|Founded||21 July 1981|
|Focus||Water, sanitation and hygiene|
Chief Executive, WaterAid UK
Chief Executive, WaterAid America
Chair of WaterAid International Board
Global Director of WaterAid international
WaterAid is an international non-governmental organisation, focused on water, sanitation and hygiene. It was set up in 1981 as a response to the UN International Drinking Water decade (1981–1990). As of 2018, it was operating in 34 countries.
The organization was first established by the UK water industry on 21 July 1981 as a charitable trust at their main office premises in London, and established first projects in Zambia and Sri Lanka. In 2010, it became a federation, As of 2018 [update] members in the United Kingdom, USA, Australia, Japan, Sweden, Canada and India, and regional offices and country programmes in 27 countries in Latin America, Africa and Asia. Activities involve providing people with clean water, safe sanitation and hygiene behaviour change, and advocacy with governments and water utilities. Its income has moved from £1 million per annum in 1987 to £113 million in 2018–19.comprising
WaterAid was founded in 1981 by members of the UK water industry at the Thirsty Third World conferenceheld in London. WaterAid was formally established as a charity in the UK on 21 July 1981. Its president is Prince Charles, the Prince of Wales, since 1991. Other members were established as follows: WaterAid America and Australia in 2004, Sweden in 2009. In 2010, the organisation became a federation, and established the WaterAid International secretariat. In 2014, WaterCan/EauVive, an NGO founded in Canada in 1987, became WaterAid Canada and joined the federation.
In 1993 WaterAid began work on their 1000th project, and also agreed to fund the Hitosa Gravity Scheme in Ethiopia. The Hitosa scheme was the largest single water supply scheme implemented in Ethiopia at the time, reaching 50,000 people.
In 2003, WaterAid was named UK charity of the year at the Charity Times Awards.Also, in November 2006 WaterAid said that it was "Britain's most Admired Charity 2006", as voted by its peers in the voluntary sector (in Third Sector magazine). WaterAid came top of the category followed by Save the Children and The Samaritans. Andrew Cook, then WaterAid's Director of Communications and Fundraising said "We are delighted to have won this prestigious accolade. This award is testament to the tireless work of all WaterAid's staff and volunteers both in the UK and internationally". WaterAid was also a Stockholm Water Prize laureate in 1995.
In 2009, a new Global Strategy was launched, with the target of reaching 25 million more people across 30 countries by 2015.By 2011, WaterAid's 30th anniversary year, they had reached almost 16 million people with safe water and over 11 million with sanitation. In 2015, WaterAid launched 2015-2020 Global Strategy and its mission is to transform lives of the poorest people by improving access to sanitation, hygiene and safe water.
WaterAid has been associated with the Glastonbury Festival since 1994. In 2006 the festival's founder Michael Eavis and his daughter Emily visited WaterAid's work in Mozambique and by 2007 130 WaterAid volunteers helped at the festival. In 2011, there were around 200 WaterAid volunteers present.[ citation needed ]. In 2016, by which time there were over 500 Wateraid volunteers at Glastonbury, the charity introduced Talking Toilets which gave out information voiced by celebrities such as Cerys Matthews and Brian Blessed.
Among WaterAid's many fundraising events is 'Coast Along for WaterAid',a sponsored walk along sections of the South West Coast Path, which took place annually between 2005 and 2012. In 2010 the then UK Prime Minister, Gordon Brown took part.
In 2012, WaterAid partnered with Waterlogic to help raise funds for the poorest communities in the world, to provide them with clean and sanitary water.Waterlogic's Firewall technology purifies water and destroys harmful bacteria. Waterlogic pledged US$225,000 to WaterAid over 3 years.
Fundraising events and initiatives in 2013 included The WaterAid200 Mountain Challengeas well as various running, cycling and other sporting challenges as well as Street fundraising.
Its twice-yearly magazine is called 'Oasis' and includes news and features on planned and completed projects. WaterAid is a founding member of the End Water Poverty campaign calling for water and sanitation for all.
WaterAid America's office runs several fundraising campaigns, notably the COVID-19 Response and No Water on the Frontlines, an appeal for essential workers around the world.
