Watson Escarpment

Last updated
Topographich Map Sheet Leverett Glacier 1:250,000, showing Watson Escarpment C85135s1 Ant.Map Leverett Glacier.jpg
Topographich Map Sheet Leverett Glacier 1:250,000, showing Watson Escarpment

Watson Escarpment ( 86°0′S145°0′W / 86.000°S 145.000°W / -86.000; -145.000 Coordinates: 86°0′S145°0′W / 86.000°S 145.000°W / -86.000; -145.000 ) is a major escarpment in the Queen Maud Mountains, trending northward along the east margin of Scott Glacier, then eastward to Reedy Glacier where it turns southward along the glacier's west side. Somewhat arcuate, the escarpment is nearly 100 nautical miles (180 km) long, rises 3,550 m above sea level, and 1,000 to 1,500 m above the adjacent terrain.

Geographic coordinate system Coordinate system

A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.

Queen Maud Mountains

The Queen Maud Mountains are a major group of mountains, ranges and subordinate features of the Transantarctic Mountains, lying between the Beardmore and Reedy Glaciers and including the area from the head of the Ross Ice Shelf to the Antarctic Plateau in Antarctica. Captain Roald Amundsen and his South Pole party ascended Axel Heiberg Glacier near the central part of this group in November 1911, naming these mountains for the Norwegian queen Maud of Wales. Despite the name, they are not located within Queen Maud Land.

Scott Glacier (Transantarctic Mountains)

The Scott Glacier is a major glacier, 120 miles (190 km) long, that drains the East Antarctic Ice Sheet through the Queen Maud Mountains to the Ross Ice Shelf. The Scott Glacier is one of a series of major glaciers flowing across the Transantarctic Mountains, with the Amundsen Glacier to the west and the Leverett and Reedy glaciers to the east.

The north-central part of the escarpment was observed from a vantage point on Supporting Party Mountain and was partially mapped in December 1929 by the Byrd Antarctic Expedition geological party under Laurence Gould. The escarpment was more closely observed in December 1934 by the Byrd Antarctic Expedition geological party under Quin Blackburn, and was named by Byrd for Thomas J. Watson, American business executive, a patron of this expedition. The escarpment was mapped in detail by United States Geological Survey (USGS) from surveys and U.S. Navy air photos, 1960-64.

Supporting Party Mountain is a mountain, 560 m, standing 3 miles (4.8 km) east of Mount Fridovich in the Harold Byrd Mountains. Discovered in December 1929 by members of the Byrd Antarctic Expedition Geological Sledging Party under Laurence Gould. Named by them in appreciation of the splendid cooperative work of their Supporting Party. The mountain was climbed by members of Gould's party who took panoramic photographs from the summit.

Thomas J. Watson American businessman

Thomas John Watson Sr. was an American businessman. He served as the chairman and CEO of International Business Machines (IBM). He oversaw the company's growth into an international force from 1914 to 1956. Watson developed IBM's management style and corporate culture from John Henry Patterson's training at NCR. He turned the company into a highly-effective selling organization, based largely on punched card tabulating machines. A leading self-made industrialist, he was one of the richest men of his time and was called the world's greatest salesman when he died in 1956.

United States Geological Survey Scientific agency of the United States government

The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, and the natural hazards that threaten it. The organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography, geology, and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility.

See also

PD-icon.svg This article incorporates  public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document "Watson Escarpment" (content from the Geographic Names Information System ).

Geographic Names Information System geographical database

The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is a database that contains name and locative information about more than two million physical and cultural features located throughout the United States of America and its territories. It is a type of gazetteer. GNIS was developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) to promote the standardization of feature names.

Related Research Articles

Wisconsin Range

The Wisconsin Range is a major mountain range of the Horlick Mountains in Antarctica, comprising the Wisconsin Plateau and numerous glaciers, ridges and peaks bounded by the Reedy Glacier, Shimizu Ice Stream, Horlick Ice Stream and the interior ice plateau.

