Waterbury, Connecticut

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Waterbury, Connecticut
Western approach to Waterbury CT.jpg
Waterbury skyline from the west, with Union Station clock tower at left
Flag of Waterbury, Connecticut.svg
Flag
Seal of Waterbury, Connecticut.svg
Seal
Nickname(s): 
The Brass City,
Motto(s): 
Quid Aere Perennius(Latin)
"What Is More Lasting Than Brass?"
Waterbury CT lg.PNG
Location in New Haven County, Connecticut
Usa edcp location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Waterbury
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 41°33′22″N73°2′29″W / 41.55611°N 73.04139°W / 41.55611; -73.04139 Coordinates: 41°33′22″N73°2′29″W / 41.55611°N 73.04139°W / 41.55611; -73.04139
CountryFlag of the United States.svg  United States
U.S. state Flag of Connecticut.svg  Connecticut
County New Haven
Metropolitan area New Haven area
Incorporated (town)1686
Incorporated (city)1853
Consolidated1902
Government
  Type Mayor–council
  Mayor Neil O'Leary (D)
Area
  Total29.0 sq mi (75.0 km2)
  Land28.5 sq mi (73.9 km2)
  Water0.4 sq mi (1.1 km2)
Elevation
270 ft (80 m)
Highest elevation
820 ft (250 m)
Lowest elevation
220 ft (70 m)
Population
 (2010) [1]
  Total110,366
  Estimate 
(2018) [2]
108,093
  Density3,869.9/sq mi (1,494.2/km2)
Time zone UTC−05:00 (Eastern)
  Summer (DST) UTC−04:00 (Eastern)
ZIP Codes
06701–06720
Area code(s) 203
FIPS code 09-80000
GNIS feature ID0211851
Airport Waterbury–Oxford Airport
Major highways I-84.svg Connecticut Highway 8.svg
Commuter Rail MTA NYC logo.svg
Website www.waterburyct.org

Waterbury (nicknamed "The Brass City") is a city in the U.S. state of Connecticut on the Naugatuck River, 33 miles southwest of Hartford and 77 miles northeast of New York City. Waterbury is the second-largest city in New Haven County, Connecticut. As of the 2010 census, Waterbury had a population of 110,366, [3] making it the 10th largest city in the New York Metropolitan Area, 9th largest city in New England and the 5th largest city in Connecticut. [4]

Contents

Throughout the first half of the 20th century, Waterbury had large industrial interests and was the leading center in the United States for the manufacture of brassware (including castings and finishings), as reflected in the nickname the "Brass City" and the city's motto Quid Aere Perennius? ("What Is More Lasting Than Brass?"). It was also noted for the manufacture of watches and clocks.

The city is along Interstate 84 (Yankee Expressway) and Route 8 and has a Metro-North railroad station with connections to Grand Central Terminal. Waterbury is also home to Post University and the regional campuses of the University of Connecticut, University of Bridgeport, Western Connecticut State University as well as Naugatuck Valley Community College.

History

The land was originally inhabited by the Algonquin bands. According to Samuel Orcutt's history, some Puritan residents of nearby Farmington "found it expedient to purchase the same lands from different tribes, without attempting to decide between their rival claims." [5] The original settlement of Waterbury in 1674 was in the area now known as the Town Plot section. In 1675, the turbulence of King Philip's War caused the new settlement to be vacated until the resumption of peace in 1677. A new permanent location was found across the river to the east along the Mad River. The original Native American inhabitants called the area "Matetacoke" meaning "the interval lands." [6] Thus, the settlement's name was Anglicised to "Mattatuck" in 1673. When the settlement was admitted as the 28th town in the Connecticut Colony in 1686, [7] the name was changed to Waterbury in reference to the numerous streams that emptied into the Naugatuck River from the hills on either side of the valley. At that time, it included all or parts of what later became the towns of Watertown, Plymouth, Wolcott, Prospect, Naugatuck, Thomaston, and Middlebury.

