Walter Nash

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Sir Walter Nash

Walter Nash (ca 1940s).jpg
27th Prime Minister of New Zealand
In office
12 December 1957 (1957-12-12) 12 December 1960 (1960-12-12)
Monarch Elizabeth II
Governor-General Charles Lyttelton
Deputy Jerry Skinner
Preceded by Keith Holyoake
Succeeded byKeith Holyoake
16th Leader of the Opposition
In office
17 January 1951 (1951-01-17) 12 December 1957 (1957-12-12)
Preceded by Peter Fraser
Succeeded byKeith Holyoake
In office
12 December 1960 1 April 1963
Preceded byKeith Holyoake
Succeeded by Arnold Nordmeyer
27th Minister of Finance
In office
6 December 1935 (1935-12-06) 13 December 1949 (1949-12-13)
Prime Minister Michael Joseph Savage (1935–40)
Peter Fraser (1940–49)
Preceded by Gordon Coates
Succeeded by Sidney Holland
14th President of the Labour Party
In office
1935–1936
Vice President James Roberts
Leader Michael Joseph Savage
Preceded by Tim Armstrong
Succeeded by Clyde Carr
Personal details
Born(1882-02-12)12 February 1882
Kidderminster, Worcestershire, England
Died4 June 1968(1968-06-04) (aged 86)
Wellington, New Zealand
Political party Labour
Spouse(s)
Lotty May Eaton
(m. 1906;died 1961)
Children4 [1]
Relatives Stuart Nash (great-grandson)
OccupationClerk

Sir Walter Nash GCMG CH PC (12 February 1882 – 4 June 1968) was a New Zealand politician who served as the 27th Prime Minister of New Zealand in the Second Labour Government from 1957 to 1960. He is noted for his long period of political service, having been associated with the New Zealand Labour Party since its creation.

Order of the Companions of Honour Order founded as an award for outstanding achievement

The Order of the Companions of Honour is an order of the Commonwealth realms. It was founded on 4 June 1917 by King George V as a reward for outstanding achievements and is "conferred upon a limited number of persons for whom this special distinction seems to be the most appropriate form of recognition, constituting an honour disassociated either from the acceptance of title or the classification of merit."

The Second Labour Government of New Zealand was the government of New Zealand from 1957 to 1960. It was most notable for raising taxes on alcohol, cigarettes and petrol, a move which was probably responsible for the government lasting for only one term.

The New Zealand Labour Party, or simply Labour, is a centre-left political party in New Zealand. The party's platform programme describes its founding principle as democratic socialism, while observers describe Labour as social-democratic and pragmatic in practice. It is a participant of the international Progressive Alliance.

Contents

Nash was born in Kidderminster, England, and is the most recent New Zealand prime minister to be born outside the country. He arrived in New Zealand in 1909, soon joined the original Labour Party, and became a member of the party's executive in 1919. Nash was elected to Parliament in the Hutt by-election of 1929. He was from the moderate wing of the Labour Party. Appointed as Minister of Finance in 1935, Nash guided the First Labour Government's economic recovery programme during the Great Depression and then directed the government's wartime controls. He succeeded Peter Fraser as Leader of the Labour Party and Leader of Opposition in 1951.

Kidderminster town and civil parish in Wyre Forest, Worcestershire, England

Kidderminster is a town in Worcestershire, England, 17 miles (27 km) south-west of Birmingham and 15 miles (24 km) north of Worcester. At the 2011 census, it had a population of 55,530. The town is twinned with Husum, Germany.

Minister of Finance (New Zealand) in New Zealand

The Minister of Finance, originally known as Colonial Treasurer, is a senior figure within the Government of New Zealand and head of the New Zealand Treasury. The position is often considered to be the most important cabinet post after that of the Prime Minister. The Minister of Finance is responsible for producing an annual New Zealand budget outlining the government's proposed expenditure.