Leverett Glacier in Antarctica is about 50 nautical miles (90 km) long and 3 to 4 nautical miles wide, draining northward from the Watson Escarpment, between California Plateau and Stanford Plateau, and then trending west-northwest between the Tapley Mountains and Harold Byrd Mountains to terminate at the head of the Ross Ice Shelf close east of Scott Glacier. It was discovered in December 1929 by the Byrd Antarctic Expedition geological party under Laurence Gould, and named by him for Frank Leverett, an eminent geologist at the University of Michigan and an authority on the glacial geology of the central United States.

The Ford Ranges is a grouping of mountain ranges standing east of Sulzberger Ice Shelf and Block Bay in the northwest part of Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica. Discovered by the Byrd Antarctic Expedition on December 5, 1929, and named by Byrd for Edsel Ford of the Ford Motor Company, who helped finance the expedition.

Mount Blackburn (Antarctica) mountain in Antarctica

Mount Blackburn is a massive, flat-topped mountain, 3,275 metres (10,745 ft) high, standing just east of the Scott Glacier where it surmounts the southwest end of California Plateau and the Watson Escarpment, in the Queen Maud Mountains.

Balchen Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Balchen Glacier is a crevassed glacier in Antarctica, flowing west to Block Bay between the Phillips Mountains and the Fosdick Mountains in Marie Byrd Land. It was discovered on December 5, 1929, by the Byrd Antarctic Expedition and named by Richard E. Byrd for Bernt Balchen, chief pilot of the expedition.

Barter Bluff is a prominent rock bluff 1.5 nautical miles (3 km) west of Leister Peak in the Kohler Range, Marie Byrd Land. The bluff forms part of the steep wall along the east side of Kohler Glacier. It was mapped by the United States Geological Survey from surveys and from U.S. Navy air photos, 1959–66, and named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names for Leland L. Barter, Ship's Engineer on the Eleanor Bolling during the Byrd Antarctic Expedition, 1928–30, and on both the Bear of Oakland and the Jacob Ruppert during the Byrd Antarctic Expedition, 1933–35.

Bartlett Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Bartlett Glacier is a tributary glacier, about 30 nautical miles (60 km) long and 5 nautical miles (10 km) wide at its terminus, flowing northeast from Nilsen Plateau and joining Scott Glacier close north of Mount Gardiner. It was discovered in December 1934 by the Byrd Antarctic Expedition geological party under Quin Blackburn, and named by Richard E. Byrd for Captain Robert A. Bartlett of Brigus, Newfoundland, a noted Arctic navigator and explorer who recommended that the expedition acquire the Bear, an ice-ship which was purchased and rechristened by Byrd as the Bear of Oakland.

Gothic Mountains

The Gothic Mountains is a group of mountains, 32 kilometres (20 mi) long, in the Queen Maud Mountains of Antarctica, located west of Watson Escarpment and bounded by Scott Glacier, Albanus Glacier, and Griffith Glacier. The mountains were first visited in December 1934 by the Byrd Antarctic Expedition (ByrdAE) geological party led by Quin Blackburn. The name was proposed by Edmund Stump, leader of a U.S. Antarctic Research Program (USARP) - Arizona State University geological party which made investigations here in the 1980-81 season. The mountains are composed of granites which have weathered to produce a series of spires and peaks reminiscent of a Gothic cathedral.

Boyd Glacier is a heavily crevassed glacier flowing west-northwest for about 45 nautical miles (80 km) to the Sulzberger Ice Shelf between Bailey Ridge and Mount Douglass in the Ford Ranges of Marie Byrd Land. It was discovered on aerial flights of the Byrd Antarctic Expedition in 1934, and named for Vernon D. Boyd, an expedition machinist, and a member of West Base of the United States Antarctic Service (1939–41).

California Plateau is an undulating ice-covered plateau, 30 nautical miles (56 km) long and from 2 to 12 nautical miles wide, which rises to 3,000 metres (10,000 ft) at the eastern side of Scott Glacier. The plateau reaches a maximum height of 3,275 metres (10,745 ft) in Mount Blackburn at the southern end. The northwestern side of the plateau is marked by the steep rock cliffs of Watson Escarpment; the southeastern side grades gradually to the elevation of the interior ice. It was mapped by the United States Geological Survey from ground surveys and from U.S. Navy aerial photography, 1960–64, and named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names for the several branches of the University of California which have sent numerous researchers to work in Antarctica.

