Washita Battlefield National Historic Site

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Washita Battlefield

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Washita Battlefield
USA Oklahoma location map.svg
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Nearest city Cheyenne, Oklahoma
Coordinates 35°37′3″N99°42′1″W / 35.61750°N 99.70028°W / 35.61750; -99.70028 Coordinates: 35°37′3″N99°42′1″W / 35.61750°N 99.70028°W / 35.61750; -99.70028
Area 7,680 acres (12.00 sq mi)
Website Washita Battlefield National Historic Site
NRHP reference # 66000633
Significant dates
Added to NRHP October 15, 1966 [1]
Designated NHL January 12, 1965 [2]

Washita Battlefield National Historic Site protects and interprets the site of the Southern Cheyenne village of Chief Black Kettle where the Battle of Washita occurred. The site is located about 150 miles (241 km) west of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, near Cheyenne, Oklahoma. Just before dawn on November 27, 1868, the village was attacked by the 7th U.S. Cavalry under Lt. Col. George Custer. In the Battle of Washita, the Cheyenne suffered large numbers of casualties. The strike was hailed at the time by the military and many civilians as a significant victory aimed at reducing Indian raids on frontier settlements as it forced the Cheyenne back to the reservation set aside for them. The site is a small portion of a large area that was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1965, [2] [3] and was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1966. The landmarked area encompasses the entire battlefield, which extends for some 6 miles (9.7 km) through the city of Cheyenne. [3]

Oklahoma City State capital city in Oklahoma, United States

Oklahoma City, often shortened to OKC, is the capital and largest city of the U.S. state of Oklahoma. The county seat of Oklahoma County, the city ranks 27th among United States cities in population. The population grew following the 2010 Census, with the population estimated to have increased to 643,648 as of July 2017. As of 2018, the Oklahoma City metropolitan area had a population of 1,396,445, and the Oklahoma City-Shawnee Combined Statistical Area had a population of 1,469,124 residents, making it Oklahoma's largest metropolitan area.

Cheyenne, Oklahoma Town in Oklahoma, United States

Cheyenne is a town in Roger Mills County, Oklahoma, United States. The population was 801 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Roger Mills County.

National Historic Landmark formal designation assigned by the United States federal government to historic buildings and sites in the United States

A National Historic Landmark (NHL) is a building, district, object, site, or structure that is officially recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance. Of over 90,000 places listed on the country's National Register of Historic Places, only some 2,500 are recognized as National Historic Landmarks.

Contents

Description

Washita Battlefield National Historic Site
Established November 12, 1996
Visitors 14,215(in 2004)

The Washita Battlefield National Historic Site is located just a few miles west of the town of Cheyenne, on the north side of Oklahoma State Route 47. The main body of the site is located between SR 47A and the Washita River, with the visitors center located near the junction of 47 and 47A. It is completely surrounded by the Black Kettle National Grassland, and consists mainly of open prairie, with strips of trees in the riparian area of the river. Trails lead from the parking area on 47A through the park. The visitors center features exhibits about the battle, the soldiers and the Cheyenne, as well as a film and a bookstore.

Washita River river in the United States of America

The Washita River is a river in the states of Texas and Oklahoma in the United States. The river is 295 miles (475 km) long and terminates at its confluence with the Red River, which is now part of Lake Texoma on the Texas–Oklahoma border.

Black Kettle National Grassland

The Black Kettle National Grassland is located in Roger Mills County, Oklahoma and Hemphill County, Texas. It contains 31,286 acres (12,661 ha) of which 30,710 acres (12,430 ha) are in Oklahoma.

The area that the historic site is part of 315.2-acre memorial [4] associated with the 1868 Battle of Washita River. Landscape areas mainly to the east, north, and south include ridge lines that were the areas from which Custer's attack was launched. Portions of the battlefield extend into Cheyenne, and have been compromised by the construction of roads and railroads through the area. The historic site includes one of the largest and best-preserved tracts, including the village of the Cheyenne, which was the focal point of the battle. [3]

See also

National Register of Historic Places listings in Roger Mills County, Oklahoma Wikimedia list article

This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Roger Mills County, Oklahoma.

Related Research Articles

Roger Mills County, Oklahoma County in the United States

Roger Mills County is a county located in the western part of the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,647, making it the third-least populous county in Oklahoma. Its county seat is Cheyenne. The county was created in 1891.

Custer County, Oklahoma County in the United States

Custer County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 27,469. Its county seat is Arapaho. The county was named in honor of General George Armstrong Custer.

Battle of Washita River battle between the 7th U.S. Cavalry attacked Black Kettle’s Southern Cheyenne

The Battle of Washita River occurred on November 27, 1868 when Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer’s 7th U.S. Cavalry attacked Black Kettle’s Southern Cheyenne camp on the Washita River.

Monocacy National Battlefield memorializing the Battle of Monocacy (1864), fought near the Monocacy River

Monocacy National Battlefield is a unit of the National Park Service, the site of the Battle of Monocacy in the American Civil War fought on July 9, 1864. The battlefield straddles the Monocacy River southeast of the city of Frederick, Maryland. The battle, labeled "The Battle That Saved Washington," was one of the last the Confederates would carry out in Union territory. The two opposing leaders were General Jubal Early, fighting for the South, and General Lew Wallace, fighting for the North.

Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument

Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument preserves the site of the June 25 and 26, 1876, Battle of the Little Bighorn, near Crow Agency, Montana, in the United States. It also serves as a memorial to those who fought in the battle: George Armstrong Custer's 7th Cavalry and a combined Lakota-Northern Cheyenne and Arapaho force. Custer National Cemetery, on the battlefield, is part of the national monument. The site of a related military action led by Marcus Reno and Frederick Benteen is also part of the national monument, but is about 3 miles (5 km) southeast of the Little Bighorn battlefield.

Petersburg National Battlefield National Park Service unit preserving sites related to the American Civil War Siege of Petersburg

Petersburg National Battlefield is a National Park Service unit preserving sites related to the American Civil War Siege of Petersburg (1864–65). The Battlefield is centered on the city of Petersburg, Virginia, and also includes outlying components in Hopewell, Prince George County, and Dinwiddie County. Over 140,000 people visit the park annually.

Fort Supply

Fort Supply was a United States Army post established on November 18, 1868, in Indian Territory to protect the Southern Plains. It was located just east of present-day Fort Supply, Oklahoma, in what was then the Cherokee Outlet.

Mo-nah-se-tah Cheyenne woman

Mo-nah-se-tah or Mo-nah-see-tah, aka Me-o-tzi, was the daughter of the Cheyenne chief Little Rock. Her father was killed on November 28, 1868, in the Battle of Washita River when the camp of Chief Black Kettle, of which Little Rock was a member, was attacked by the 7th U.S. Cavalry under the command of Lt. Colonel George Armstrong Custer. Mo-nah-se-tah was among the 53 Cheyenne women and children taken captive by the 7th Cavalry after the battle.

Bennington Battlefield State Historic Site

The Bennington Battlefield is the Rensselaer County, New York, location where the Battle of Bennington occurred on the 16th of August 1777. It is located on New York State Route 67 in Walloomsac, New York, a historic route between Bennington, Vermont and the Hudson River. Here, New Hampshire, Vermont and Massachusetts militia under General John Stark rebuffed a British attempt led by Colonel Friedrich Baum to capture American stores. It was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1961. A portion of the battlefield is preserved in the Bennington Battlefield State Historic Site.

Little Rock was a council chief of the Wutapiu band of Southern Cheyennes. He was the only council chief who remained with Black Kettle following the Sand Creek massacre of 1864.

Medicine Arrows (c.1795—1876) was a Cheyenne chief and Keeper of the Medicine Arrows from 1850 until his death. Rock Forehead became known to whites as Medicine Arrows after his appointment to this office. Among the Cheyenne he was also known by the nickname "Walks with His Toes Turned Out."

Clara Blinn (1847–1868) was a white settler who, with her two-year-old son Willie, was captured by Indians in October 1868 in Colorado Territory during an attack on the wagon train in which she and her family were traveling. She and her little boy were killed on or about November 27, 1868 during or in the immediate aftermath of the Battle of Washita River, in which the camp of the Cheyenne chief Black Kettle was attacked and destroyed by troops of the Seventh U.S. Cavalry under the command of Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer. Clara and Willie Blinn's bodies were found some two weeks after the fight in one of several abandoned Indian camps along the Washita River near present-day Cheyenne, Oklahoma.

The McLemore Site, designated by the Smithsonian trinomial 34WA5, is a prehistoric archaeological site located near Colony in Washita County, Oklahoma. It is the site of a prehistoric Plains Indian village, dating from AD 1330-1360, during the Washita River phase. The site is of historic importance for being a key element helping determine the chronology of prehistoric cultures in the region. It was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1964.

Wolf Mountains Battlefield

Wolf Mountains Battlefield/Where Big Crow Walked Back and Forth was the site of the Battle of Wolf Mountain, the last major combat of the Great Sioux War of 1876-77. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2001, and was designated a National Historic Landmark in 2008.

Rosebud Battlefield State Park

Rosebud Battlefield State Park in Big Horn County, Montana preserves a large portion of the battlefield of the Battle of the Rosebud, fought on June 17, 1876. The battle is known by various other names including The Battle Where the Girl Saved Her Brother by the Northern Cheyenne, and Crook's Fight on the Rosebud. A National Historic Landmark, the park is a day use facility offering hiking, hunting, picnicking and wildlife viewing. It is located 11 miles (18 km) south of Kirby, Montana on Montana Highway 314.

Louis McLane Hamilton

Louis McLane Hamilton (1844–1868) was a cavalry officer in the United States Army during the American Civil War and the American Indian Wars. He served as a captain under General George Armstrong Custer in the Indian Territory in present-day Oklahoma, where he died at the age of 24 while leading a charge in the Battle of Washita River.

References

PBS Public television network in the United States

The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor. It is a nonprofit organization and the most prominent provider of educational television programming to public television stations in the United States, distributing series such as American Experience, America's Test Kitchen, Antiques Roadshow, Arthur, Downton Abbey, Finding Your Roots, Frontline, The Magic School Bus, Masterpiece, Mister Rogers' Neighborhood, Nature, Nova, the PBS NewsHour, Sesame Street, and This Old House.

<i>History Detectives</i> television series

History Detectives is a documentary television series on PBS. It features investigations made by members of a small team of researchers to identify and/or authenticate items which may have historical significance or connections to important historical events, and to answer specific questions brought to them about these artifacts. Common subjects are family heirlooms and historical structures. Its stated missions is "exploring the complexities of historical mysteries, searching out the facts, myths and conundrums that connect local folklore, family legends and interesting objects."