Washington Irving

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I am wearied and at times heartsick of the wretched politics of this country…. The last ten or twelve years of my life, passed among sordid speculators in the United States, and political adventurers in Spain, has shewn me so much of the dark side of human nature, that I begin to have painful doubts of my fellow man; and look back with regret to the confiding period of my literary career, when, poor as a rat, but rich in dreams, I beheld the world through the medium of my imagination and was apt to believe men as good as I wished them to be. [87]

With the political situation relatively settled in Spain, Irving continued to closely monitor the development of the new government and the fate of Isabella. His official duties as Spanish Minister also involved negotiating American trade interests with Cuba and following the Spanish parliament's debates over the slave trade. He was also pressed into service by Louis McLane, the American Minister to the Court of St. James's in London, to assist in negotiating the Anglo-American disagreement over the Oregon border that newly elected president James K. Polk had vowed to resolve. [88]

Final years and death

Washington Irving's headstone, Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Sleepy Hollow, New York Washington Irving's headstone Sleepy Hollow Cemetery.jpg
Washington Irving's headstone, Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Sleepy Hollow, New York

Irving returned from Spain in September 1846, took up residence at Sunnyside, and began work on an "Author's Revised Edition" of his works for publisher George Palmer Putnam. For its publication, Irving had made a deal which guaranteed him 12 percent of the retail price of all copies sold, an agreement that was unprecedented at that time. [89] As he revised his older works for Putnam, he continued to write regularly, publishing biographies of Oliver Goldsmith in 1849 and Islamic prophet Muhammad in 1850. In 1855, he produced Wolfert's Roost, a collection of stories and essays that he had written for The Knickerbocker and other publications, [90] and he began publishing a biography of his namesake George Washington which he expected to be his masterpiece. Five volumes of the biography were published between 1855 and 1859. [91]

Irving traveled regularly to Mount Vernon and Washington, D.C., for his research, and struck up friendships with Presidents Millard Fillmore and Franklin Pierce. [90] He was elected an Associate Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1855. [92] He was hired as an executor of John Jacob Astor's estate in 1848 and appointed by Astor's will as first chairman of the Astor Library, a forerunner to the New York Public Library. [93]

Irving continued to socialize and keep up with his correspondence well into his seventies, and his fame and popularity continued to soar. "I don't believe that any man, in any country, has ever had a more affectionate admiration for him than that given to you in America", wrote Senator William C. Preston in a letter to Irving. "I believe that we have had but one man who is so much in the popular heart". [94] By 1859, author Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. noted that Sunnyside had become "next to Mount Vernon, the best known and most cherished of all the dwellings in our land". [95]

Irving died of a heart attack in his bedroom at Sunnyside on November 28, 1859, age 76—only eight months after completing the final volume of his Washington biography. Legend has it that his last words were: "Well, I must arrange my pillows for another night. When will this end?" [96] He was buried under a simple headstone at Sleepy Hollow cemetery on December 1, 1859. [97] Irving and his grave were commemorated by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in his 1876 poem "In the Churchyard at Tarrytown", which concludes with:

How sweet a life was his; how sweet a death!
Living, to wing with mirth the weary hours,
Or with romantic tales the heart to cheer;
Dying, to leave a memory like the breath
Of summers full of sunshine and of showers,
A grief and gladness in the atmosphere. [98]


Literary reputation

Bust of Washington Irving by Daniel Chester French in Irvington, New York, not far from Sunnyside Washington Irving Memorial Irvington Washington Irving bust.jpg
Bust of Washington Irving by Daniel Chester French in Irvington, New York, not far from Sunnyside

Irving is largely credited as the first American Man of Letters and the first to earn his living solely by his pen. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow acknowledged Irving's role in promoting American literature in December 1859: "We feel a just pride in his renown as an author, not forgetting that, to his other claims upon our gratitude, he adds also that of having been the first to win for our country an honourable name and position in the History of Letters". [99]

Irving perfected the American short story [100] and was the first American writer to set his stories firmly in the United States, even as he poached from German or Dutch folklore. He is also generally credited as one of the first to write in the vernacular and without an obligation to presenting morals or being didactic in his short stories, writing stories simply to entertain rather than to enlighten. [101] He also encouraged many would-be writers. As George William Curtis noted, there "is not a young literary aspirant in the country, who, if he ever personally met Irving, did not hear from him the kindest words of sympathy, regard, and encouragement". [102]

