Wassenaar

Last updated
Wassenaar
Wassenaar Beach at Night (19927813283).jpg
Beach in Wassenaar after sunset
Wassenaar flag.svg
Flag
Coat of arms of Wassenaar.svg
Coat of arms
Map - NL - Municipality code 0629 (2009).svg
Location in South Holland
Coordinates: 52°9′N4°24′E / 52.150°N 4.400°E / 52.150; 4.400 Coordinates: 52°9′N4°24′E / 52.150°N 4.400°E / 52.150; 4.400
Country Netherlands
Province Flag Zuid-Holland.svg  South Holland
Government
[1]
  Body Municipal council
   Mayor Frank Koen (acting) (CDA)
Area
[2]
  Total62.37 km2 (24.08 sq mi)
  Land50.92 km2 (19.66 sq mi)
  Water11.45 km2 (4.42 sq mi)
Elevation
[3]
1 m (3 ft)
Population
(August 2017) [4]
  Total26,101
  Density513/km2 (1,330/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Wassenaarder
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postcode
2240–2245
Area code 070
Website www.wassenaar.nl

Wassenaar (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈʋɑsənaːr] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); population: 26,101 in 2017) is a municipality and town located in the province of South Holland, on the western coast of the Netherlands.

Dorp is a term meaning a village or small town, in the Netherlands, Suriname, Belgian Flanders and South Africa. In some countries a dorp is also a local government area or municipality, which may also administer one or more separate, smaller settlements, such as hamlets.

Provinces of the Netherlands first-level administrative division in the Netherlands

There are currently twelve provinces of the Netherlands, representing the administrative layer between the national government and the local municipalities, with responsibility for matters of subnational or regional importance.

South Holland Province of the Netherlands

South Holland is a province of the Netherlands with a population of just over 3.6 million as of 2015 and a population density of about 1,300/km2 (3,400/sq mi), making it the country's most populous province and one of the world's most densely populated areas. Situated on the North Sea in the west of the Netherlands, South Holland covers an area of 3,403 km2 (1,314 sq mi), of which 585 km2 (226 sq mi) is water. It borders North Holland to the north, Utrecht and Gelderland to the east, and North Brabant and Zeeland to the south. The provincial capital is The Hague, while its largest city is Rotterdam.

Contents

An affluent suburb of The Hague, Wassenaar lies 10 km (6.2 mi) north of that city on the N44/A44 highway near the North Sea coast. It is part of the Haaglanden region and is part of the Rotterdam–The Hague metropolitan area. The municipality covers an area of 62.37 km2 (24.08 sq mi), of which 11.45 km2 (4.42 sq mi) is covered by water.

The Hague City and municipality in South Holland, Netherlands

The Hague is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland. It is also the seat of government of the Netherlands.

North Sea marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean

The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between the United Kingdom, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and France. An epeiric sea on the European continental shelf, it connects to the ocean through the English Channel in the south and the Norwegian Sea in the north. It is more than 970 kilometres (600 mi) long and 580 kilometres (360 mi) wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres (220,000 sq mi).

Haaglanden former city region

Haaglanden is the conurbation surrounding The Hague in the Netherlands. The city's position as the country's seat of government makes the region prominent in the Netherlands. Located on the west coast of the province of South Holland, the region has a population of 1,050,543 as of September 2013, and covers an area of 405 km².

Wassenaar is home to some of the Netherlands' most richest residential neighborhoods as well as the country's most expensive street, the Groot Haesebroekseweg. [5] [6]

History

There are rumours that the 12th-century Romanesque church in Wassenaar lies on the spot where the Northumbrian missionary Willibrord once landed in the Netherlands; the high dunes to the west were not formed until later.

Romanesque architecture architectural style of Medieval Europe

Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches. There is no consensus for the beginning date of the Romanesque style, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the 11th century, this later date being the most commonly held. In the 12th century it developed into the Gothic style, marked by pointed arches. Examples of Romanesque architecture can be found across the continent, making it the first pan-European architectural style since Imperial Roman architecture. The Romanesque style in England is traditionally referred to as Norman architecture.

Willibrord Roman Catholic bishop and saint from Northumbria

Willibrord was a Northumbrian missionary saint, known as the "Apostle to the Frisians" in the modern Netherlands. He became the first Bishop of Utrecht and died at Echternach, Luxembourg.

Wassenaar long remained an unremarkable little town, known only as the home of the House of Wassenaer. It only began to gain notoriety in the 19th century when Louis Bonaparte ordered the construction of the Heerweg ("Army Road") between The Hague and Leiden, which forms the current Rijksstraatweg. In approximately 1840, Prince Frederik had the De Paauw (Peacock) palace built, where he lived for many years; it now serves as the city hall of Wassenaar.

