Watkin R. Roberts (21 September 1886– 20 April 1969) was a Welsh missionary responsible for the initial Christian converts among the Hmar and other sister tribes in the Churachandpur district and Pherzawl district of Southern Manipur, India. His ministry there touched the family of Rochunga Pudaite who ultimately developed a script for the tribal language and translated the New Testament into it.
The Welsh are a Celtic nation and ethnic group native to, or otherwise associated with, Wales, Welsh culture, Welsh history and the Welsh language. Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living in Wales are British citizens.
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to promote their faith or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development. The word "mission" originates from 1598 when the Jesuits sent members abroad, derived from the Latin missionem, meaning "act of sending" or mittere, meaning "to send". The word was used in light of its biblical usage; in the Latin translation of the Bible, Christ uses the word when sending the disciples to preach The gospel in his name. The term is most commonly used for Christian missions, but can be used for any creed or ideology.
Hmar is an ethnic group in northeast India, western Burma and eastern Bangladesh.
Roberts was from Caernarvon in Wales where he worked in a stone slate quarry. He was converted through reading some sermons R. A. Torrey.During the 1904-1905 Welsh Revival Roberts decided to become a foreign missionary. He was a friend of medical doctor Peter Fraser. In 1908 Dr. Fraser and his wife headed for India to be medical missionaries among the Mizo tribal people. They paid for Roberts' passage to join their missionary party. The threesome arrived in Aizawl, India on December 9, 1908.
Caernarfon is a royal town, community, and port in Gwynedd, Wales, with a population of 9,615. It lies along the A487 road, on the eastern shore of the Menai Strait, opposite the Isle of Anglesey. The city of Bangor is 8.6 miles (13.8 km) to the north-east, while Snowdonia fringes Caernarfon to the east and south-east. Carnarvon and Caernarvon are Anglicised spellings that were superseded in 1926 and 1974 respectively. The villages of Bontnewydd and Caeathro are close by. The town is also noted for its high percentage of native Welsh speakers. Due to this, Welsh is the predominant language of the town.
Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2 (8,023 sq mi). Wales has over 1,680 miles (2,700 km) of coastline and is largely mountainous with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit. The country lies within the north temperate zone and has a changeable, maritime climate.
Reuben Archer Torrey was an American evangelist, pastor, educator, and writer.
A letter from Fraser to R. J. Williams, secretary of the Calvinist Methodist Mission Society, speaks of Roberts' level of commitment: "[Roberts] believes he would be disobeying our Lord if he stayed at home now for a number of years." Fraser continues, "It is my duty and privilege to pray that the Lord will send out labourers into His harvest. Mr. Roberts seems to be an answer to that prayer."
At age 22, Roberts was much younger than other missionaries in the area. So, the Mizos immediately dubbed him 'Saptlangvala', the 'Youthful Sahib'.Roberts was still being called that when he was in his eighties.
Over the northern border of Mizoram, people in the Hmar village of Senvawn, Manipur had heard of the Gospel. In 1910 the village chief Kamkholun wrote to the missionaries in Aizawl to ask about the Gospel.The missionary in charge said it was outside the province where British authorities had granted them permission to work. Furthermore, the Hmars were known to be headhunters. However, Roberts sent the Hmar village chief a copy of the Gospel of John. The chief's response was to ask for someone to come and explain what was written in that Gospel.
Mizoram is a state in northeastern India, with Aizawl as its capital city. The name is derived from "Mizo", the name of the native inhabitants, and "Ram", which means land, and thus Mizoram means "land of the Mizos". Within the northeast region, it is the southernmost landlocked state, sharing borders with three of the Seven Sister States, namely Tripura, Assam and Manipur. The state also shares a 722-kilometre border with the neighbouring countries of Bangladesh and Myanmar.
The Gospel of John is the fourth of the canonical gospels. The work is anonymous, although it identifies an unnamed "disciple whom Jesus loved" as the source of its traditions. It is closely related in style and content to the three Johannine epistles, and most scholars treat the four books, along with the Book of Revelation, as a single corpus of Johannine literature, albeit not from the same author.
Roberts told the British government agent in the area that he wanted to visit the Hmars. The agent said, "No, it's too dangerous."
Roberts showed him the tribal chief's invitation but was told it was deceptive. "They only want to chop your head off," the agent said.
On February 5, 1910, Roberts went anyway and was able to explain the gospel to the people. After a week of teaching, the chief and four other Hmar men announced that they wanted to make peace with the God of the Bible by believing on Jesus Christ. Though Roberts only spent a total of five days with the Hmars, the converts grew in faith and became leaders of a new, energetic church. Within two generations, the entire Hmar tribe had been evangelized. Headhunting stopped.