Edgar Allan Poe, on the other hand, felt that Irving should be given credit for being an innovator but that the writing itself was often unsophisticated. "Irving is much over-rated", Poe wrote in 1838, "and a nice distinction might be drawn between his just and his surreptitious and adventitious reputation—between what is due to the pioneer solely, and what to the writer". [103] A critic for the New-York Mirror wrote: "No man in the Republic of Letters has been more overrated than Mr. Washington Irving". [104] Some critics claimed that Irving catered to British sensibilities, and one critic charged that he wrote "of and for England, rather than his own country". [105]

Other critics were more supportive of Irving's style. William Makepeace Thackeray was the first to refer to Irving as the "ambassador whom the New World of Letters sent to the Old", [106] a banner picked up by writers and critics throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. "He is the first of the American humorists, as he is almost the first of the American writers", wrote critic H.R. Hawless in 1881, "yet belonging to the New World, there is a quaint Old World flavor about him". [107] Early critics often had difficulty separating Irving the man from Irving the writer. "The life of Washington Irving was one of the brightest ever led by an author", wrote Richard Henry Stoddard, an early Irving biographer. [108] Later critics, however, began to review his writings as all style with no substance. "The man had no message", said critic Barrett Wendell. [109]

As a historian, Irving's reputation had fallen out of favor but then gained a resurgence. "With the advent of 'scientific' history in the generations that followed his, Irving's historical writings lapsed into disregard and disrespect. To late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century historians, including John Franklin Jameson, G. P. Gooch, and others, these works were demiromances, worthy at best of veiled condescension. However, more recently several of Irving's histories and biographies have again won praise for their reliability as well as the literary skill with which they were written. Specifically, A History of the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus; Astoria, or Anecdotes of an Enterprise beyond the Rocky Mountains; and Life of George Washington have earned the respect of scholars whose writings on those topics we consider authoritative in our generation: Samuel Eliot Morison, Bernard DeVoto, Douglas Southall Freeman". [110]

Impact on American culture

John Quidor's 1858 painting The Headless Horseman Pursuing Ichabod Crane, inspired by Washington Irving's work John Quidor - Headless Horseman Pursuing Ichabod Crane - Smithsonian.jpg
John Quidor's 1858 painting The Headless Horseman Pursuing Ichabod Crane , inspired by Washington Irving's work

Irving popularized the nickname "Gotham" for New York City, [111] and he is credited with inventing the expression "the almighty dollar". The surname of his fictional Dutch historian Diedrich Knickerbocker is generally associated with New York and New Yorkers, as found in New York's professional basketball team The New York Knickerbockers.

One of Irving's most lasting contributions to American culture is in the way that Americans celebrate Christmas. In his 1812 revisions to A History of New York, he inserted a dream sequence featuring St. Nicholas soaring over treetops in a flying wagon, an invention which others dressed up as Santa Claus. In his five Christmas stories in The Sketch Book, Irving portrayed an idealized celebration of old-fashioned Christmas customs at a quaint English manor which depicted English Christmas festivities that he experienced while staying in England, which had largely been abandoned. [112] He used text from The Vindication of Christmas (London 1652) of old English Christmas traditions, [113] and the book contributed to the revival and reinterpretation of the Christmas holiday in the United States. [114]

Irving introduced the erroneous idea that Europeans believed the world to be flat prior to the discovery of the New World in his biography of Christopher Columbus, [115] yet the flat-Earth myth has been taught in schools as fact to many generations of Americans. [116] [117] American painter John Quidor based many of his paintings on scenes from the works of Irving about Dutch New York, including such paintings as Ichabod Crane Flying from the Headless Horseman (1828), The Return of Rip Van Winkle (1849), and The Headless Horseman Pursuing Ichabod Crane (1858). [118] [119]


Washington Irving, postage stamp, 1940 Washington Irving2 1940 Issue-1c.jpg
Washington Irving, postage stamp, 1940
Statue in Granada, Spain WASHINGTON-IRVING-ALHAMBRA-0.jpg
Statue in Granada, Spain

The village of Dearman, New York, changed its name to "Irvington" in 1854 to honor Washington Irving, who was living in nearby Sunnyside, which is preserved as a museum. [120] Influential residents of the village prevailed upon the Hudson River Railroad, which had reached the village by 1849, [121] to change the name of the train station to "Irvington", and the village incorporated as Irvington on April 16, 1872. [122] [123] [124]

The town of Knickerbocker, Texas, was founded by two of Irving's nephews, who named it in honor of their uncle's literary pseudonym. [125] The city of Irving, Texas, states that it is named for Washington Irving. [126]

Irvington, New Jersey is also named after Irving. It was incorporated on March 27, 1874, from parts of Clinton Township (Clinton Township is now part of Newark, New Jersey since 1902).