WaterAid works in partnership with local organisations in 34 countries in Africa, Asia, Central America and the Pacific regionto help poor communities establish sustainable water supplies and toilets, close to home, and to promote safe hygiene practices. It also works to influence government water and sanitation policies to serve the interests of vulnerable people and to ensure water and sanitation are prioritised in poverty reduction plans. As a matter of policy, WaterAid supports public ownership and control of water supplies, but does not take a particular view regarding public, community or private participation in service provision.
Building on 4 decades of work in handwashing education, WaterAid acted quickly to scale up their water and handwashing projects in the following countries: Bangladesh, Cambodia, Colombia, eSwatini, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Madagascar, Malawi, Myanmar, Mali, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, South Africa, Timor-Leste, Uganda and Zambia. In March 2021, WaterAid with a partnership with the PepsiCo Foundation announced new programs to help communities impacted by the COVID-19 to recover from the pandemic.
WaterAid first started work in Zambia during the 1992-1994 drought.Since then, the organization has expanded its operations to seven districts in the country, five of which are in the Southern Province (Monze, Siavonga, Namwala, Itezhitezhi and Kazungula) while the other two are Kafue in Lusaka Province and Kaoma in Western Province. The organization spends about ZMK8-9 billion (just over £1 million) annually on projects there, and have since provided 42,600 people in Zambia with access to clean, safe water.
WaterAid is working with the government to help extend access to safe water, sanitation and improved hygiene for rural communities in Monze District. Sichiyanda is one such village in the Monze district where efforts are in progress. Projects in the village began in 2001 and the community worked together to dig a well with dedicated bucket and windlass.Hygiene education is also taking place, where villagers are taught to keep areas clean by building dish racks and rubbish pits and ensuring that there are no stagnant pools of water where mosquitoes can breed. In addition, 28 latrines have already been constructed with more underway.
Such programmes have led to significant improvements in the lives of villages in rural Monze. The building of wells have led to time savings for women and children.For women, much of this newly available time has been put to productive economic activities like basket weaving and pottery making for use and sale. For children, it has led to increased attendance in schools. In light of this, WaterAid has since put up a tender request for an additional 32 boreholes (necessary for the construction of wells) to be drilled in Monze.
While most of WaterAid's projects have been subsidized, the Milenge Project stands out for being one that is self-supplied.It has been possible to stimulate real demand in the district, and this means rural water supply upgrading can take place with no subsidy for materials. Wateraid is now working in four wards of Western Milenge on Self Supply, and 16 masons (4 per ward) have already been trained, having attended two separate one-month courses at Mansa Trades Training Institute. Besides being trained technically, these masons are also trained to work together and on how to promote their services. They speak to households independently, and some 95 well owners have since expressed interest in their services. Moreover, considering the fact that these areas are some of the poorest in Zambia and that the rural population is on average poorer than those in other piloting countries, such a response is truly impressive.
WaterAid works closely with its partners in local communities to utilise low cost technologies to deliver sustainable water supply, sanitation and hygiene solutions to the poor in the economically less developed countries.WaterAid's vision is of a world where everyone has access to safe water and sanitation.
Since its presence in India from 1986, WaterAid India has been growing in its significance in providing assistance to the poor in both rural and urban areas.Today, WaterAid covers over ten states (Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh), rendering their services to the communities that needed help most.
The main thrust of WaterAid India's projects is to advocate the use of latrines and to provide hygiene education with training manuals to the poorer and less educated areas.It aims to bring across the detrimental effects of poor hygiene; such as diseases, loss of efficiency and high expenses in the form of costly medicine. WaterAid India hopes to inspire local communities to develop their own cost effective solutions to the existing problems.
In addition, WaterAid India, with other partner organisations, came together to tackle the issue of having access to potable water in the coastal states of India.The roots of this crisis are linked to development. Sustainable development has proved challenging for many of India's coastal states, as they struggle to balance their delicate ecology against heavy economic demands and the desire for growth. WaterAid India and its partners explored the feasibility of technological alternatives to the problem of salinity in the groundwater - for example, rainwater harvesting, desalination and dew harvesting - and looked towards establishing an area-specific strategy for ensuring access to a domestic water supply in coastal regions.
WaterAid has achieved many other significant milestones since its inception. The WaterAid project in Kalmandhai, Tiruchirapalli city was declared the country's first 100% sanitised slum in 2002.Khajapattai was recently announced as the seventh. In 2009/10, nearly 240,000 people managed to have access to safe water and sanitation, through WaterAid supported projects.