First Labour Government of New Zealand

The First Labour Government of New Zealand was the government of New Zealand from 1935 to 1949. Responsible for the realisation of a wide range of progressive social reforms during its time in office, it set the tone of New Zealand's economic and welfare policies until the 1980s, establishing a welfare state, a system of Keynesian economic management, and high levels of state intervention. The government came to power towards the end of, and as a result of, the Great Depression of the 1930s, and also governed the country throughout World War II.

In the 1957 election, the Labour Party won a narrow victory and Nash became Prime Minister. The Second Labour Government's "Black Budget" of 1958, in response to a balance of payments crisis, increased taxes on luxuries such as beer and tobacco. Public hostility toward the budget contributed to Labour's heavy defeat in the 1960 election. [2] Leaving office at 78 years of age, Nash is to date New Zealand's most elderly prime minister.

1957 New Zealand general election

The 1957 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 32nd term. It saw the governing National Party narrowly defeated by the Labour Party. The 1957 elections marked the beginning of the second Labour government, although this administration was to last only a single term.

Black Budget (New Zealand)

In New Zealand, the term Black Budget refers to the government budget of 26 June 1958 in which Minister of Finance Arnold Nordmeyer increased taxes on beer, tobacco, cars and petrol.

A currency crisis is a situation in which serious doubt exists as to whether a country's central bank has sufficient foreign exchange reserves to maintain the country's fixed exchange rate. The crisis is often accompanied by a speculative attack in the foreign exchange market. A currency crisis results from chronic balance of payments deficits, and thus is also called a balance of payments crisis. Often such a crisis culminates in a devaluation of the currency.

Early life

Nash was born in Kidderminster, a town in the English county of Worcestershire. He was born into a poor family and his father was an alcoholic. Nash performed well at school and won a scholarship to King Charles I Grammar School but additional costs associated with attending prevented him from accepting. Nash began employment as a clerk, initially with a lawyer in Kidderminster and then at a factory near Birmingham. [1]

England Country in north-west Europe, part of the United Kingdom

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to the west and Scotland to the north. The Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.

Worcestershire County of England

Worcestershire is a county in the West Midlands of England.

Alcoholism Broad term for problems with alcohol

Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems. The disorder was previously divided into two types: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. In a medical context, alcoholism is said to exist when two or more of the following conditions are present: a person drinks large amounts of alcohol over a long time period, has difficulty cutting down, acquiring and drinking alcohol takes up a great deal of time, alcohol is strongly desired, usage results in not fulfilling responsibilities, usage results in social problems, usage results in health problems, usage results in risky situations, withdrawal occurs when stopping, and alcohol tolerance has occurred with use. Risky situations include drinking and driving or having unsafe sex, among other things. Alcohol use can affect all parts of the body, but it particularly affects the brain, heart, liver, pancreas and immune system. This can result in mental illness, Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome, irregular heartbeat, an impaired immune response, liver cirrhosis and increased cancer risk, among other diseases. Drinking during pregnancy can cause damage to the baby resulting in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Women are generally more sensitive than men to the harmful physical and mental effects of alcohol.

On 16 June 1906, [1] Nash married Lottie May Eaton (17 March 1880 – 12 December 1961) [3] [4] and established a shop. He became highly active in his community, participating in a large number of societies and clubs. He also attended night school to further his education. By 1908, however, problems began to arise; his wife and son were both ill and a daughter died at birth. In addition an economic recession in the following year seriously harmed his business. The family decided to leave England, settling on New Zealand as a destination. [1]

After arriving in Wellington, in May 1909, Nash became secretary to a local tailor. His wife had two more sons. Nash's religious and political beliefs also began to solidify at this point, with the strong Christian faith he received from his mother being merged with a growing belief in socialism. Nash would remain a "Christian Socialist" for the remainder of his life, believing that the two components were inseparable. His political opinions were influenced by his friendship with prominent New Zealand socialists such as Michael Joseph Savage, Bob Semple and Harry Holland. Nash also became a committed pacifist. [1]