Growth was slow during Waterbury's first hundred years, the lack of arable land due to the constant flooding of the Naugatuck River in particular, discouraged many potential settlers. Furthermore, the residents suffered through a great flood in 1691 [8] and an outbreak of disease in 1712. After a century, Waterbury's population numbered just 5,000. [9]

Waterbury emerged as an early American industrial power in the early 19th century when the city began to manufacture brass, harnessing the waters of the Mad River and the Naugatuck River to power the early factories. [10] [11] The new brass industry attracted many immigrant laborers from all over the world, leading to an influx of diverse nationalities. [12] Waterbury was incorporated as a city in 1853 and, as the "Brass Capital of the World", it gained a reputation for the quality and durability of its goods. Brass and copper supplied by Waterbury was notably used in Nevada's Boulder Dam and found myriad applications across the United States, as well.

Another famous Waterbury product of the mid-19th century was Robert H. Ingersoll's one-dollar pocket watch, five million of which were sold. After this, the clock industry became as important as Waterbury's famed brass industry. Evidence of these two important industries can still be seen in Waterbury, as numerous clocktowers and old brass factories have become landmarks of the city.

Also of note in Waterbury's industrial history was the production of silverware, starting in 1858 by Rogers & Brother, and in 1886 by Rogers & Hamilton. [13] In 1893, Rogers & Brother exhibited wares at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. [14] In 1898, both companies became part of the International Silver Company, headquartered in nearby Meriden. [13] Production continued at the R&B site until 1938. [13] Today designs by the two companies are in the collections of the Mattatuck Museum in Waterbury, the Brooklyn Museum in New York, the Yale University Art Gallery in New Haven, and in many historical societies and museums across the United States. [15] [16]

In June 1920, labor unrest occurred in the town, with striking workers fighting with police on the street. Over 30 were arrested, mostly Lithuanians, Russians, Poles, and Italians. The strikers numbered some 15,000, [17] with most being employed at Scovill, Chase Rolling Mill, and Chase Metal Works. One striker was shot to death by police. [18]

South Main Street, about 1910 PostcardWaterburyCTAGWestOptometristSoMainSt1905.jpg
South Main Street, about 1910
Downtown on East Main Street in 1954 WaterburyEastMain1954.jpg
Downtown on East Main Street in 1954

At its peak during World War II, 10,000 people worked at the Scovill Manufacturing Co, later sold to Century Brass. The city's metal manufacturing mills (Scovill Manufacturing, Anaconda American Brass, and Chase Brass & Copper were the largest) occupied more than 2 million square feet (180,000 m2) and more than 90 buildings.

Notable historic events

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 29.0 square miles (75.0 km2), of which 28.5 square miles (73.9 km2) is land and 0.42 square miles (1.1 km2), or 1.46%, is water. [27]

Waterbury lies in the humid continental climate zone, and normally sees cold, snowy winters and warm, humid summers.

Climate data for Waterbury, Connecticut
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °F (°C)35
(2)
39
(4)
47
(8)
59
(15)
70
(21)
78
(26)
83
(28)
81
(27)
74
(23)
63
(17)
52
(11)
41
(5)
60
(16)
Average low °F (°C)15
(−9)
18
(−8)
26
(−3)
36
(2)
46
(8)
58
(14)
62
(17)
60
(16)
51
(11)
39
(4)
31
(−1)
22
(−6)
39
(4)
Average precipitation inches (mm)3.64
(92)
3.61
(92)
4.38
(111)
4.52
(115)
4.64
(118)
4.74
(120)
4.59
(117)
4.78
(121)
4.84
(123)
5.18
(132)
4.41
(112)
4.24
(108)
53.57
(1,361)
Source: [28]

Neighborhoods

Waterbury's neighborhoods are shaped by the history and geography of the city.

Ethnic communities distinguish the city's 25 neighborhoods. Clusters of shops at the street corners created villages within the city. For many people, home, work and community life was contained within their neighborhood. Downtown, a short walk away, was "the city", offering live theater, fancy stores, parades and spectacles. [29]

Transportation

Commuting in the Greater Waterbury area consists of multiple public transportation options. CT Transit operates a significant number of city buses running from the city center at Exchange Place to various neighborhoods in the city. [30] Metro-North Railroad runs commuter trains multiple times a day between the Waterbury station and Bridgeport, with connections to Grand Central Terminal in New York City. Waterbury's Union Station, built in 1909 for the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad, is now closed for use as a railway station and part of the building is now the headquarters of the Republican-American newspaper. [31] Passengers traveling to and from Waterbury board and alight on a concrete platform adjacent to the old station. There are no ticket agents at Waterbury, which is currently the end of the line for the Waterbury Branch.