Louis Bonaparte King of Holland, brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, member of the House of Buonaparte

Louis Napoléon Bonaparte was a younger brother of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French. He was a monarch in his own right from 1806 to 1810, ruling over the Kingdom of Holland. In that capacity he was known as Louis I.

Leiden City and municipality in South Holland, Netherlands

Leiden is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands. The municipality of Leiden had a population of 123,856 in August 2017, but the city forms one densely connected agglomeration with its suburbs Oegstgeest, Leiderdorp, Voorschoten and Zoeterwoude with 206,647 inhabitants. The Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) further includes Katwijk in the agglomeration which makes the total population of the Leiden urban agglomeration 270,879, and in the larger Leiden urban area also Teylingen, Noordwijk, and Noordwijkerhout are included with in total 348,868 inhabitants. Leiden is located on the Oude Rijn, at a distance of some 20 kilometres from The Hague to its south and some 40 km (25 mi) from Amsterdam to its north. The recreational area of the Kaag Lakes (Kagerplassen) lies just to the northeast of Leiden.

With the construction of the railway between Rotterdam, The Hague though Wassenaar towards its final destination the coastal area of Scheveningen in 1907, the course of which now forms the Landscheidingsweg. Wassenaar became attractive as a residence for wealthy people from Rotterdam.

Rail transport Conveyance of passengers and goods by way of wheeled vehicles running on rail tracks

Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks. It is also commonly referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles run on a prepared flat surface, rail vehicles are directionally guided by the tracks on which they run. Tracks usually consist of steel rails, installed on ties (sleepers) and ballast, on which the rolling stock, usually fitted with metal wheels, moves. Other variations are also possible, such as slab track, where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface.

Rotterdam Municipality in South Holland, Netherlands

Rotterdam is the second-largest city and a municipality of the Netherlands. It is located in the province of South Holland, at the mouth of the Nieuwe Maas channel leading into the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta at the North Sea. Its history goes back to 1270, when a dam was constructed in the Rotte, after which people settled around it for safety. In 1340, Rotterdam was granted city rights by the Count of Holland.

Scheveningen District in South Holland, Netherlands

Scheveningen[ˈsxeːvənɪŋə(n)](listen) is one of the eight districts of The Hague, Netherlands, as well as a subdistrict (wijk) of that city. Scheveningen is a modern seaside resort with a long, sandy beach, an esplanade, a pier, and a lighthouse. The beach is popular for water sports such as windsurfing and kiteboarding.

From September 1944 to March 1945 Wassenaar was one of launching sites used by the German Luftwaffe, commanded by SS General Hans Kammler for the V-2 rockets directed mainly towards London. [7]

On one of the main routes to the Wassenaarseslag, the main beach for Wassenaarders, a World War II bunker can be found. For safety reasons and the instability of the structure, it was sealed off to prevent entrance.

The American World War II and Korean War general Haywood Hansell, who helped plan the Allied bombing offensive against both Germany and Japan, lived in Wassenaar in retirement from 1957 to 1966.

In 1982 the Wassenaar Agreement between employers' organisations and trade unions in the Netherlands was signed here. This groundbreaking agreement helped in restraining wage growth in return for the adoption of policies to combat unemployment and inflation.

The Wassenaar Arrangement, a post Cold War era arms control convention, was signed here by forty member nations in May 1996.

Modern history

Wassenaar is, as it has been since the days of Prince Frederik, an official residence: King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands, his wife, Queen Máxima of the Netherlands, and their daughters live in the villa Eikenhorst at the estate De Horsten in Wassenaar; Princess Alexia was baptized at the Romanesque church in Wassenaar. The princesses attend the Bloemcampschool in Wassenaar, founded in 1931.

Old Castle of Wassenaar Oud-Wassenaar kasteel.JPG
Old Castle of Wassenaar
De Langstraat, the main shopping street in Wassenaar Wassenaar1.jpg
De Langstraat, the main shopping street in Wassenaar

In addition, several ambassadorial residences are located here, including those of Canada, South Korea, Indonesia, and Ireland. In general, there is a large expatriate community of diplomats and business people in Wassenaar, largely due to its proximity to both the international organisations and embassies in The Hague as well as to several international schools located in the Hague metro area, including the American School of The Hague (ASH) located within Wassenaar.

Two research institutes are also located in Wassenaar, the Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study (NIAS) which provides research time, space and support for foreign and Dutch scholars, and the Netherlands Institute of International Relations Clingendael, situated in Huys Clingendael.