Wellington Capital city of New Zealand

Wellington is the capital and second most populous urban area of New Zealand, with 418,500 residents. It is located at the south-western tip of the North Island, between Cook Strait and the Remutaka Range. Wellington is the major population centre of the southern North Island, and is the administrative centre of the Wellington Region, which also includes the Kapiti Coast and Wairarapa. Its latitude is 41°17′S, making it the world's southernmost capital of a sovereign state. Wellington features a temperate maritime climate, and is the world's windiest city by average wind speed.

Christianity is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament and chronicled in the New Testament. It is the world's largest religion with over 2.4 billion followers.

Christian socialism is a form of religious socialism based on the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth. Many Christian socialists believe capitalism to be idolatrous and rooted in greed, which some Christian denominations consider a mortal sin. Christian socialists identify the cause of inequality to be the greed that they associate with capitalism.

Nash's financial situation deteriorated, however, when the tailor's firm that he worked for (and was a shareholder of) declined. Nash and his family moved to Palmerston North where he became a salesman for a wool and cloth merchant. Later he established a tailoring company in New Plymouth along with Bill Besley, a tailor from Stratford, although the business performed poorly. [1]

Early political career

New Zealand Parliament
YearsTermElectorateParty
1929 1931 23rd Hutt Labour
1931 1935 24th Hutt Labour
1935 1938 25th Hutt Labour
1938 1943 26th Hutt Labour
1943 1946 27th Hutt Labour
1946 1949 28th Hutt Labour
1949 1951 29th Hutt Labour
1951 1954 30th Hutt Labour
1954 1957 31st Hutt Labour
1957 1960 32nd Hutt Labour
1960 1963 33rd Hutt Labour
1963 1966 34th Hutt Labour
1966 1968 35th Hutt Labour

Nash had briefly been involved with the first Labour Party, established in 1910, but this association had been interrupted by his financial difficulties. In 1918, however, he helped to establish the New Plymouth branch of the modern Labour Party and he became highly active. The following year Nash was elected to the party's national executive. [1]

In 1920 Nash and his wife travelled to Europe, attending various socialist conferences. When they returned to New Zealand, in January 1921, Nash was fined for importing "seditious literature". Despite the reputation that this fine gave him, among his fellow socialists, Nash was one of the more moderate members of the Labour Party. [1] In 1922, a year after he had returned to Wellington, Nash was elected national secretary of the Labour Party. [1] On arrival the party was found to have an all up debt of £220. The debt was settled when, together with Nash's own loan, John Glover (manager of Maori Lands) lent some £100 interest free. [5]

Nash, c. 1920s Walter Nash (young adult).jpg
Nash, c.1920s

He is often credited with turning the Labour Party into a fully functioning entity; establishing an efficient organisational structure and paying off the party's debts. Following his announcement of "fifty thousand shillings and fifty thousand members in three months" in the Maoriland Worker he worked hard to increase the party's membership. [5]

Nash stood for election in the Hutt electorate in the 1925 and 1928 elections, but was not successful until the 1929 by-election. [1] [6] He also contested the Wellington mayoralty in 1929. [1] In Parliament Nash became one of Labour's main finance spokesmen. [1]

Minister of Finance

Nash speaking in New York City in September 1942 Walter Nash 1942.jpg
Nash speaking in New York City in September 1942

When Labour, led by Michael Joseph Savage, won the 1935 elections Nash was appointed to Cabinet as Minister of Finance, although he also held a number of more minor positions. He was ranked third in the First Labour Government, with only Savage and Peter Fraser above him.

New Zealand's economy was in poor shape at the time of Nash's appointment as Finance Minister and he was very busy for the early part of his ministerial career. [7] Nash introduced a number of substantial changes, in an attempt to improve the situation. He reintroduced a graduated land tax at high rates [7] and supervised the nationalisation of the Reserve Bank of New Zealand. [1] In 1936 Nash departed for England to conduct trade negotiations. He also visited Berlin and Moscow.

