War of the League of Cognac

Last updated
War of the League of Cognac
Part of the Italian Wars
Siege of Florence.JPG
Siege of Florence, 1530, fought during the War of the League of Cognac
Date1526–1530
Location
Italy
Result Habsburg victory
Belligerents
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor (after 1400).svg  Holy Roman Empire
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Spain
Coat of arms of the House of Este (1471).svg Duchy of Ferrara
Flag of Genoa.svg  Republic of Genoa (1528–1530)
Mantua Flag 1575-1707 (new).svg Duchy of Mantua (1528–1530)

Pavillon royal de la France.svg  Kingdom of France

Flag of the Papal States, ca. 1523.svg  Papal States

Flag of Most Serene Republic of Venice.svg  Republic of Venice
FlorenceCoA.svg Republic of Florence
Flag of England.svg  Kingdom of England
Flag of Genoa.svg  Republic of Genoa (1526–1528)
Bandera de Reino de Navarra.svg Kingdom of Navarre
Flag of the Duchy of Milan (1450).svg Duchy of Milan
Commanders and leaders
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor (after 1400).svgFlag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Charles V
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor (after 1400).svgFlag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Charles de Bourbon  
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor (after 1400).svgFlag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Antonio de Leyva
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor (after 1400).svgFlag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Philibert of Châlon  
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor (after 1400).svg Ferrante I Gonzaga
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor (after 1400).svg Henry of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor (after 1400).svg Georg Frundsberg
Pavillon royal de la France.svg Francis I of France
Pavillon royal de la France.svg Comte de St. Pol
Pavillon royal de la France.svg Vicomte de Lautrec  
Flag of the Papal States, ca. 1523.svg Francesco Maria I
FlorenceCoA.svg Francesco Ferruccio  
FlorenceCoA.svg Giovanni de' Medici  
FlorenceCoA.svg Malatesta Baglioni

The War of the League of Cognac (1526–30) was fought between the Habsburg dominions of Charles V—primarily the Holy Roman Empire and Spain—and the League of Cognac, an alliance including the Kingdom of France, Pope Clement VII, the Republic of Venice, the Kingdom of England, the Duchy of Milan, and the Republic of Florence.

Contents

Prelude

Shocked by the defeat of the Kingdom of France in the Italian War of 1521, Pope Clement VII, together with the Republic of Venice, began to organize an alliance to drive Charles V from the Italian Peninsula. Francis I, having signed the Treaty of Madrid, was released from his captivity in Madrid and returned to France, where he quickly announced his intention to assist Clement. Thus, on 22 May 1526, the League of Cognac was signed by Francis, Clement, Venice, Florence, and the Sforza of Milan, who desired to throw off the Imperial hegemony over them. Henry VIII of England, thwarted in his requests to have the treaty signed in England, refused to join. [1]

Initial moves

The League quickly seized Lodi, but Imperial troops marched into Lombardy and soon forced Sforza to abandon Milan. [2] The Colonna, meanwhile, organized an attack on Rome, defeating the Papal forces and briefly seizing control of the city in September 1526; they were soon paid off and departed, however. [3]

Rome

Charles V now gathered a force of 14,000 German landsknechts and 6,000 Spanish tercios led by Georg Frundsberg and Charles of Bourbon; the forces combined at Piacenza and advanced on Rome. Francesco Guicciardini, now in command of the Papal armies, proved unable to resist them; [4] and when the Duke of Bourbon was killed, the underpaid armies sacked the city, forcing the Pope to take refuge at Castel Sant'Angelo. His escape was made possible by the Swiss Guards' last stand.

Naples

The looting of Rome, and the consequent removal of Clement from any real role in the war, prompted frantic action on the part of the French. On 30 April 1527, Henry VIII and Francis signed the Treaty of Westminster, pledging to combine their forces against Charles. Francis, having finally drawn Henry VIII into the League, sent an army under Odet de Foix and Pedro Navarro, Count of Oliveto through Genoa—where Andrea Doria had quickly joined the French and seized much of the Genoese fleet—to Naples, where it proceeded to dig itself in for an extended siege. [5]

Genoa

Doria, however, soon deserted the French for Charles. The siege collapsed as plague broke out in the French camp, killing most of the army along with Foix and Navarro. Andrea Doria's offensive in Genoa (where he soon broke the blockade of the city and forced the surrender of the French at Savona), together with the decisive defeat of a French relief force under Francis de Bourbon, Comte de St. Pol at the Battle of Landriano, ended Francis's hopes of regaining his hold on Italy. [6]

Barcelona, Cambrai, and Bologna

Pope Clement VII Pope Clement VII.JPG
Pope Clement VII
Louise of Savoy Bemberg fondation Toulouse - Portrait de Louise de Savoie, mere de Francois Ier - Ecole De Jean Clouet (1475;1485-1540) 22x17 Inv.1013.jpg
Louise of Savoy