Irving Street in San Francisco is named after him. [127]

The Irving Park neighborhood in Chicago is named for him as well, though the original name of the subdivision was Irvington and then later Irving Park before annexation to Chicago. [128]

Gibbons Memorial Park, located in Honesdale, Pennsylvania, is located on Irving Cliff, which was named after him. [129]

The Irvington neighborhood in Indianapolis is also one of the many communities named after him. [130]

Irving College (1838–90) in Irving College, Tennessee, was named for Irving. [131]

There is a statue of Irving in Granada, Spain. [132]

The Village Of North Tarrytown, New York, changed its name to "Sleepy Hollow" in 1996 to honor Washington Irving and capitalize on the popularity of the story "The Legend Of Sleepy Hollow" [133]


Washington Irving
Daguerreotype of Washington Irving
(modern copy by Mathew Brady,
original by John Plumbe)
Born(1783-04-03)April 3, 1783
New York City, New York, U.S.
DiedNovember 28, 1859(1859-11-28) (aged 76)
Sunnyside, Tarrytown, New York, U.S.
Resting place Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, New York
Pen nameGeoffrey Crayon, Diedrich Knickerbocker, Jonathan Oldstyle
  • Short story writer
  • essayist
  • biographer
  • historian
  • diplomat
Literary movementRomanticism
Relatives William Irving (brother)
Peter Irving (brother)
Washington Irving Signature.svg
United States Minister to Spain
In office
TitlePublication dateWritten AsGenre
Letters of Jonathan Oldstyle 1802Jonathan OldstyleObservational Letters
Salmagundi 1807–1808Launcelot Langstaff, Will WizardPeriodical
A History of New York 1809Diedrich KnickerbockerSatire
The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. 1819–1820Geoffrey CrayonShort stories/Essays
Bracebridge Hall 1822Geoffrey CrayonShort stories/Essays
Tales of a Traveller 1824Geoffrey CrayonShort stories/Essays
A History of the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus 1828Washington IrvingBiography
Chronicle of the Conquest of Granada1829Fray Antonio Agapida [134] Romantic history
Voyages and Discoveries
of the Companions of Columbus
1831Washington IrvingBiography/History
Tales of the Alhambra 1832"The Author of the Sketch Book"Short stories/Travel
The Crayon Miscellany [135] 1835Geoffrey CrayonShort stories
Astoria 1836Washington IrvingHistory
The Adventures of Captain Bonneville1837Washington IrvingBiography/Romantic History
The Life of Oliver Goldsmith1840
(revised 1849)
Washington IrvingBiography
Biography and Poetical Remains
of the Late Margaret Miller Davidson
1841Washington IrvingBiography
Mahomet and His Successors 1850Washington IrvingBiography
Wolfert's Roost1855Geoffrey Crayon
Diedrich Knickerbocker
Washington Irving
Short stories/Essays
The Life of George Washington (5 volumes)1855–1859Washington IrvingBiography

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">The Legend of Sleepy Hollow</span> Short story by Washington Irving

"The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" is an 1820 short story by American author Washington Irving, contained in his collection of 34 essays and short stories titled The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. Irving wrote the story while living in Birmingham, England.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Irvington, New York</span> Village in New York, United States

Irvington, sometimes known as Irvington-on-Hudson, is a suburban village in the town of Greenburgh in Westchester County, New York, United States. It is located on the eastern bank of the Hudson River, 20 miles (32 km) north of midtown Manhattan in New York City, and is served by a station stop on the Metro-North Hudson Line. To the north of Irvington is the village of Tarrytown, to the south the village of Dobbs Ferry, and to the east unincorporated parts of Greenburgh, including East Irvington. Irvington includes within its boundaries the community of Ardsley-on-Hudson, which has its own ZIP code and Metro-North station, but which should not be confused with the nearby village of Ardsley.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tarrytown, New York</span> Village in New York, United States