Nash resisted the immigration of Jewish refugees to New Zealand, citing a concern that "anti-Semitism, never far from the surface, was very apt to emerge in the case of the talented race whose members can often beat us at our own game, especially the game of money making." [8]

After returning to New Zealand he became involved in disputes within the Labour Party about economic policy. In particular he was heavily criticised by supporters of the social credit movement who wanted their views adopted as Labour Party policy. Nash was also attacked by the more radical socialists in the party who saw Nash's pragmatic economic policies as too moderate. Nash, however, was supported by both Savage and Fraser and emerged relatively unscathed. He gained the additional responsibility of implementing Labour's social security plan.

Nash at the Pacific War Council, 1942 Pacific War Council.jpg
Nash at the Pacific War Council, 1942

With Savage seriously ill, the first years of World War II were difficult for the Labour Party. Further problems were caused by John A. Lee, a Labour Party member who launched strong attacks on its economic policy. Lee was particularly vicious towards Savage and Nash. Peter Fraser became Prime Minister after Savage's death and Lee was expelled. Nash, himself, reluctantly abandoned his earlier pacifism, deeming the war a necessary one. Nash was appointed Minister to the United States as New Zealand's diplomatic representative in the United States in 1942, but as Minister of Finance frequently returned to Wellington. So Geoffrey Cox the chargé d’affairs was head of the legation for 11 of the 21 months that Cox was in the United States. [9] At the end of the war Nash attended the conferences to create the United Nations and also recommended that New Zealand join the International Monetary Fund.

As the 1949 election approached, however, the Labour government was becoming increasingly unpopular. Industrial strife and inflation were major causes. In the election the opposition National Party, led by Sidney Holland, won power. Nash, however, retained his seat.

Leader of the Opposition

Nash in 1951 Walter Nash (1951).jpg
Nash in 1951

Shortly after the election Fraser died. Nash was elected leader of the Labour Party unopposed. The first major test of his leadership came with the waterfront dispute of the same year, where major strikes were damaging the economy. Labour's position on the matter was seen as indecisive—the party was condemned by many workers for giving them insufficient support but at the same time was condemned by the business community for being "soft" on the communist-influenced unions. Labour suffered badly in the snap election that Holland called in 1951 to reaffirm his mandate.

As Leader of the Opposition Nash is not generally regarded as having been a success. [1] His primary talent appeared to have been in organisation and finance, and not in the inspirational leadership that Savage and Fraser provided. He was also seen as too slow in coming to decisions. In 1953 several MPs attempted an abortive coup to remove the 71-year-old Nash as leader. They included Rex Mason, Bill Anderton and Arnold Nordmeyer. Nash was told by Mason that number of members had complained about the leadership of the party to him and that Mason thought that the majority wanted a new leader. In 1954 a majority of the caucus was in favour of a new leader but pressure from the unions and continued support from Party branches allowed Nash to survive the subsequent vote. [10]

As the National government began to grow more unpopular Labour regained some of its earlier dynamism. In the 1957 election the party won a narrow victory—41 seats to 39 [11] — assisted by its promises of tax rebates and the abolition of compulsory military training. At the age of 75, Nash became Prime Minister of the Second Labour Government.

Prime Minister

Nash and his Finance Minister Arnold Nordmeyer Walter Nash and Arnold Henry Nordmeyer.jpg
Nash and his Finance Minister Arnold Nordmeyer

When Nash and the Second Labour Government took office the country's financial situation was found to be worse than the previous government had admitted, with balance of payments a serious concern. [12] Nash decided that drastic measures would be necessary to bring the situation back under control. These measures resulted in the so-called "Black Budget", presented by Arnold Nordmeyer the new Minister of Finance. The budget included significant tax increases and generated widespread public anger. This was fuelled by the National Party claiming that Nash and Nordmeyer were exaggerating the extent of the problem. The fact that the extra taxes were largely on petrol, cigarettes and beer contributed to the image of Nash's government as miserly. [12] The situation was exacerbated by Nash's frequent absences from the country, leaving Nordmeyer and other Labour ministers to defend the government's policies themselves.