Following the defeat of his armies, Francis sought peace with Charles. The negotiations began in July 1529 in the border city of Cambrai; they were conducted primarily between Francis's mother Louise of Savoy for the French and her sister-in-law Margaret of Austria for her nephew the Emperor (leading to its being known as the Paix des Dames, Peace of the Ladies), Charles himself having sailed from Barcelona to Italy shortly before. The final terms largely mirrored those of the Treaty of Madrid three years earlier; Francis surrendered his rights to Artois, Flanders, and Tournai, and was obliged to pay a ransom of two million golden écus before his sons were to be released. [7] Removed, however, were both the humiliating surrender of Burgundy itself and the various points dealing with Charles de Bourbon, who, having been killed two years prior, was no longer a candidate for leading an independent Kingdom of Provence. [8] The final Treaty of Cambrai, signed on 3 August, removed France from the war, leaving Venice, Florence, and the Pope alone against Charles.

Charles, having arrived in Genoa, proceeded to Bologna to meet with the Pope. Clement absolved the participants of the sack of Rome and promised to crown Charles. In return, he received Ravenna and Cervia; cities which the Republic of Venice was forced to surrender—along with her remaining possessions in Apulia—to Charles in exchange for being permitted to retain the holdings she had won at Marignano. [9] Finally, Francesco was permitted to return to Milan—Charles having abandoned his earlier plan to place Alessandro de' Medici on the throne, in part due to Venetian objections—for the sum of 900,000 scudi. [10]

Florence

Alessandro de' Medici was installed as ruler of Florence by the victorious Imperial troops. Jacopo Pontormo 056.jpg
Alessandro de' Medici was installed as ruler of Florence by the victorious Imperial troops.

The Republic of Florence alone continued to resist the Imperial forces, which were led by the Prince of Orange. A Florentine army under Francesco Ferruccio engaged the armies of the Emperor at the Battle of Gavinana in 1530, and, although the Prince of Orange himself was killed, the Imperial army won a decisive victory and the Republic of Florence surrendered ten days later. Alessandro de' Medici was then installed as Duke of Florence.

Notes

  1. Guicciardini, History of Italy, 369.
  2. Blockmans, Emperor Charles V, 60.
  3. Guicciardini, History of Italy, 372–375.
  4. Guicciardini, History of Italy, 376.
  5. Blockmans, Emperor Charles V, 61.
  6. Blockmans, Emperor Charles V, 63.
  7. Blockmans, Emperor Charles V, 68; Hackett, Francis the First, 356.
  8. Blockmans, Emperor Charles V, 67.
  9. Norwich, History of Venice, 443–444.
  10. Blockmans, Emperor Charles V, 64.

Related Research Articles

The 1520s decade ran from January 1, 1520, to December 31, 1529.

Italian Wars Wars in Italy from the 15th to 16th centuries

The Italian Wars, often referred to as the Great Wars of Italy and sometimes as the Habsburg–Valois Wars, were a long series of wars fought between 1494 and 1559 in Italy during the Renaissance. The Italian peninsula, economically advanced but politically divided among several states, became the main battleground for European supremacy. The conflicts involved the major powers of Italy and Europe, in a series of events that followed the end of the 40-year long Peace of Lodi agreed in 1454 with the formation of the Italic League.

Battle of Pavia 1525 battle during the Italian War of 1521–1526

The Battle of Pavia, fought on the morning of 24 February 1525, was the decisive engagement of the Italian War of 1521–1526 between the Kingdom of France and the Habsburg empire of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor as well as ruler of Spain, Austria, the Low Countries, and the Two Sicilies.

Sack of Rome (1527) 1527 Habsburg siege and subsequent sack of Papal Rome

The Sack of Rome, then part of the Papal States, on 6 May 1527 was carried out by the mutinous troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor during the War of the League of Cognac. The largely Protestant German Landsknechts, mutinying over unpaid wages as well as Spanish soldiers & Italian mercenaries, entered the city of Rome, defeated the vastly outnumbered defenders and looted the city. The sack debilitated the League of Cognac, an alliance formed by France, Milan, Venice, Florence and the Papacy against Charles V. Pope Clement VII took refuge in Castel Sant' Angelo after the Swiss Guard were annihilated in a delaying rearguard action, where he remained until a ransom was paid to the pillagers. Benvenuto Cellini, eyewitness to the events, described the sack in his works.

Duchy of Milan Former duchy in Italy (1395–1447; 1450–1535)

The Duchy of Milan was an Italian state located in northern Italy and part of the Holy Roman Empire. The Duchy was created in 1395 by Gian Galeazzo Visconti, then the Lord of Milan, and a member of the important Visconti family, that had been ruling the city since 1277.