Tarrytown is a village in the town of Greenburgh in Westchester County, New York. It is located on the eastern bank of the Hudson River, approximately 25 miles (40 km) north of Midtown Manhattan in New York City, and is served by a stop on the Metro-North Hudson Line. To the north of Tarrytown is the village of Sleepy Hollow, to the south the village of Irvington and to the east unincorporated parts of Greenburgh. The Tappan Zee Bridge crosses the Hudson at Tarrytown, carrying the New York State Thruway to South Nyack, Rockland County and points in Upstate New York. The population was 11,860 at the 2020 census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rip Van Winkle</span> 1819 short story by Washington Irving

"Rip Van Winkle" is a short story by the American author Washington Irving, first published in 1819. It follows a Dutch-American villager in colonial America named Rip Van Winkle who meets mysterious Dutchmen, imbibes their strong liquor and falls deeply asleep in the Catskill Mountains. He awakes 20 years later to a very changed world, having missed the American Revolution.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tappan Zee</span> Natural widening of the Hudson River

The Tappan Zee is a natural widening of the Hudson River, about 3 miles (4.8 km) across at its widest, in southeastern New York. It stretches about 10 miles (16 km) along the boundary between Rockland and Westchester counties, downstream from Croton Point to Irvington. It derives its name from the Tappan Native American sub-tribe of the Delaware/Lenni Lenape, and the Dutch word zee, meaning a sea.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wolfert Acker</span>

Wolfert Acker (1667–1753) was a colonial-period American who is featured in Washington Irving's short story collection Wolfert's Roost and Miscellanies (1855). His name was recorded in all combinations of Wolfert or Wolvert as given name, and Acker, Echert, Eckar, or Ecker as surname. He was born in Flatbush, Brooklyn, New York and died at his sizable home, "Wolfert's Roost" near the site of what is now Irvington, New York in Westchester County, New York. On December 20, 1692, on land belonging to Frederick Philipse, he married Maretje Sibouts.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">F. O. C. Darley</span> American illustrator

Felix Octavius Carr Darley, often credited as F. O. C. Darley, was an American illustrator, known for his illustrations in works by well-known 19th-century authors, including James Fenimore Cooper, Charles Dickens, Mary Mapes Dodge, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Washington Irving, George Lippard, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Donald Grant Mitchell, Clement Clarke Moore, Francis Parkman, Harriet Beecher Stowe and Nathaniel Parker Willis.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sunnyside (Tarrytown, New York)</span> Historic house in New York, United States

Sunnyside (1835) is a historic house on 10 acres along the Hudson River, in Tarrytown, New York. It was the home of the American author Washington Irving, best known for his short stories, such as "Rip Van Winkle" (1819) and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" (1820).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Washington Irving Memorial Park and Arboretum</span>

Washington Irving Memorial Park and Arboretum is a public park and arboretum located just north of the Arkansas River Bridge at 13700 S. Memorial Drive, Bixby, Oklahoma. The park is named in honor of American writer Washington Irving, who camped in the area in October 1832 while participating in a federal expedition to the American West led by Judge Henry L. Ellsworth of Connecticut. The expedition included a 31-day, 350-mile (560 km) circular tour of central Oklahoma.

<i>The Knickerbocker</i> Defunct literary magazine

The Knickerbocker, or New-York Monthly Magazine, was a literary magazine of New York City, founded by Charles Fenno Hoffman in 1833, and published until 1865. Its long-term editor and publisher was Lewis Gaylord Clark, whose "Editor's Table" column was a staple of the magazine.

<i>The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent.</i> Collection of short stories and essays by Washington Irving

The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent., commonly referred to as The Sketch Book, is a collection of 34 essays and short stories written by the American author Washington Irving. It was published serially throughout 1819 and 1820. The collection includes two of Irving's best-known stories, attributed to the fictional Dutch historian Diedrich Knickerbocker: "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" and "Rip Van Winkle". It also marks Irving's first use of the pseudonym Geoffrey Crayon, which he would continue to employ throughout his literary career.

William Irving was an American politician who served three terms as a United States representative from New York from 1814 to 1819.

Historic Hudson Valley is a not-for-profit educational and historic preservation organization headquartered in Tarrytown, New York. The organization runs tours and events at five historic properties in Westchester County, in the lower Hudson River Valley.