Mount Czegka is a mountain, 2,270 metres (7,450 ft) high, on the east side of Scott Glacier, just north of the terminus of Van Reeth Glacier, in the Queen Maud Mountains. It was discovered in December 1934 by the Byrd Antarctic Expedition geological party under Quin Blackburn, and named by Richard E. Byrd after Victor H. Czegka (1880–1973), CWO, United States Marine Corps, who served as a member with the Byrd Antarctic Expedition, 1928–30, and also as member and supply manager with the Byrd Antarctic Expedition, 1933–35.

Gardiner Glacier is a glacier at the south side of the Quartz Hills of Antarctica, flowing east from the Watson Escarpment into Reedy Glacier. It was mapped by the United States Geological Survey from surveys and U.S. Navy air photos, 1960–64, and was named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names for Richard D. Gardiner, a construction electrician at Byrd Station in 1962.

Mount Gardiner is a ridge-like granitic mountain, 2,480 metres (8,140 ft) high, standing 3 nautical miles (6 km) east of Mount Ruth and just south of the junction of Bartlett Glacier and Scott Glacier, in the Queen Maud Mountains of Antarctica. It was discovered in December 1934 by the Byrd Antarctic Expedition geological party under Quin Blackburn, and named by Richard E. Byrd for Joseph T. Gardiner of Wellington, New Zealand, agent for the Byrd Antarctic Expeditions of 1928–30 and 1933–35.

Mount Giovinetto

Mount Giovinetto is the summit of a buttress-type mountain located 2 nautical miles (3.7 km) north of Mount Ostenso and 1.5 nautical miles (2.8 km) south of Mount Viets in the main ridge of the Sentinel Range, Antarctica. It surmounts Rumyana Glacier to the east and Delyo Glacier to the northeast.

Mount Mooney is a ridge-shaped mountain, 2,850 metres (9,350 ft) high, standing just north of the La Gorce Mountains, where it rises above the middle of Robison Glacier, in the Queen Maud Mountains of Antarctica. It was discovered in December 1934 by the Byrd Antarctic Expedition geological party under Quin Blackburn, and named by Rear Admiral Byrd for James E. Mooney, who assisted this and later Byrd expeditions. From 1959 to 1965, Mooney served as Deputy United States Antarctic Projects Officer.

Long Gables

The Long Gables are prominent twin peaks, with heights of 4,150 and 4,110 metres, joined by a col, with the lower rock exposures being in the form of steep buttresses. The peaks rise from the main ridge of the Sentinel Range, Ellsworth Mountains, Antarctica between Mount Anderson and Mount Viets. They surmount Burdenis Glacier to the southeast, Gerila Glacier to the east and Fonfon Glacier to the northeast.

Mink Peak is a prominent peak standing 2 nautical miles (4 km) north of Cleveland Mesa, at the east end of the Watson Escarpment in Antarctica. It was mapped by the United States Geological Survey from surveys and U.S. Navy air photos, 1960–64, and was named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names for Harold D. Mink, a utilitiesman with the wintering parties at Byrd Station in 1962 and 1966.

Sarnoff Mountains is a range of mountains, 25 nautical miles (46 km) long and 4 to 8 nautical miles (15 km) wide separating the west-flowing Boyd and Arthur Glaciers in the Ford Ranges of Marie Byrd Land. The west end of the range was discovered and roughly plotted from photos taken by Byrd Antarctic Expedition (1928–30) on the flight of December 5, 1929. The range was mapped in greater detail by the Byrd Antarctic Expedition (1933–35) and United States Antarctic Service (USAS) (1939–41), all expeditions led by R. Admiral Richard E. Byrd. Named for David Sarnoff, president of RCA, who provided radio equipment for receiving and transmitting that was used in the field and at Little America by the Byrd Antarctic Expedition (1933–35).

The La Gorce Mountains are a group of mountains, spanning 20 nautical miles (37 km), standing between the tributary Robison Glacier and Klein Glacier at the east side of the upper reaches of the Scott Glacier, in the Queen Maud Mountains of Antarctica. They were discovered in December 1934 by the Byrd Antarctic Expedition geological party under Quin Blackburn, and named by Richard E. Byrd for John Oliver La Gorce, Vice President of the National Geographic Society.