Francesco Guicciardini Italian writer, historian and politician (1483-1540)

Francesco Guicciardini was an Italian historian and statesman. A friend and critic of Niccolò Machiavelli, he is considered one of the major political writers of the Italian Renaissance. In his masterpiece, The History of Italy, Guicciardini paved the way for a new style in historiography with his use of government sources to support arguments and the realistic analysis of the people and events of his time.

War of the League of Cambrai Conflict in the Italian Wars of 1494–1559

The War of the League of Cambrai, sometimes known as the War of the Holy League and by several other names, was a major conflict in the Italian Wars of 1494–1559. The main participants of the war, fought from 1508 to 1516, were France, the Papal States, and the Republic of Venice, joined at various times by nearly every significant power in Western Europe, including Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, England, the Duchy of Milan, the Republic of Florence, the Duchy of Ferrara, and Swiss mercenaries.

The Treaty of Cambrai is also known as the Paix des Dames. On August 3, 1529, this agreement ended a war between the French king Francis I and the Spanish Habsburg emperor Charles V. The treaty temporarily confirmed Spanish (Habsburg) hegemony in Italy.

Italian War of 1521–1526 Conflict between France and the Habsburg empires of Charles V

The Italian War of 1521–1526, sometimes known as the Four Years' War, was a part of the Italian Wars. The war pitted Francis I of France and the Republic of Venice against the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, Henry VIII of England, and the Papal States. The conflict arose from animosity over the election of Charles as Emperor in 1519–20 and from Pope Leo X's need to ally with Charles against Martin Luther.

Italian War of 1542–1546 Conflict between Charles V and Francis I

The Italian War of 1542–1546 was a conflict late in the Italian Wars, pitting Francis I of France and Suleiman I of the Ottoman Empire against the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and Henry VIII of England. The course of the war saw extensive fighting in Italy, France, and the Low Countries, as well as attempted invasions of Spain and England. The conflict was inconclusive and ruinously expensive for the major participants.

Giovanni delle Bande Nere

Lodovico de' Medici, also known as Giovanni delle Bande Nere was an Italian condottiero.

Siege of Florence (1529–30)

The Siege of Florence took place from 24 October 1529 to 10 August 1530, at the end of the War of the League of Cognac. At the Congress of Bologna, the Medici Pope Clement VII and Emperor Charles V agreed to restore the Medici in Florence. A large Imperial and Spanish army under Philibert of Châlon, Prince of Orange and Pier Maria III de' Rossi surrounded the city, and, after a siege of nearly ten months, captured it, overthrowing the Republic of Florence and installing Alessandro de' Medici as the ruler of the city.

Francesco II Sforza Duke of Milan

Francesco II Sforza was Duke of Milan from 1521 until his death. He was the last member of the Sforza family to rule Milan.

Alfonso dAvalos

Alfonso d'Avalos d'Aquino, VI marquis of Pescara and II of Vasto, was an Italian condottiero of Spanish origins, renowned for his service in favor of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain.

Pompeo Colonna

Pompeo Colonna was an Italian noble, condottiero, politician, and cardinal. At the culmination of his career he was Viceroy of the Kingdom of Naples (1530-1532) for the Emperor Charles V. Born in Rome, he was the son of Girolamo Colonna, whose father Antonio was second Prince of Salerno; and Vittoria Conti, of the Conti de Poli. His family belonged to the highest rank of nobility both of the City of Rome and of the Kingdom of Naples. Pompeo and his family were hereditary supporters of the Holy Roman Empire (Ghibbelines), and they spent their careers fighting their hereditary enemies, the Orsini family, and defending and expanding their family territories and interests. He played a significant, if sometimes disruptive, role in the Conclaves of 1521 and 1523 on behalf of the Imperial interest. His family commitments and his conclave activities brought Pompeo into conflict with the second Medici pope, Clement VII, whose election he vigorously opposed, and made him a leading figure in the attempted overthrow of Pope Clement and the Sack of Rome in 1527.

Italian campaign of 1524–25

The Italian campaign of 1524–25 was the final significant action of the Italian War of 1521–1526.

The Battle of Landriano took place on 21 June 1529, between the French army under Francis de Bourbon, Comte de St. Pol and the Imperial–Spanish army commanded by Don Antonio de Leyva, Duke of Terranova in the context of the War of the League of Cognac. The French army was destroyed and the battle's strategic result was that the struggle between Francis I of France and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor for control of northern Italy was temporarily at an end.

The Battle of the Sesia or Battle of the Sesia River, took place near the Sesia River (Latin: Sesites or Sessite), situated in north-western Italy, Lombardy, on 30 April 1524, where the Imperial–Spanish forces commanded by Don Carlos de Lannoy, inflicted a decisive defeat to the French forces under the Admiral Guillaume Gouffier, Lord of Bonnivet and Francis de Bourbon, Comte de St. Pol, during the Italian War of 1521–1526.

References