In 1912, Roberts was suffering from a prolonged bout of "enteric fever," so he was sent home to Wales to recuperate. While there he attended the 1914 Keswick Convention. There he met an English woman, Gladys Wescott Dobson, who also had a heart for overseas Christian missionary work. After much prayer, Roberts and Gladys were married at Thoburn Methodist Episcopal Church on 8 March 1915 in Kolkata, India.In 1931 she wrote 4 verses to the hymn "Wounded for Me" by her friend Rev. W.G. Ovens, which was published in Golden Bells.
Roberts was from the Welsh Calvinist Methodist Church also called the Presbyterian Church of Wales. He established churches on Presbyterian principles, though they had no denominational attachment. He called his mission the Thadou-Kuki Mission, which in 1919 was renamed the North-East India General Mission.In 1924 Roberts visited the United States and received considerable financial support from there. Due to local believers aspirations to spread the Gospel to Burma, the organization was renamed again in 1930 to Indo-Burma Pioneer Mission.
It was not to last though. The British Colonial authorities saw Roberts as a troublemaker who ignored the comity system in which mission organizations were assigned designated geographic regions where they were to be the sole Christian church. For having stayed overnight in Hmar homes where he also ate their food, British authorities expelled Roberts from India. Roberts returned home to Wales, his hopes and dreams shattered. He had no idea what would become of the seed he had planted.
He eventually wound up in Canada, helping lead the Canadian arm of the Regions Beyond Missionary Union. Roberts stepped aside as chair of that organization in 1957 and died on April 20, 1969.His wife Gladys Westcott Roberts died in Toronto in 1983.
The Bnei Menashe are a ethnolinguistic group in India's North-Eastern border states of Manipur and Mizoram. Since the late 20th century, the Chin, Kuki, and Mizo peoples of this particular group claim descent from one of the Lost Tribes of Israel and have adopted the practice of Judaism. In the late 20th century, Israeli rabbi Eliyahu Avichail, of the group Amishav, named these people the Bnei Menashe, based on their account of descent from Menasseh. Most of the other residents of these two northeast states, who number more than 3.7 million and share their ethnic ancestry, do not identify with these claims.
The Mizo people are an ethnic group native to north-eastern India, western Burma (Myanmar) and eastern Bangladesh; this term covers several ethnic peoples who speak various Kuki-Chin languages. The Mizos are a tribal hill peoples in the Indian state of Mizoram. All Mizo tribes and clans, in their folk legends, claim that Chhinlung/Sinlung/Khul, which means cave in the Mizo languages, was the cradle of the Mizos. Thus, it's sometimes concluded that the Mizo people lived as cave dwellers at some point.
The history of Mizoram basically encompasses the history of Mizoram which lies in the remotest part of northeast India. It is a conglomerate history of several ethnic groups of Chin people who migrated from Chin State of Burma. But information of their patterns of westward migration are based on oral history and archaeological inferences, hence nothing definite can be said. The recorded history started relatively recently around the mid-19th century when the adjoining regions were occupied by the British monarchy. The land is now inhabited by a mixture of people from Chin Hills and Bangladesh and its history is therefore largely reflected by those of Lusei, Hmar, Lai, Mara and Chakmas tribes. Following religious, political and cultural revolutions in the mid-20th century majority of the people agglomerated into a super tribe, Mizo. Hence the officially recognised settlement of the Mizos became Mizoram.
The Kukis constitute one of several hill tribes within India, Bangladesh, and Burma. As Chin in the Chin State of Myanmar and as Mizo in the State of Mizoram in India are a number of related Tibeto-Burman tribal peoples spread throughout the northeastern states of India, northwestern Burma, and the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh. In Northeast India, they are present in all states except Arunachal Pradesh. This dispersal across international borders is a culmination of punitive actions made by the British during their occupation of India.
Rochunga Pudaite was an Indian minister of Hmar descent who translated the Bible into the Hmar language and founded Bibles for the World. He was a renowned speaker and an evangelist. His organisation, Bibles For The World, has allowed distribution of the Christian Bible to millions of people around the world, by mailing Bibles in different languages to them.
Mizoram Presbyterian ChurchSynod is the largest Christian denomination in Mizoram, northeast India. It was a direct progeny of the Calvinistic Methodist Church in Wales. It was the first church in Mizoram and is now one of the constituent bodies of a larger denomination Presbyterian Church of India (PCI), which has its headquarters in Shillong, Meghalaya. The administrative body called the Mizoram Synod has its headquarters at Mission Veng, Aizawl. As the first church, it remains the largest denomination in Mizoram.