<i>Tales of the Alhambra</i> Collection of essays and stories by American author Washington Irving (1783–1859)

Tales of the Alhambra (1832) is a collection of essays, verbal sketches and stories by American author Washington Irving (1783–1859) inspired by, and partly written during, his 1828 visit to the palace/fortress complex known as the Alhambra in Granada, Andalusia, Spain.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Washington Irving Memorial</span> Memorial in Irvington, New York, United States

The Washington Irving Memorial is located at Broadway and West Sunnyside Lane in Irvington, New York. It features a bust of Irving and sculptures of two of his better-known characters by Daniel Chester French, set in a small stone plaza at the street corner designed by Charles A. Platt. It is near Irving's Sunnyside estate.

The Knickerbocker Group was a somewhat indistinct group of 19th-century American writers. Its most prominent members included Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper and William Cullen Bryant. Each was a pioneer in general literature—novels, poetry and journalism.

Peter Irving was an American physician, author, and politician who was the brother of Washington Irving, William Irving and John T. Irving.

<i>Mahomet and His Successors</i>

Mahomet and His Successors is a book written by American author Washington Irving, and published in 1850 and a follow-up to his previous book Life of Mahomet.

A History of New York, subtitled From the Beginning of the World to the End of the Dutch Dynasty, is an 1809 literary parody on the early history of New York City by Washington Irving. Originally published under the pseudonym Diedrich Knickerbocker, later editions that acknowledged Irving's authorship were printed as Knickerbocker's History of New York.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Statue of Rip Van Winkle</span> Statue in Irvington, New York

Rip Van Winkle is a life-size bronze statue of Washington Irving's literary character from his 1819 short story, Rip Van Winkle, in Irvington, New York. It was designed by Richard Masloski and unveiled in 2002.