The two main highways that run through the heart of the city are I-84 (Yankee Expressway) and Route 8. In the downtown area, I-84 and Route 8 are located on the elevated William W. Deady Bridge, [32] known locally as the "MixMaster" with eastbound traffic on the upper deck and westbound traffic on the lower deck. The interchange is ranked as one of the most heavily congested traffic areas in the New York/Connecticut region.[ citation needed ] Waterbury–Oxford Airport is the primary airport serving the city. The smaller Waterbury Airport is about four miles from the city's central business district.

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1860 10,004
1870 10,8268.2%
1880 17,80664.5%
1890 28,64660.9%
1900 45,85960.1%
1910 73,14159.5%
1920 91,71525.4%
1930 99,9028.9%
1940 99,314−0.6%
1950 104,4775.2%
1960 107,1302.5%
1970 108,0330.8%
1980 103,266−4.4%
1990 108,9615.5%
2000 107,271−1.6%
2010 110,3662.9%
Est. 2018108,093 [2] −2.1%
U.S. Decennial Census
2011 estimate

As of the census of 2010, there were 110,366 people, 42,761 households, and 26,996 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,866 people per square mile (1,449.7/km2). There were 42,761 housing units at an average density of 1,492.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 58.8% White, 20.1% Black or African American, 0.6% Native American, 1.8% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 14.2% from other races, and 4.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 31.2% of the population.

Waterbury has a heavy Italian-American population with 21.46% of its residents claiming Italian heritage. [33] The Italian influence is especially strong in the Town Plot, Brooklyn, and North End neighborhoods. [34] Additionally, the city is home to thriving Albanian, Cape Verdean, Dominican, Brazilian, Jamaican, Lithuanian, Portuguese, and Puerto Rican communities. Waterbury also has a large Irish community, especially in the Washington Hill section which is home to the city's annual St. Patrick Day's Parade, which, oddly enough, is rarely held on St. Patrick's Day itself. At the beginning of the 21st century, Waterbury had a growing Orthodox Jewish population. [35] Waterbury had a significant Jewish population beginning in the late 1800s, initially as a result of German immigration. The first synagogue in Waterbury opened in 1872. [36] In the early 20th century, almost 9,000 Jews immigrated from Eastern Europe, with many fleeing persecution. The Orthodox Jewish community has experienced a renaissance since 2000 due to efforts by educators and developers to create an affordable alternative to the high cost of living in established Orthodox communities in New York and New Jersey. This renaissance began with the founding of the Yeshiva K'tana of Waterbury in 2000; as of 2014, this full-service elementary and middle school has nearly 400 students. Other educational institutions are the Yeshiva Gedolah of Waterbury, which includes a mesivta high school and beit medrash (undergraduate) program for approximately 230 students, a Bais Yaakov school for girls, and a kolel . As of the end of 2014, the Waterbury Orthodox community numbers 180 families and includes a mikveh , eruv , and community services such as Hatzalah and Chaverim. [37]

A significant portion of Waterbury's religious make-up includes a growing number of Jehovah's Witnesses, noted world-wide for their door to door ministry and free Bible education work. As noted in the worldwide publication "Engineering News Release - ENR", Waterbury is home to the largest and fastest constructed Kingdom Hall of Jehovah's Witnesses which is approximately 30,000 square feet and was completed by the Jehovah's Witnesses Regional Building Committee (RBC) in entirety down to wallpaper & rugs in less than 3 days in 1986. This was not a modular type of construction, but was built by conventional means. It is estimated that approximately 3,000 Jehovah's Witnesses volunteered their time in the planning, purchasing and building of this Kingdom Hall. This Kingdom Hall became filled with attendees, and an additional one was completed in 2015.

There were 42,622 households out of which 31.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.7% were married couples living together, 28.4% had a single householder with no husband present, and 36.9% were non-families. 31.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 3.11.