WaterAid India also plays a vital role in advising Indian policy makers to include low-cost latrines into existing sanitation subsidies in 1999, after two years of advocacy.This exemplifies WaterAid India's persuasive powers and intent of alleviating poverty in India. Since 2003, WaterAid India has shifted its focus to the poorer states in northern India where local communities there require great assistance. In order to better meet the need of these communities, WaterAid India has shifted its head office to New Delhi.
WaterAid started its work in Bangladesh in 1986. It has successfully collaborated with 21 organizations in Bangladesh up to now to alleviate the sufferings from scarce water supply and low sanitation standards in poverty-plagued villages.
With WaterAid Bangladesh rendering their help in the technical field, The Village Education Resource Centre (VERC) introduced the community-led total sanitation (CLTS) model. It aims to educate villagers on the harmful effects that open defecation brings to the environment and to their health. In addition, the CLTS programme help to build toilets for the local communities so as to facilitate them in shifting to a more hygienic lifestyle. UNICEF recognized that the programme had been so impactful in Bangladesh that many organizations and countries had replicated it.
In 2011, the additional number of people who could access to water and sanitation thanks to WaterAid's programme is 259,000 and 536,000 respectively. WaterAid is currently working with Bangladesh government to build the National Sanitation Strategy, which would help them to reach universal access to sanitation by 2015. Recognizing WaterAid's efforts and the change that they made in running the National Sanitation Campaign together with other NGOs, Bangladesh government presented the National Sanitation Award to WaterAid as a gesture of appreciation.
WaterAid encouraged local villagers to design and construct better latrine for themselves.This empowered people to be more involved and learn more about sanitation in the process. Furthermore, local participants could personalize it to fit their preferences and needs.
WaterAid also introduced a programme called "Naming and Shaming", in which anyone caught defecating in the open would have their names taken down and made known to the whole community.Explaining why this works, Institute of Development Studies (University of Sussex) stated that it triggered people's pride and feelings so strongly that they were highly motivated to change, i.e. building their own toilets and stop open defecation.
The Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (Switzerland) stated that 49 out of 80 unions had attained 100% sanitation coverage.
WaterAid brought across the message of sanitation and hygienic defecation to the young by collaborating with a local music-theatre performance troupe who performed various educational for children.
However, WaterAid does face some difficulties: almost unable to seek support and donations from companies in Bangladesh to ensure a high hygienic level. Mr. Mohammed Sabur, the Director of WaterAid Bangladesh said that since labour was abundant, companies were not afraid of labour shortage should their employees fall sick. The only companies likely to support the programme were those with benefits in mind such as Unilever, who wanted to sell more soap.
WaterCan/EauVive was established as a registered Canadian charity in 1987 by Michael Lubbock to "helping the world's poorest people gain access to clean drinking water, basic sanitation and hygiene education".It works in 37 countries — like Bangladesh, Kenya, Nicaragua, and Uganda — by partnering with local organizations to assist the poorest and most marginalized communities. WaterAid Canada implemented sanitation projects benefiting 2.2 million people and safe water projects benefiting 1.7 million people by 2014. The charity also organized 4,000 education sessions focused on menstrual hygiene in Bangladesh. It receives funding through donations by individuals, organizations, and foundations and the Canadian International Development Agency. In 2013, it became a member of the global federation WaterAid, and was named WaterAid Canada in mid-2014.
Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage. Preventing human contact with feces is part of sanitation, as is hand washing with soap. Sanitation systems aim to protect human health by providing a clean environment that will stop the transmission of disease, especially through the fecal–oral route. For example, diarrhea, a main cause of malnutrition and stunted growth in children, can be reduced through adequate sanitation. There are many other diseases which are easily transmitted in communities that have low levels of sanitation, such as ascariasis, cholera, hepatitis, polio, schistosomiasis, and trachoma, to name just a few.
World Toilet Day (WTD) is an official United Nations international observance day on 19 November to inspire action to tackle the global sanitation crisis. Worldwide, 4.2 billion people live without "safely managed sanitation" and around 673 million people practice open defecation. Sustainable Development Goal 6 aims to "Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all". In particular, target 6.2 is to "End open defecation and provide access to sanitation and hygiene". When the Sustainable Development Goals Report 2020 was published, United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres said, "Today, Sustainable Development Goal 6 is badly off track" and it "is hindering progress on the 2030 Agenda, the realization of human rights and the achievement of peace and security around the world".
Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) is an approach used mainly in developing countries to improve sanitation and hygiene practices in a community. The approach tries to achieve behavior change in mainly rural people by a process of "triggering", leading to spontaneous and long-term abandonment of open defecation practices. It focuses on spontaneous and long-lasting behavior change of an entire community. The term "triggering" is central to the CLTS process: It refers to ways of igniting community interest in ending open defecation, usually by building simple toilets, such as pit latrines. CLTS involves actions leading to increased self-respect and pride in one's community. It also involves shame and disgust about one's own open defecation behaviors. CLTS takes an approach to rural sanitation that works without hardware subsidies and that facilitates communities to recognize the problem of open defecation and take collective action to clean up and become "open defecation free".
The water supply and sanitation in India has improved greatly from 1980 to present. However, many people lack access to clean water, toilets, and sewage infrastructure. Various government programs at national, state, and community level have brought rapid improvements in sanitation and the drinking water supply. Some of these programs are ongoing.
WaterPartners International was an American nonprofit developmental aid organization tasked with the specific purpose of providing safe drinking water and sanitation to people in developing countries. Founded in 1990, it has since provided safe drinking water and sanitation to more than 200 communities in eight countries – Bangladesh, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Honduras, Guatemala, India, Kenya, and the Philippines. The organization's co-founder and current executive director Gary White is also a founding board member of the Global Water Challenge and Water Advocates.
The drinking water supply and sanitation sector in Ghana faces a number of challenges, including very limited access to sanitation, intermittent supply, high water losses and low water pressure. Since 1994, the sector has been gradually reformed through the creation of an autonomous regulatory agency, introduction of private sector participation, decentralization of the rural supply to 138 districts and increased community participation in the management of rural water systems.
With abundant water resources, Bangladesh faces various water contaminations mainly caused by pollutants, bacteria, and pesticides. Historically, water sources in Bangladesh came from surface water contaminated with bacteria. Drinking infected water resulted in infants and children suffering from acute gastrointestinal disease that led to a high mortality rate. According to UNICEF, 38.3% of Bangladeshis drink unsafe water from bacteria-contaminated sources. Bangladesh is facing an acute reliable drinking water scarcity. Bangladesh's surface and ground water are highly saline due to rising sea levels.
Drinking water supply and sanitation in Pakistan is characterized by some achievements and many challenges. Despite high population growth the country has increased the share of the population with access to an improved water source from 85% in 1990 to 92% in 2010, although this does not necessarily mean that the water from these sources is safe to drink. The share with access to improved sanitation increased from 27% to 48% during the same period, according to the Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation. There has also been considerable innovation at the grass-root level, in particular concerning sanitation. The Orangi Pilot Project in Karachi and community-led total sanitation in rural areas are two examples of such innovation.
A sanitation worker is a person responsible for cleaning, maintaining, operating, or emptying the equipment or technology at any step of the sanitation chain. This is the definition used in the narrower sense within the WASH sector. More broadly speaking, sanitation workers may also be involved in cleaning streets, parks, public spaces, sewers, stormwater drains, and public toilets. Another definition is: "The moment an individual’s waste is outsourced to another, it becomes sanitation work."
Water.org is an American nonprofit developmental aid organization resulting from the merger between H2O Africa Foundation, co-founded by Matt Damon, and WaterPartners, co-founded by Gary White. Its goal is to provide aid to developing countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America that do not have access to safe drinking water and sanitation.
The Global Water Security & Sanitation Partnership (GWSP), formerly the Water and Sanitation Program, is a trust fund administered by the World Bank geared at improving the accessibility and infrastructure of water and sanitation for underdeveloped countries. GWSP works in more than 25 countries through regional offices in Africa, East and South Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean, and an office in Washington, D.C. Heath P. Tarbert is the Acting Executive Director for the United States. The GWSP is best known for its work providing technical assistance, building partnerships and capacity building. GWSP focuses on both regulatory and structural changes and also behavior change projects, such as a scaling up handwashing project and scaling up sanitation project. Another key aspect of GWSP's work is sharing knowledge and best practices through multiple channels. The GWSP has determined five main focus areas: Sustainability, inclusion, institutions, financing, and resilience.
