Watson McMillan Hayes

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Watson McMillan Hayes

Watson M Hayes.jpg

Watson M. Hayes
Born(1857-11-23)November 23, 1857
near Greenfield, Mercer County, Pennsylvania, United States
Died August 2, 1944(1944-08-02) (aged 86)
Weifang, China
Nationality United States
Occupation missionary,
Years active 62 Years
Known for Educational Mission in China
Spouse(s) Margaret Young Hayes
Children John D. Hayes, Ernest M. Hayes.
Parent(s) David Hayes, Margaret Jane Watson Hayes

Watson McMillan Hayes (Chinese : ; pinyin : shì , born November 23, 1857 in Mercer County, Pennsylvania - died August 2, 1944 in Weifang, Shandong) was an American Presbyterian missionary and educator in China.

Chinese language family of languages

Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases not mutually intelligible, language varieties, forming the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Chinese is spoken by the ethnic Chinese majority and many minority ethnic groups in China. About 1.2 billion people speak some form of Chinese as their first language.

Hanyu Pinyin, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.

Mercer County, Pennsylvania County in the United States

Mercer County is a county located in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 116,638. Its county seat is Mercer, and its largest city is Hermitage. The county was created in 1800 and later organized in 1803.


Watson M. Hayes was the son of David Hayes (born April 6, 1832, killed in February 1865 in the American Civil War) and Margaret Jane (Watson) Hayes (born June 28, 1828). He graduated from Allegheny College [1] and entered Western Seminary, Pittsburgh in 1879.

American Civil War Civil war in the United States from 1861 to 1865

The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The most studied and written about episode in U.S. history, the Civil War began primarily as a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people. War broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States. The loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery.

Allegheny College Pennsylvania liberal arts college

Allegheny College is a private, coeducational liberal arts college in northwestern Pennsylvania in the town of Meadville, approximately 35 miles (56 km) south of Erie. Founded in 1815, Allegheny is the oldest college in continuous existence under the same name west of the Allegheny Mountains. Allegheny is a member of the Great Lakes Colleges Association and the North Coast Athletic Conference and it is regionally accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education.

On August 15, 1882, he was ordained and sent to China in the same year. [2] He taught at Tengchow College and later served as its president [3] in present-day Penglai, Shandong. In 1901, he was invited by Yuan Shikai to organize Shandong College, [4] the forerunner of Shandong University and the second modern university in China. With the backing of Yuan Shikai, he also published Shandong's first successful newspaper (Shantung Times, Chinese : ; pinyin : Shān dōng Shí bào ) and petitioned the Qing court to grant a holiday on Sundays for government schools and colleges; [5] Shandong College was closed on Sundays right from the start. [4] However, by the end of 1901, Hayes and six Chinese Christian teachers he had brought with him had resigned already [4] over disagreements regarding the policy of mandatory Confucius worship for students of the college. [6] After that, Hayes went on to teach at the Presbyterian Mission Theological College in Cheefoo (Yantai).

Shandong Province

Shandong, is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the East China region.

Yuan Shikai Chinese politician

Yuan Shikai was a Chinese military and government official who rose to power during the late Qing dynasty, and tried to save the dynasty with a number of modernization projects including bureaucratic, fiscal, judicial, educational, and other reforms. He established the first modern army and a more efficient provincial government in North China in the last years of the Qing dynasty before the abdication of the Xuantong Emperor, the last monarch of the Qing dynasty, in 1912. Through negotiation, he became the first official president of the Republic of China in 1912.

Shandong University university in China

Shandong University is a public comprehensive university in Shandong, China. It is one of the largest universities in China by student population and is supported directly by the national government.

When the Shandong Christian University was formed through an agreement between the Northern Presbyterian mission and the English Baptist mission, Haynes became the dean of the Theological College in 1916. [7] However, after theological conflicts arose in the college due to the fundamentalist-modernist controversy, Haynes was asked to resign in 1919. He would later be appointed as the principal of the newly formed North China Theological Seminary. [8]

North China Theological Seminary was one of the largest and well-known fundamentalist Protestant seminaries in mainland China in the first half of the twentieth century. It was founded in 1919 and was eventually merged into Nanjing Union Theological Seminary after the establishment of the People's Republic of China.

During the Second Sino-Japanese War, W. M. Hayes, together with his wife (Margaret Young Hayes) and one of his sons (John David Hayes), was held as a prisoner in the Weihsien (Weixian) Internment Camp, a civilian assembly center operated by the Japanese on the premises of a former Presbyterian mission in the present-day town of Weifang. Hayes was forced to leave from his home for the camp in March 1943. He refused to be repatriated under the "Prisoners Exchange Project" organized by the International Red Cross. Suffering from diabetes, W. M. Hayes died in the camp on August 2, 1944, a bit more than one year before the camp was liberated by the Americans on August 12, 1945.

Second Sino-Japanese War military conflict between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from 1937 to 1945

The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945. It began with the Marco Polo Bridge Incident in 1937 in which a dispute between Japanese and Chinese troops escalated into a battle. Some sources in the modern People's Republic of China date the beginning of the war to the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931.

Weifang Prefecture-level city in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

Weifang is a prefecture-level city in central Shandong province, People's Republic of China. The city borders Dongying to the northwest, Zibo to the west, Linyi to the southwest, Rizhao to the south, Qingdao to the east, and looks out to the Laizhou Bay to the north. Its population was 9,086,241 at the 2010 census, of whom 2,659,938 lived in the built-up area made up of 4 urban districts and Changle County largely being urbanized.

W. M. Hayes' son John D. Hayes (1888–1957), continued to work as a missionary and English teacher in China until he was arrested and tried as a spy in 1951. After 10 months in jail, he was expelled from China. [9] His trial in China was the topic of an article ("The Brainwashing of John Hayes", written by Frederic Sondern, Jr) published in Readers Digest (July 1955) and a television drama of the same title (teleplay by George Bruce, aired on TV Reader's Digest by ABC on 7 November 1955) in which Hayes was portrayed by the actor Vincent Price.

<i>TV Readers Digest</i> television series

TV Reader's Digest is the title of a 30-minute American television anthology drama series which aired on the ABC from 1955 to 1956. Its theme music was "Polonaise" from Act III of Eugene Onegin, an Opera by Tchaikovsky.

American Broadcasting Company American broadcast television network

The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of Walt Disney Television, a subsidiary of the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company. The network is headquartered in Burbank, California on Riverside Drive, directly across the street from Walt Disney Studios and adjacent to the Roy E. Disney Animation Building, But the network's second corporate headquarters and News headquarters remains in New York City, New York at their broadcast center on 77 West 66th Street in Lincoln Square in Upper West Side Manhattan.

Vincent Price American actor

Vincent Leonard Price Jr. was an American actor best known for his performances in horror films, although his career spanned other genres, including film noir, drama, mystery, thriller, and comedy. He appeared on stage, television, and radio, and in more than 100 films. He has two stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, one for motion pictures and one for television. He was born and raised near St. Louis, Missouri and has a star on the St. Louis Walk of Fame.

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