In the city, the population was spread out with 25.6% under the age of 18, 10.1% from 18 to 24, 27.4% from 25 to 44, 24.3% from 45 to 64, and 12.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.8 males.

According to the 2014 5-year American Community Survey (conducted 2010–2014, data released December 3, 2015), the median income for a household in the city was $41,136, compared to $69,899 statewide. In Waterbury, 24.2% of the population, or 26,122 residents of the city, lived below the poverty line, compared to 10.5% statewide. In Waterbury, 36.8% of the child population age 0–17, or 9,984 children in the city, lived below the poverty line, compared to 14% statewide. [38]

Economy

Waterbury's economic decline in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in it being ranked as having the worst quality of life of 300 U.S. metropolitan areas by Money Magazine in 1992. Waterbury was also rated as one of the "Worst Places for Businesses and Careers in America" by Forbes Magazine in April 2008. [39] Regardless, the city was named on the 100 Best Places to Raise a Family list in the same year. [40]

According to the city's 2010 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, [41] the top employers in the city are:

#Employer# of employees
1City of Waterbury3,811
2Waterbury Hospital1,541
3 St. Mary's Hospital 1,279
4 State of Connecticut 1,225
5 AT&T Inc. 400
6 Naugatuck Valley Community College 384
7 United States Postal Service 270
8 Webster Bank (HQ)256
9 Republican-American 252
10 MacDermid (HQ)217

Government

MayorNeil O'Leary (D)
Town clerkAntoinette C. Spinelli (D)
City sheriffStephen M. Conway (D)
City clerkMichael J. Dalton (D)
Aldermen (15) [42]
Paul K. Pernerewski, Jr. (D – president) 3rd District
Ernest Brunelli (D – majority leader) 1st District
Victor Lopez (D – president pro tempore) 2nd District
Christian D'Orso (D) 1st District
Belinda Weaver (D) 2nd District
Michael Salvio (D) 3rd District
Michael DiGiovancarlo (D) 4th District
Jetlir Kulla (D) 4th District
Sandra Martinez-McCarthy(D) 5th District
Brenda Liz Cotto (D) 5th District
Roger Sherman (R – minority leader) 5th District
Mary Grace Cavallo (R) 1st District
Vernon Matthews (R) 2nd District
Kelly Zimmermann (R) 3rd District
George Noujaim (R) 4th District

Waterbury has about 52,000 registered voters, of whom about 24,000 are Democrats. There are about 7,800 registered Republicans and the balance are largely unaffiliated, with a smattering belonging to minor parties.

John S. Monagan, who was a prolific author in addition to his political responsibilities, served as Waterbury's mayor from 1943 to 1948. He also served as its district's congressional representative from 1959 to 1973. George Harlamon, a member of the Waterbury Hall of Fame, was the city's 40th mayor. He served from 1969 to 1970 during a period of racial tension. The city is known for its hard-nosed political culture compared locally to Cook County, Illinois, close elections, and a number of scandals. This reputation is so solidified that U.S. Senator Joseph I. Lieberman once joked that upon his death, he hoped to be buried in Waterbury so he could remain politically active.[ citation needed ]

Waterbury's scandalous past dates back to 1940, when Mayor T. Frank Hayes and 22 others were convicted of conspiracy to defraud the City of Waterbury. Hayes received a 10–15 year sentence and served six years. Ironically, the massive corruption scheme was exposed with the help of then comptroller Sherwood Rowland, grandfather of Gov. John G. Rowland, who was convicted on corruption charges in 2004. What appeared to have been a defeat for Hayes was not really a victory for Pape, and the stage was set for further corruption in Waterbury in the second half of the 20th century. Waterbury was in serious financial straits due to years of mismanagement, resulting in the city's finances being taken over by the State of Connecticut. The State Oversight Board oversaw city business for several years and have since left following consecutive years of balanced budgets. The successors to Philip Giordano, former acting mayor Sam Caligiuri (2001) and former mayor Michael Jarjura (2001–2011) managed the city without major controversy since 2001. Democrat Neil O'Leary was elected the 46th Mayor of Waterbury on November 9, 2011. As of July 2012, the mayor of Waterbury earns an annual salary of $119,306. [43]