Nash was also criticised for failing to act in the controversy over the 1960 rugby tour of South Africa, which country was under an Apartheid government. On the insistence of the South Africans the New Zealand team included no Māori players, prompting a petition against the tour supported by almost 10% of New Zealanders. [13] Nash, however, refused to step in, saying that the matter was for the rugby authorities to decide.

In the 1960 election, Labour was defeated by the National Party and Nash became Leader of the Opposition once again.

Later life and personal life

Nash's house of 38 years in Lower Hutt Walter Nash house 11.JPG
Nash's house of 38 years in Lower Hutt

Nash, now nearly eighty years old, was not as active as he once had been. The death of his wife in 1961 also took its toll. Gradually, calls for him to retire grew more frequent. Nash, however, refused to step down, partly because of a desire to continue his work, and partly due to a reluctance to see Arnold Nordmeyer succeed him. In 1963, however, Nash finally retired as leader of the Labour Party and Nordmeyer was chosen to replace him. Nash had favoured Jerry Skinner and then Fred Hackett to replace him (see New Zealand general election, 1963), but first Skinner and then Hackett died unexpectedly.

Nash remained the MP for Hutt until his death. He became active in the protest movement against the Vietnam War, and denounced the bombing of North Vietnam by the United States. Funds for a children's ward at a hospital in Qui Nhon, Vietnam, serve as a memorial to him.

He died on 4 June 1968.

Nash did not smoke and consumed alcohol in moderation. There are several anecdotes about Nash getting orange juice laced with gin at receptions. When Nordmeyer and Nash were given glasses of orange juice, the teetotal Nordmeyer sipped his and said quietly "I seem to have Mr Nash's". On another social occasion future PM Robert Muldoon went to take a glass of orange juice, only to be told by the waitress "Oh no, Mr Muldoon, that's for Mr Nash. That's the one with gin in it." [14] Sinclair comments that while minister in Washington for 14 months: [15]

He purchased an excellent cellar from a wealthy man. His cook, Margaret Moore, introduced him to 'old fashioneds' which, so he pretended, consisted of fruit juice. His taste for good food and drink expanded with opportunity not that this had been lacking, for instance on his missions in the nineteen-thirties. It was generally supposed in New Zealand that Nash was a 'wowser', opposed to such human pleasures. This was so of Fraser, but quite untrue of Nash. He loved his food, and enjoyed good wine and liquor in moderation.

Nash was one of the few New Zealand prime ministers who lived and remained in parliament a long time after losing power. He became the elder statesman of the house, and was frequently called in the press as the "grand old man" of New Zealand politics. [16]

Nash's great-grandson, [17] Stuart Nash entered parliament in 2008 as a List MP for Labour. He was not re-elected in 2011 because of his low list position (27), but returned to parliament as electorate MP for Napier in 2014 [17] and in 2017 became Minister of Police, Revenue, Small Business and Fisheries. [18]

Honours

Nash's state funeral State Funeral for Walter Nash (8953119602).jpg
Nash's state funeral

In 1935 Nash was awarded the King George V Silver Jubilee Medal. [19] In 1946 he was appointed to the Privy Council. [20] He was appointed a Member of the Order of the Companions of Honour in the 1959 Queen's Birthday Honours [21] and in the 1965 Queen's Birthday Honours he was made a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George. [22] In 1957 he also received the highest distinction of the Scout Association of Japan, the Golden Pheasant Award. [23]

Honorific eponyms

A number of streets and public facilities have been named in honour of Nash, in various towns in New Zealand as well as his birthplace of Kidderminster in England. These include:

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Electoral history of Walter Nash

This is a summary of the electoral history of Walter Nash, Prime Minister of New Zealand (1957–60), Leader of the Labour Party (1951–63) and Member of Parliament for Hutt (1929–68).