WASH is an acronym that stands for "water, sanitation and hygiene". Universal, affordable and sustainable access to WASH is a key public health issue within international development and is the focus of the first two targets of Sustainable Development Goal 6. Targets 6.1 and 6.2 aim at equitable and accessible water and sanitation for all. "Access to WASH" includes safe water, adequate sanitation and hygiene education. Improving access to WASH services can improve health, life expectancy, student learning, gender equality, and other important issues of international development. This can reduce illness and death, and also affect poverty reduction and socio-economic development. Challenges include providing services to urban slums, improper management of water distribution systems, failures of WASH systems over time, providing equitable access to drinking water supply and gender issues. WASH services have to be provided to household locations but also to schools, healthcare facilities, work places, markets, prisons, train stations, public locations etc.
The Sanitation and Hygiene Fund (SHF) is a United Nations-hosted organization contributing to Sustainable Development Goal 6, Target 6.2 on sanitation and hygiene. It was established in 1990 and changed name and structure in January 2021. WSSCC advocates for improved sanitation and hygiene, with a focus on the needs of women, girls and people in vulnerable situations.
Open defecation is the human practice of defecating outside rather than into a toilet. People may choose fields, bushes, forests, ditches, streets, canals or other open space for defecation. They do so either because they do not have a toilet readily accessible or due to traditional cultural practices. The practice is common where sanitation infrastructure and services are not available. Even if toilets are available, behavior change efforts may still be needed to promote the use of toilets. 'Open defecation free' (ODF) is a term used to describe communities that have shifted to using toilets instead of open defecation. This can happen, for example, after community-led total sanitation programs have been implemented.
Water supply and sanitation in Zimbabwe is defined by many small scale successful programs but also by a general lack of improved water and sanitation systems for the majority of Zimbabwe. According to the World Health Organization in 2012, 80% of Zimbabweans had access to improved, i.e. clean, drinking-water sources, and only 40% of Zimbabweans had access to improved sanitation facilities. Access to improved water supply and sanitation is distinctly less in rural areas. There are many factors which continue to determine the nature, for the foreseeable future, of water supply and sanitation in Zimbabwe. Three major factors are the severely depressed state of the Zimbabwean economy, the willingness of foreign aid organizations to build and finance infrastructure projects, and the political stability of the Zimbabwean state.
Failures of water supply and sanitation systems describe situations where water supply and sanitation systems have been put in place (for example by the government or by non-government organizations but have failed to meet the expected outcomes. Often this is due to poor planning, lack of choice of appropriate technology depending upon the context, insufficient stakeholder involvement at the various stages of the project and lack of maintenance. While Hygiene Behavior Change is important in achieving the health benefits of improved WASH systems, the achievement of sustainability of WASH infrastructure depends on creation of demand for sanitation services.
Emergency sanitation is the management and technical processes required to provide sanitation in emergency situations. Emergency sanitation is required during humanitarian relief operations for refugees, people affected by natural disasters and internally displaced persons. There are three phases of emergency response: Immediate, short term and long term. In the immediate phase, the focus is on managing open defecation, and toilet technologies might include very basic latrines, pit latrines, bucket toilets, container-based toilets, chemical toilets. The short term phase might also involve technologies such as urine-diverting dry toilets, septic tanks, decentralized wastewater systems. Providing handwashing facilities and management of fecal sludge are also part of emergency sanitation.
Sustainable Development Goal 6 is about "clean water and sanitation for all". It is one of 17 Sustainable Development Goals established by the United Nations General Assembly in 2015, the official wording is: "Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all." The goal has eight targets to be achieved by at least 2030. Progress toward the targets will be measured by using eleven indicators.
Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) or menstrual health and hygiene (MHH) refers to access to menstrual hygiene products to absorb or collect the flow of blood during menstruation, privacy to change the materials, and access to facilities to dispose of used menstrual management materials. It can also include the "broader systemic factors that link menstruation with health, well-being, gender equality, education, equity, empowerment, and rights". Menstrual hygiene management can be particularly challenging for girls and women in developing countries, where clean water and toilet facilities are often inadequate. Menstrual waste is largely ignored in schools in developing countries, despite it being a significant problem. Menstruation can be a barrier to education for many girls, as a lack of effective sanitary products restricts girls' involvement in educational and social activities.