  1. 1 2 Burstein, 7.
  2. Docent Tour (October 28, 2017). "Home of the Legend: Washington Irving's Sunnyside". Historic Hudson Valley.
  3. Irving, Pierre M. (1862) "The life and letters of Washington Irving" (Cited herein as PMI), vol. 1:26.
  4. PMI, 1:27.
  5. Jones, 5.
  6. PMI, 1:27
  7. Warner, 27; PMI, 1:36.
  8. Mancuso, Anne (September 28, 2016). "Sleepy Hollow: Surrounded by History, and Legends". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved November 24, 2023.
  9. Newton-Matza, M. (2016). Historic Sites and Landmarks That Shaped America [2 volumes]: From Acoma Pueblo to Ground Zero. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 519. ISBN   978-1-61069-750-7.
  10. PMI, 1:39.
  11. Burstein, 19.
  12. Jones, 36.
  13. 1 2 Burstein, 43.
  14. See Jones, 44–70
  15. Washington Irving to William Irving Jr., September 20, 1804, Works 23:90.
  16. Irving, Washington. "Memoir of Washington Allston", Works 2:175.
  17. Washington Irving to Mrs. Amelia Foster, [April–May 1823], Works, 23:740-41. See also PMI, 1:173, Williams, 1:77, et al.
  18. Burstein, 47.
  19. Jones, 82.
  20. Burrows, Edwin G. and Mike Wallace. Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898. (Oxford University Press, 1999), 417. See Jones, 74–75.
  21. Jones, 118-27.
  22. Burstein, 72.
  23. Washington Irving to Mrs. Amelia Foster, [April–May 1823], Works, 23:741.
  24. "Knickerbocker". Oxford English Dictionary.
  25. Hellman, 82.
  26. Jones, 121–22.
  27. Jones, 121.
  28. Jones, 122.
  29. Hellman, 87.
  30. Hellman, 97.
  31. Jones, 154-60.
  32. Jones, 169.
  33. William Irving Jr. to Washington Irving, New York, October 14, 1818, Williams, 1:170-71.
  34. Washington Irving to Ebenezer Irving, [London, late November 1818], Works, 23:536.
  35. See reviews from Quarterly Review and others, in The Sketch Book, xxv–xxviii; PMI 1:418–19.
  36. Burstein, 114
  37. Irving, Washington. "Preface to the Revised Edition", The Sketch Book, Works, 8:7; Jones, 188-89.
  38. McClary, Ben Harris, ed. Washington Irving and the House of Murray. (University of Tennessee Press, 1969).
  39. See comments of William Godwin, cited in PMI, 1:422; Lady Littleton, cited in PMI 2:20.
  40. Aderman, Ralph M., ed. Critical Essays on Washington Irving. (G. K. Hall, 1990), 55–57; STW 1:209.
  41. Aderman, 58–62.
  42. See Reichart, Walter A. Washington Irving and Germany. (University of Michigan Press, 1957).
  43. Jones, 207-14.
  44. See Sanborn, F.B., ed. The Romance of Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, John Howard Payne and Washington Irving. Boston: Bibliophile Society, 1907.
  45. Irving to Catharine Paris, Paris, September 20, 1824, Works 24:76
  46. See reviews in Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, Westminster Review, et al., 1824. Cited in Jones, 222.
  47. Hellman, 170–89.
  48. Burstein, 191.
  49. Bowers, 22–48.
  50. Burstein, 196.
  51. Jones, 248.
  52. Jones, 207.
  53. Burstein, 212.
  54. Burstein, 225.
  55. Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Inventing the Flat Earth: Columbus and Modern Historians. Praeger Paperback, 1997. ISBN   0-275-95904-X
  56. Loewen, James W. Lies Across America: What Our Historic Sites Get Wrong. New York: The New Press, 1999: 59.
  57. "APS Member History". search.amphilsoc.org. Retrieved April 7, 2021.
  58. Washington Irving to Peter Irving, Alhambra, June 13, 1829. Works, 23:436
  59. Hellman, 208.
  60. PMI, 2:429, 430, 431–32
  61. PMI, 3:17–21.
  62. Washington Irving to Peter Irving, London, March 6, 1832, Works, 23:696
  63. Jill Eastwood (1967). "La Trobe, Charles Joseph (1801–1875)". Australian Dictionary of Biography . Vol. 2. National Centre of Biography, Australian National University. pp. 89–93. ISSN   1833-7538 . Retrieved July 13, 2007.
  64. See Irving, "A Tour on the Prairies", Works 22.
  65. Williams, 2:48–49
  66. Jones, 318.
  67. Jones, 324.
  68. Williams, 2:76–77.
  69. Jones, 323.
  70. Burstein, 288.
  71. Williams, 2:36.
  72. Jones, 316.
  73. Jones, 318-28.
  74. Monthly Review, New and Improved, ser. 2 (June 1837): 279–90. See Aderman, Ralph M., ed. Critical Essays on Washington Irving. (G. K. Hall, 1990), 110–11.
  75. Burstein, 295.
  76. Jones, 333.
  77. Edgar Allan Poe to N. C. Brooks, Philadelphia, September 4, 1838. Cited in Williams, 2:101-02.
  78. Irving, Washington (January 1, 1849). "The Crayon Miscellany". G.P. Putnam's Sons via Google Books.
  79. Clarke, Richard Henry (January 1, 1872). "Lives of the Deceased Bishops of the Catholic Church in the United States". P. O'Shea via Google Books.
  80. Washington Irving to Lewis G. Clark, (before January 10, 1840), Works, 25:32–33.
  81. "National Academicians". Archived from the original on January 16, 2014. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  82. Jones, 341.
  83. Hellman, 257.
  84. Washington Irving to Ebenezer Irving, New York, February 10, 1842, Works, 25:180.
  85. Bowers, 127–275.
  86. Mary Duarte, and Ronald E. Coons, "Washington Irving, American Ambassador to Spain, 1842-1846". Consortium on Revolutionary Europe 1750-1850: Proceedings (1992), Vol. 21, pp, 350-360.