The Presbyterian Church of India (PCI) is one of the mainline Protestant churches in India, with over one million adherents, mostly in Northeast India. It is one of the largest Christian denominations in that region.
Christianity was the second-largest religion in Manipur, a state of India in its Northeast region, according to 2011 census data published by the Government of India.
James Herbert Lorrain, or Pu Buanga, was a Scottish Baptist missionary in northeast India, including Mizoram, Assam, and Arunachal Pradesh. He and Frederick William Savidge reduced the Lushai language to writing—devised an alphabet using Roman lettering and phonetic form of spelling based on Hunterian system translation; compiled grammar and dictionaries for missionary activities and clerical administration.
William Williams was a Welsh Presbyterian missionary to Khasi Hills, northeast India, in the late 19th century. He was a son of a ship captain in Nanternis, a small village in Wales. Following his father's footstep he became a sailor for five years. Then he took a profession in carpentry for two years. After graduating in theology from East London Missionary Training Institute he became a pastor. Pursuing his ambition he became a missionary of the Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Foreign Mission to Khasi people in India from 1887 until his death. He is regarded as a pioneer missionary who paved the way for Christianity in Mizoram, now the most Christian-populated state in India. He visited the Mizo people, hitherto completely pagan tribals, in Aizawl in March 1890, with determination to start evangelism. He died typhoid a year later.
Synod Hospital, Durtlang is a general hospital and nursing school in Aizawl, Mizoram. The hospital is widely known among Mizo people as "Durtlang Hospital". It is managed and governed by the Mizoram Presbyterian Church Synod. The hospital was established in 1928 by the Calvinistic Methodist Church as a nursing institute. It is the second hospital established, and the largest non-governmental hospital in Mizoram. It has a registered capacity of 355 beds.
David Evan Jones, Mizo name Zosaphluia was a Welsh missionary in Mizoram, India, connected to both the Mizoram Presbyterian Church and the Baptist Church of Mizoram.
Robert Arthington was a British investor, philanthropist and premillennialist. He was the son of a wealthy brewery owner from whom he inherited his fortune. He was brought up in a prosperous family of Quakers, but converted to Protestantism. Although he was an excellent student at Cambridge University, he did not earn any degree. He devoted his life and wealth to Christian evangelism. He committed himself to a life of tramp and a recluse, minimising his entire expenditure on his own welfare. This was due to his strong premillennialism that when the Gospel of Jesus is spread to the entire world, then the Second Coming of Christ would happen. He was the benefactor to the success of Baptist Missionary Society and London Missionary Society, thereby becoming the principal factor in the spread of Protestantism, modernisation and formal education in the remotest parts of the world.
Frederick William Savidge was a pioneer English Christian missionary in northeast India. He and James Herbert Lorrain brought Protestantism to Mizoram, and some parts of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh. Together they were entirely responsible for the creation of written language in Mizo, beginning of literacy, origin of formal education and establishment of churches in Mizoram. They devised the original Mizo alphabets based on Roman script, prepared the first book and dictionary in Mizo, started the first school among the Mizos. Mizoram has become the most Christian populated state in India. As a professional educator Savidge was single-handedly responsible for introducing quality education in Mizoram. He is deservedly known as the Father of Mizo Education.
Edwin Rowlands was a Welsh Christian missionary in northeast India and Burma. He was a professional teacher, singer, composer, poet, translator and literary figure among the Mizo people. He was regarded as the most beloved of all British missionaries in Mizoram. He was more popularly known as Zosapthara. He made the mojor hymns in Mizo and Khumi which are still in use. He modified the original Mizo alphabet and his system became the standard in Mizo language. He created written language for Khumi people in Burma, and for Bhil people in Maharashtra. His literary works are the foundation of Mizo literature. He was the first administrator of education in Mizoram as Honorary Inspector of Schools. Despite objection from various corners he married Thangkungi, a Mizo girl.
The history of Christianity in Mizoram covers the origin and development of all forms of Christianity in Mizoram since the British occupation at the end of the 19th century. Christianity arrived as a consequence of tribal warfare, raids of British plantations, and the ensuing punitive British military expedition called the Lushai Expedition of 1871. The subsequent annexation of the erstwhile Lushai Hills to the British Empire opened the gateway for British Christian missions to evangelise the Mizo people.