born and raised in Western New York to German parents, Wurtenburg attended the prestigious Phillips Exeter Academy, where he played football. He enrolled in classes at Yale University in 1886 and soon earned a spot on the school's football team. He played for Yale from 1886 through 1889, and again in 1891; two of those teams were later recognized as national champions. His 35-yard run in a close game in 1887 against rival Harvard earned him some fame. Wurtenburg received his medical degree from Yale's Sheffield Scientific School in 1893.
The 1900 College Football All-America team is composed of college football players who were selected as All-Americans by various individuals who chose College Football All-America Teams for the 1900 college football season. The only two individuals who have been recognized as "official" selectors by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) for the 1900 season are Walter Camp and Caspar Whitney, who had originated the College Football All-America Team eleven years earlier in 1889. Camp's 1900 All-America Team was published in Collier's Weekly, and Whitney's selections were published in Outing magazine.
Paul Lansing Veeder was an All-American football player for Yale University. Veeder played halfback, fullback, quarterback and punter for the Yale Bulldogs from 1904–1906 and was selected as an All-American in 1906.
William Castle Rhodes was American football player and coach. Rhodes played tackle at Yale University from 1887 to 1890 and was selected for the 1890 College Football All-America Team. After playing for the Cleveland Athletic Club and coaching at Western Reserve in 1891, Rhodes return to his alma mater to served head coach for the Yale Bulldogs football team in 1893 and 1894, compiling a record of 26–1. Rhodes' 1894 team won all 16 of its games and was later recognized as a national champion by a number of selectors.
Harry William LeGore was an American football and baseball player, Maryland state legislator and businessman.
Frank Hudson was a Native American football player and coach. He was a member of the Laguna Pueblo tribe from New Mexico.
The early history of American football can be traced to early versions of rugby football and association football. Both games have their origin in varieties of football played in Britain in the mid–19th century, in which a football is kicked at a goal or run over a line, which in turn were based on the varieties of English public school football games.
William Charles Mackie was an American college football player and coach. He was an All-American guard at Harvard University and served as the head football coach at Bowdoin College. After football, Mackie practiced medicine and served as medical examiner for Norfolk County, Massachusetts.
Nicholas Camp, his earliest known ancestor, came to Massachusetts and settled in Connecticut in 1630.