In 1939, Pape backed an attempt to install council-manager government and single-transferable-vote elections. The local Republican Party and Connecticut General Assembly also supported this measure. New York Mayor Fiorello H. La Guardia helped campaign for its passage, having backed similar reforms in his own city in 1936. [44]

A number of presidential candidates have campaigned in Waterbury due to its pivotal role in statewide elections. The most famous was the election eve visit on the Green by John F. Kennedy in 1960. Forty thousand people waited until 3 am on the Green to greet Kennedy on Sunday, November 6, 1960. Sen. Kennedy spoke to them from the balcony of the Roger Smith Hotel (now called the Elton). Pierre Salinger later said it was the greatest night of the campaign. In September 1984 Ronald Reagan held a huge noontime election rally at the same location. In July 2006 former president Bill Clinton made a campaign appearance at the Palace Theatre for Senator Joe Lieberman during his campaign for re-election to the U.S. Senate. Shortly after the Democratic primary, Tom Swan, campaign manager for Lieberman's opponent Ned Lamont, described Waterbury as a place where "the forces of slime meet the forces of evil," after a large majority of the town's voters backed Lieberman. Swan claimed he was referring to former mayor Philip A. Giordano and former governor John G. Rowland. [45]

Governor John G. Rowland served ten months in a federal prison until February 10, 2006. He was released from federal prison with the stipulation that he serve four months house arrest with an electronic ankle bracelet monitor until June 2006.

In January 2008 Waterbury Mayor Michael Jarjura announced that he would hire Rowland as an economic development advisor for the city. Rowland began work in February that year receiving an annual salary of $95,000 as the city's economic development coordinator funded in conjunction with the Greater Waterbury Chamber of Commerce. [46] [47]

In 2011, the Board of Aldermen voted to eliminate funding the city's portion of his salary and in November 2011 Rowland stated he would give up his position when his contract expired thus ending his quasi-city employment. [48]

Later that year, following his victory over then Mayor Jarjura, new mayor Neil O'Leary created the position of Economic Development Director as part of his new administration, removing the duties from the Chamber of Commerce and bringing them directly into City Hall, making Economic Development a cornerstone of his administration. Ron Pugliese was hired as the first director to hold the position. [49]

Voter Registration and Party Enrollment as of October 27, 2015 [50]
PartyActive votersInactive votersTotal votersPercentage
Democratic 26,4901,03427,52447.02%
Republican 6,8472767,12312.17%
Unaffiliated22,0631,01323,07639.42%
Minor Parties785348191.40%
Total56,1852,35758,542100%

Foreign relations

Consulate office

Waterbury was home to Connecticut's Consulate General of Portugal, which has its office downtown on East Main Street. [51]

Sister cities

Education

Board of Education (10) [54]
Charles Pagano (D – president)
Karen Harvey (D – vice president)
Melissa Serrano-Adorno (D)
Juanita Hernandez (D)
Ann Sweeney (D)
Elizabeth Brown (D)
Rocco Corso (R)
Thomas Van Stone, Sr. (R)
Charles Stango (R)
Jason Van Stone (R)

Waterbury is home to a total of 42 schools. That number breaks down to 9 high schools, 3 middle schools, 4 K-8 Public Schools, 24 elementary schools (private & public), 2 Jewish schools and 5 colleges/universities. The city's public schools are operated by Waterbury Public Schools under the leadership of superintendent Dr. Verna Ruffin and a board of education that consists of ten elected members and the city mayor, who acts as the chairman ex-officio. Waterbury at one time had the designation of the most catholic schools in the state. However, St. Thomas, St. Lucy, St. Margaret, St. Joseph, and St. Francis Elementary Schools have all closed over the years due to budget constraints.