  87. Irving to Thomas Wentworth Storrow, Madrid, 18 May 1844, Works, 25:751
  88. Jones, 415-56.
  89. Jones, 464.
  90. 1 2 Williams, 2:208–209.
  91. Bryan, William Alfred. George Washington in American Literature 1775–1865. New York: Columbia University Press, 1952: 103.
  92. "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter I" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
  93. Hellman, 235.
  94. William C. Preston to Washington Irving, Charlottesville, May 11, 1859, PMI, 4:286.
  95. Kime, Wayne R. Pierre M. Irving and Washington Irving: A Collaboration in Life and Letters. Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1977: 151. ISBN   0-88920-056-4
  96. Nelson, Randy F. The Almanac of American Letters. Los Altos, California: William Kaufmann, Inc., 1981: 179. ISBN   0-86576-008-X
  97. PMI, 4:328.
  98. Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth. "In The Churchyard at Tarrytown", quoted in Burstein, 330.
  99. Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth. "Address on the Death of Washington Irving", Poems and Other Writings, J.D. McClatchy, editor. (Library of America, 2000).
  100. Leon H. Vincent, American Literary Masters, 1906.
  101. Pattee, Fred Lewis. The First Century of American Literature, 1770–1870. New York: Cooper Square Publishers, 1935.
  102. Kime, Wayne R. Pierre M. Irving and Washington Irving: A Collaboration in Life and Letters. Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1977: 152. ISBN   0-88920-056-4
  103. Poe to N.C. Brooks, Philadelphia, September 4, 1838. Cited in Williams 2:101-02.
  104. Jones, 223
  105. Jones, 291
  106. Thackeray, Roundabout Papers, 1860.
  107. Hawless, American Humorists, 1881.
  108. Stoddard, The Life of Washington Irving, 1883.
  109. Wendell, A Literary History of America, 1901.
  110. Kime, Wayne R. "Washington Irving (3 April 1783-28 November 1859", in Clyde N. Wilson (ed.), American Historians, 1607-1865, Dictionary of Literary Biography Vol. 30, Detroit: Gale Research, 1984, 155.
  111. Migro, Carmen. "So, Why Do We Call It Gotham, Anyway?". NYPL.org. New York Public Library. Retrieved October 27, 2017.
  112. Kelly, Richard Michael (ed.) (2003), A Christmas Carol. p.20. Broadview Literary Texts, New York: Broadview Press, ISBN   1-55111-476-3
  113. Restad, Penne L. (1995). Christmas in America: a History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN   0-19-510980-5.
  114. See Stephen Nissebaum, The Battle for Christmas (Vintage, 1997)
  115. See Irving, 1829, Chapter VII: "Columbus before the council at Salamanca", pp. 40–47, especially p. 43.
  116. Grant (Edward), 2001, p. 342.
  117. Grant (John), 2006, p. 32, in the subsection "The Earth – Flat or Hollow?" beginning at p. 30, within Chapter 1 "Worlds in Upheval".
  118. Caldwell, John; Rodriguez Roque, Oswaldo (1994). Kathleen Luhrs (ed.). American Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Vol. I: a Catalogue of Works by Artists Born By 1815. Dale T. Johnson, Carrie Rebora, Patricia R. Windels. The Metropolitan Museum of Art in association with Princeton University Press. pp. 479–482.
  119. Roger Panetta, ed. (2009). Dutch New York: the roots of Hudson Valley culture. Hudson River Museum. pp. 223–235. ISBN   978-0-8232-3039-6.
  120. Sunnyside was considered to be part of Irvington (or Dearman) at the time; the neighboring village of Tarrytown incorporated in 1870, two years before Irvington. The estate ended up in Tarrytown rather than Irvington after the boundaries were drawn.
  121. Dodsworth (1995)
  122. Scharf (1886). "II". History of Westchester County. Vol. 2. p. 190.
  123. "About Irvington, NY". Village of Irvington Chamber of Commerce. 2007. Archived from the original on December 6, 2008. Retrieved May 14, 2009.
  124. Vizard, Mary McAleer (April 19, 1992). "If You're Thinking of Living in: Irvington". New York Times. Retrieved May 14, 2009.
  125. "Irving History". IrvingTX.net. Archived from the original on August 18, 2011. Retrieved March 28, 2010.
  126. "Declaration that Irving, TX is named for Washington Irving" . Retrieved September 26, 2014.
  127. The Chronicle April 12, 1987, p.6
  128. "Irving Park". www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org.
  129. "Washington Irving, Irving Cliff and the Ill-fated Irving Cliff Hotel", Wayne County Historical Society]
  130. Irvington Development Organization
  131. Larry Miller, Tennessee Place Names (Indiana University Press, 2001), p. 107.
  132. "Monumento a Washington Irving". Patronato de la Alhambra y Generalife (in Spanish). Retrieved January 24, 2024.
  133. Feloni, Richard. "How the 'Legend of Sleepy Hollow' saved a tiny industrial town in New York". Business Insider. Retrieved January 16, 2024.
  134. Irving's publisher, John Murray, overrode Irving's decision to use this pseudonym and published the book under Irving's name—much to the annoyance of its author. See Jones 258-59.
  135. Composed of the three short stories "A Tour on the Prairies", "Abbotsford and Newstead Abbey", and "Legends of the Conquest of Spain".

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Primary sources

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