Wati languages

Last updated
Wati
Geographic
distribution
central Australia
Linguistic classification

Pama–Nyungan

  • Desert Nyungic
    • Wati
Subdivisions
Glottolog wati1241 [1]

Wati languages.png

Wati languages (green) among other Pama–Nyungan (tan)

The Wati languages are the dominant Pama–Nyungan languages of central Australia. They include the moribund Wanman language and the Western Desert dialect continuum, which is sometimes considered to be a dozen distinct languages. It is not clear whether Antakarinya is Warnman or Western Desert.

Pama–Nyungan languages language family

The Pama–Nyungan languages are the most widespread family of Australian Aboriginal languages, containing perhaps 300 languages. The name "Pama–Nyungan" is derived from the names of the two most widely separated groups, the Pama languages of the northeast and the Nyungan languages of the southwest. The words pama and nyunga mean "man" in their respective languages.

Wanman (Warnman) is a possibly extinct Australian Aboriginal language, of the Wati branch of the Pama–Nyungan family. It was spoken near Jigalong in Western Australia by the Wanman people (Warman), who are a subgroup of Martu people (Mardu).

Western Desert language language

The Western Desert language, or Wati, is a dialect cluster of Australian Aboriginal languages in the Pama–Nyungan family.

Bowern (2011) adds Ngardi, [2] which previously had been classified as Ngumpin–Yapa.

Ngardi (Ngarti) or Ngardilj, also called Bunara, is a moribund Australian Aboriginal language.

Ngumpin–Yapa languages

The Ngumpin–Yapa a.k.a. Ngarrka–Ngumpin languages are a family of Pama–Nyungan languages of the Pilbara region of Australia.

Wati is generally included in Southwest Pama–Nyungan by those who accept that proposal. However, SW Pama–Nyungan may be an areal group, and is not included in Bowern (2011).

Southwest Pama–Nyungan languages

The Southwest Pama–Nyungan or Nyungic language group is the most diverse and widespread, though hypothetical, subfamily of the Pama–Nyungan language family of Australia. It contains about fifty distinct languages.

Related Research Articles

Australian Aboriginal languages language family

The Australian Aboriginal languages consist of around 290–363 languages belonging to an estimated 28 language families and isolates, spoken by Aboriginal Australians of mainland Australia and a few nearby islands. The relationships between these languages are not clear at present. Despite this uncertainty, the Indigenous Australian languages are collectively covered by the technical term "Australian languages", or the "Australian family".

Kartu languages

The Kartu languages is a group of Indigenous Australian languages spoken in the Murchison and Gascoyne regions of Western Australia. They are thought to be closely related and to form a low-level genealogical group.

Ngayarda languages

The Ngayarda languages are a group of closely related languages in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. The languages classified as members of the Ngayarda languages group are :

Macro-Pama–Nyungan languages

Macro-Pama–Nyungan is an Australian language family proposed in 1997 that links the two largest language families in Australia, the Pama–Nyungan family, which covers seven-eighths of the continent, and Macro-Gunwinyguan, the principal family of Arnhem Land in northern Australia.

Iwaidjan languages

The Iwaidjan or Yiwaidjan languages are a small family of non-Pama–Nyungan Australian Aboriginal languages spoken in the Cobourg Peninsula region of Western Arnhem Land.

Nyulnyulan languages

The Nyulnyulan languages are a small family of closely related Australian Aboriginal languages spoken in northern Western Australia. Most languages in this family are extinct, with only 3 extant languages, all of which are almost extinct.

Ngarla is a Pama–Nyungan language of coastal Western Australia. It is possibly mutually intelligible with Panyjima and Martuthunira, but the three are considered distinct languages.

Karnic languages

The Karnic languages are a group of languages of the Pama–Nyungan family. According to Dixon (2002), these are three separate families, but Bowern (2001) establishes regular paradigmatic connections among many of the languages, demonstrating them as a genealogical group. Bowern classifies them as follows:

Maric languages Extinct branch of the Pama–Nyungan language family

Maran or Maric is a extinct branch of the Pama–Nyungan family of Australian languages formerly spoken throughout much of Queensland by many of the Murri peoples. The well attested Maric languages are clearly related; however, many languages of the area became extinct before much could be documented of them, and their classification is uncertain. The clear Maric languages are:

Anewan language language

Anaiwan (Anēwan) is an extinct Australian Aboriginal language of New South Wales.

Nhuwala is a possibly extinct Pama–Nyungan language of Western Australia. Dench (1995) believed there was insufficient data to enable it to be confidently classified, but Bowern & Koch (2004) include it among the Ngayarda languages without proviso.

Yinhawangka (Inawangga) is a Pama–Nyungan language of Western Australia. Dench (1995) believed there was insufficient data to enable it to be confidently classified, but Bowern & Koch (2004) include it among the Ngayarda languages without proviso.

Galaagu, also spelled Kalarko and Kallaargu, is a Pama–Nyungan language of Western Australia. It has recently been classified as the closest relative of the Nyungar languages.

Kanyara–Mantharta languages

The Kanyara and Mantharta languages form a western branch of the Pama–Nyungan family.

Marrngu languages

The Marrngu languages are a branch of the Pama–Nyungan language family of Australia.

References

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Wati". Glottolog 3.0 . Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. Bowern, Claire. 2011. "How Many Languages Were Spoken in Australia?", Anggarrgoon: Australian languages on the web, December 23, 2011 (corrected February 6, 2012)