As a community, Wassenaar benefits from several parks and a network of bicycle paths. Trees, mainly beech, oak, and horse chestnut, are widespread, giving the town a green characteristic. The town centre supports a number of high end shops, delicatessens and bakeries as well as a cafe, bar, and restaurant. There are Football, Field Hockey, Cricket, Rugby, and Tennis clubs located in Wassenaar for locals to participate in or to enthusiastically cheer on.

Some remnants of the Atlantic wall are located on Wassenaar's beach, the Wassenaarseslag; nearly a thousand metres of underground walled tunnels are present, connecting five bunkers. The network now serves as a bat sanctuary and is not open to visits anymore. [8] The theme park Duinrell and the race track Duindigt, the only remaining grass race track in the Netherlands, are here as well.

Despite being a relatively small town, Wassenaar is well known in the Netherlands as a result of its conspicuous wealth. Areas of the town are amongst the most affluent in the Netherlands, and residents of the town have a reputation for being 'bekakt,' or posh. Wassenaar is home to some of the most expensive neighbourhoods in the nation. The Groot Haesebroekseweg's average house price is around 2.5 million Euros, making it the most expensive street in the Netherlands. [9] The Dutch artists Ross and Iba released a song entitled 'Wassenaar,' which poked fun at the wealth of the town.

Wassenaar has always enjoyed good relations with the neighbouring town of Voorschoten, with which it has shared a history from time immemorial. The House of Wassenaer, for example, historically resided in the Kasteel Duivenvoorde in Voorschoten. Recently, plans to merge into one municipality with Voorschoten have been introduced.

Museum Voorlinden was opened by King Willem-Alexander in 2016. [10]

Local government

The municipal council of Wassenaar consists of 21 seats, which are divided as follows (from the most recent election results in 2018 ):

Notable people from Wassenaar

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Bloemendaal Municipality in North Holland, Netherlands

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Rijswijk Municipality in South Holland, Netherlands

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Voorschoten Municipality in South Holland, Netherlands

Voorschoten is a village and municipality in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. It is a smaller town in the Randstad, enclosed by the cities of Leiden, Wassenaar and The Hague. The municipality covers an area of 11.56 km2 (4.46 sq mi) of which 0.40 km2 (0.15 sq mi) is covered by water. Recently, plans to merge into one municipality with Wassenaar have been introduced.

Westland (municipality), Netherlands Municipality in South Holland, Netherlands

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Zwijndrecht, Netherlands Municipality in South Holland, Netherlands

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Randstad Megalopolis in Netherlands

The Randstad is a megalopolis in the central-western Netherlands consisting primarily of the four largest Dutch cities and their surrounding areas. Among other things, it contains the Port of Rotterdam, and Amsterdam Airport Schiphol. With a population of 8.2 million people it is one of the largest metropolitan regions in Europe, comparable in population size to the Milan metropolitan area or the San Francisco Bay Area, and covers an area of approximately 8,287 km2 (3,200 sq mi). With a population density of 1,500/km2 it also is one of the most important and densely populated economic areas in northwestern Europe. It encompasses both the Amsterdam metropolitan area and Rotterdam–The Hague metropolitan area.

Netherlands Institute of International Relations Clingendael

The Netherlands Institute of International Relations Clingendael or Clingendael Institute is an independent think tank and diplomatic academy which studies various aspects of international relations. The institute is located in Wassenaar in Huys Clingendael, a 17th-century manor house which is part of the Clingendael estate.

Van Wassenaer noble family

Van Wassenaer is the name of an old Dutch noble family. It was first mentioned in the county of Holland on November 3, 1200. They are one of the few original noble families from Holland that has survived to this day. Members of the family carry the title of count or baron.

Huys Clingendael

Clingendael is the name of a 17th-century manor house and surrounding parkland just outside The Hague, Netherlands, in the municipality of Wassenaar. Since 1982, it houses the Netherlands Institute of International Relations Clingendael.

References

  1. "Burgemeester Hoekema" [Mayor Hoekema] (in Dutch). Gemeente Wassenaar. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
  2. "Kerncijfers wijken en buurten" [Key figures for neighbourhoods]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 2 July 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  3. "Postcodetool for 2242LV". Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland (in Dutch). Het Waterschapshuis. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
  4. "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth; regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 27 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
  5. Calcasa. "Calcasa". Calcasa (in Dutch). Retrieved 2019-01-10.
  6. "Netherlands counts 42,000 homes worth over €1 million". NL Times. 2018-04-05. Retrieved 2019-01-10.
  7. V2rocket.com
  8. vleermuisbunker.nl/
  9. "Netherlands counts 42,000 homes worth over €1 million". NL Times. 2018-04-05. Retrieved 2019-01-10.
  10. Nina Siegal, "Wim Pijbes Quits Post at Museum Voorlinden After Less Than 3 Months", The New York Times , 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  11. https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maurits_Kiek