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Gustafson, Barry. "Nash, Walter". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography . Ministry for Culture and Heritage . Retrieved 26 August 2013.
  2. Goldsmith, Paul (2 September 2016). "Post-war taxation – 1950 to 1959". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  3. "Lottie May Nash". geni_family_tree. Retrieved 13 February 2018.
  4. "Lottie May (Eaton) Nash (1880-1961) - WikiTree FREE Family Tree". www.wikitree.com.
  5. 1 2 Sinclair 1976, p. 64.
  6. Wilson 1985, p. 223.
  7. 1 2 Goldsmith, Paul (2 September 2016). "First Labour government taxes – 1935 to 1949". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  8. Beaglehole 1988, p. 16.
  9. Cox, Geoffrey (1999). Eyewitness: A memoir of Europe in the 1930s. Dunedin: University of Otago Press. p. 278. ISBN   1 877133 70 1.
  10. "HGR Mason: Father of New Zealand's decimal currency system". We Love Pukekohe. 24 April 2014. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
  11. "General elections 1890-1993". New Zealand Electoral Commission. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  12. 1 2 Sethi, Rishab; McDermott, John C. (11 March 2010). "Balance of payments - What is the balance of payments?". Te Ara : The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  13. "'No Maoris – No Tour' poster, 1960". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 10 September 2007. Retrieved 18 May 2008.
  14. Hurley, Desmond (2000). A Dictionary of New Zealand Political Quotations. Oxford University Press. p. 55. ISBN   0 19 558 4287.
  15. Sinclair 1976, p. 221.
  16. Sinclair 1976, p. 357.
  17. 1 2 Trevett, Claire Trevett; Davison, Isaac (3 October 2014). "Nash eyes standing for leadership". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  18. "Ministerial List". Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet . Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  19. "Official jubilee medals". The Evening Post . 6 May 1935. p. 4. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
  20. "No. 37407". The London Gazette (Supplement). 1 January 1946. p. 1.
  21. "No. 41727". The London Gazette (Supplement). 13 June 1959. p. 3723.
  22. "No. 43669". The London Gazette (Supplement). 12 June 1965. p. 5513.
  23. "䝪䞊䜲䝇䜹䜴䝖日本連盟 きじ章受章者" (PDF). Reinanzaka-sc.o.oo7.jp. Retrieved 1 December 2016.

Bibliography

New Zealand Parliament
Preceded by
Thomas Wilford
Member of Parliament for Hutt
1929–1968
Succeeded by
Trevor Young
Political offices
Preceded by
Gordon Coates
Minister of Finance
1935–1949
Succeeded by
Sidney Holland
Preceded by
Peter Fraser
Leader of the Opposition
1950–1957
Succeeded by
Keith Holyoake
Preceded by
Keith Holyoake
Prime Minister of New Zealand
1957–1960
Leader of the Opposition
1960–1963
Succeeded by
Arnold Nordmeyer
Preceded by
Rex Mason
Father of the House
1966–1968
Succeeded by
Keith Holyoake
Party political offices
Preceded by
Moses Ayrton
Secretary of the Labour Party
1922–1932
Succeeded by
Jim Thorn
Preceded by
Tim Armstrong
President of the Labour Party
1935–1936
Succeeded by
Clyde Carr
Preceded by
Peter Fraser
Deputy-Leader of the Labour Party
1940–1950
Succeeded by
Jerry Skinner
Leader of the Labour Party
1951–1963
Succeeded by
Arnold Nordmeyer
Diplomatic posts
New title Minister from New Zealand in the United States
1941–1944
Succeeded by
Carl Berendsen