List of schools

Public High Schools

Public Elementary Schools

  • Bucks Hill Elementary
  • Bunker Hill Elementary
  • BW Tinker
  • Driggs
  • East End Elementary (under construction)[ citation needed ]
  • FJ Kingsbury
  • Generali
  • Homebound
  • Hopeville
  • HS Chase
  • Maloney Inter-District
  • Rotella Inter-District
  • Regan
  • Sprague
  • State Street
  • Walsh
  • Washington
  • Wendell Cross
  • Wilson

Public (Charter) Schools

Public K-8 Schools

Public Middle Schools

Secular college preparatory school

Religious schools

Colleges & Universities

Emergency services

Fire department

The city of Waterbury is protected by the paid, full-time firefighters of the Waterbury Fire Department (WFD). The department currently operates out of nine fire stations located throughout the city. [56]

Police department

The Waterbury Police Department (WPD) was founded in 1853. Headquarters is at 255 East Main Street, while the Waterbury police academy is located at the Waterbury Police Department Annex at 240 Bank Street. Former Chief of Police Vernon Riddick, who held the distinction of being the first African-American to hold the position in the department's history, recently retired to serve as Chief of the West Hartford Police Department [57] . Former Deputy Chief Fernando "Fred" Spagnolo was appointed the department's 22nd Chief of Police on December 13, 2018. [58]

Local media

Two newspapers are operated within Waterbury: the Republican-American , which covers 36 communities throughout Western Connecticut, [59] and the Waterbury Observer. [60] WATR 1320 AM, a radio station under the same family ownership since 1934 and broadcasting on the same frequency since 1939, operates a News/Talk/Classic Hits music format and is the only radio station broadcasting in Waterbury. [61] Two FM radio stations are also located in Waterbury: WWYZ 92.5, which plays a country music format and WMRQ 104.1, which plays alternative rock. They both transmit from 10 miles away in Meriden and have wide-reaching signals that can be heard clearly as far away as Bridgeport. [62] [63]

WTXX-TV (channel 20) is licensed to Waterbury and serves as Hartford's affiliate for The CW; it is operated out of the Hartford Courant building with sister Tribune Broadcasting Fox affiliate WTIC-TV (channel 61), and carries mainly syndicated content outside of network hours.

Landmarks

The Union Station Clocktower is Waterbury's most prominent landmark UnionStationClockTower.jpg
The Union Station Clocktower is Waterbury's most prominent landmark
The Hotel Elton in the 1940s Elton1940s.jpg
The Hotel Elton in the 1940s
Harrub Pilgrim Memorial HarrubMemorial.jpg
Harrub Pilgrim Memorial

On the National Register of Historic Places

Notable people

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Timexpo Museum History museum, horology museum in Connecticut, United States

The Timexpo Museum in Waterbury, Connecticut was dedicated to the history of Timex Group and its predecessors, featuring exhibits going back to the founding of Waterbury Clock Company in 1854. The museum was located in the Brass Mill Commons shopping center and its location was marked by a 40-foot (12 m) high replica of an Easter Island Moai statue which connected with the museum's archaeology exhibit. The museum was 14,000 square feet (1,300 m2) with approximately 8,000 dedicated to the two main exhibits: the company's history of timepieces and archaeology.

The Lower Naugatuck Valley, also known in Connecticut as simply "The Valley", is a geographic area located around the confluence of the southern parts of the Housatonic and Naugatuck Rivers. It consists of the municipalities of Seymour, Derby, Ansonia, and Shelton, which constitute the Valley Council of Governments. The scope of the Lower Naugatuck Valley is also sometimes extended to encompass the next three towns upstream and to the north, which are Beacon Falls, Naugatuck, and Oxford, Connecticut.

Central Naugatuck Valley Place in Connecticut, United States

The Central Naugatuck Valley is a region of Connecticut in New Haven and Litchfield counties located approximately 70 miles (110 km) northeast of New York City and 110 miles (180 km) southwest of Boston. The region comprises 13 towns: Beacon Falls, Bethlehem, Cheshire, Middlebury, Naugatuck, Oxford, Prospect, Southbury, Thomaston, Waterbury, Watertown, Wolcott, and Woodbury.

Chase Brass is a leading manufacturer of brass rod, ingot and engineered products in the U.S. Located in Montpelier, Ohio, Chase employs over 200 hourly employees who are represented by the United Steelworkers Union (USW) Local 7248, and 98 salaried employees.

Robert W. Hill American architect

Robert W. Hill was an American architect from Waterbury, Connecticut. He was one of Connecticut's most important 19th century architects.

References

Footnotes

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Further reading

Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg Waterbury travel guide from Wikivoyage